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Although mandatory vaccination programs have been effective in improving the vaccination rate among healthcare workers, implementing this type of program can be challenging because of varied reasons for vaccine refusal. The purpose of our study is to measure improvement in the influenza vaccination rate from a multifaceted intervention at a Japanese tertiary care center where implementing a mandatory vaccination program is difficult.
Participants and Setting.
Healthcare workers at a 550-bed, tertiary care, academic medical center in Sapporo, Japan.
We performed a multifaceted intervention including (1) use of a declination form, (2) free vaccination, (3) hospital-wide announcements during the vaccination period, (4) prospective audit and real-time telephone interview for healthcare workers who did not receive the vaccine, (5) medical interview with the hospital executive for noncompliant (no vaccine, no declination form) healthcare workers during the vaccination period, and (6) mandatory submission of a vaccination document if vaccinated outside of the study institution.
With the new multifaceted intervention, the vaccination rate in the 2012-2013 season increased substantially, up to 97%. This rate is similar to that reported in studies with a mandatory vaccination program. Improved vaccination acceptance, particularly among physicians, likely contributed to the overall increase in the vaccination rate reported in the study.
Implementation of comprehensive strategies with strong leadership can lead to substantial improvements in vaccine uptake among healthcare workers even without a mandatory vaccination policy. The concept is especially important for institutions where implementing mandatory vaccination programs is challenging.
Silicon-based films have gained much interest as protective coatings for transparent polymeric materials. In this study, SiOC(–H) thin films were deposited on polycarbonate (PC) or Si substrates from trimethylsilane (TrMS) gas diluted with He gas by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced CVD (AP-PECVD) method with varying substrate temperature, and transparency and hardness of the films were investigated. The films exhibited a good optical transparency with an optical transmittance of about 90% irrespective of the substrate temperature, and the hardness increased from 0.6 to 1.3 GPa as the substrate temperature increased from 60 to 140°C. The results are discussed in terms of chemical structural changes in the films according to the substrate temperature.
In this paper, we demonstrate that high temperature and short time EBAS annealing is effective to obtain low sheet resistance without surface roughening in heavily Al-implanted 4H-SiC (0001) samples (Al concentration: 1.0 × 1021 /cm3, thickness: 0.3 microns, total dose: 2.6 × 1016 /cm2). The sheet resistance and rms surface roughness of the sample annealed at 1800 °C for 0.5 min is estimated to be 4.8k ohm/sq. and 0.82 nm, respectively. Also, we discuss the advantage of EBAS annealing for the suppression of surface roughening during annealing.
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is widely used as bioceramics for bone and dental tissue reconstructions due to its excellent biocompatibility with hard tissues and high osteoconductivity. Although it is well known that HAp has the high adsorbed ability, its ability is decreased in high ionic solution. To immobilize protein on the HAp surface, this study demonstrates that Collagen (Col) and fibronectin (Fnt) were immobilized on the surface of hydroxyapatite (HAp) sintered body with and without the silane coupling agent of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS). The proteins immobilized on the HAp and APS/HAp surfaces were investigated by atomic force microprobe (AFM, Simadzu; SPM 9500) analyses and Ζ potential measurements. The stability of protein/APS/HAp and protein/HAp composites was evaluated after immersion in phosphate buffer and NaCl solutions with various concentrations. AFM analyses and Ζ potential measurements revealed that proteins immobilized on the APS/HAp are more stable than those immobilized on the HAp in high ionic solutions.
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