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Modelling knowledge as revelation and theology as poetry, this powerful new reading of the Vita nuova not only challenges Dante scholars to reconsider the book's speculative emphases but also offers the general reader an accessible yet penetrating exploration of some of the Western tradition's most far-reaching ideas surrounding love and knowledge. Dante's 'little book', included in full here in an original parallel translation, captures in its first emergence the same revolutionary ferment that would later become manifest both in the larger oeuvre of this great European writer and in the literature of the entire Western canon. William Franke demonstrates how Dante's youthful poetic autobiography disrupts sectarian thinking and reconciles the seeming contraries of divine revelation and human invention, while also providing the means for understanding religious revelation in the Bible. Ultimately, this revolutionary unification of Scripture and poetry shows the intimate working of love at the source of inspired knowing.
The Art of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is an engaging and authoritative account of the essential skills required to practice child and adolescent psychiatry for all those working in children's mental health, from trainees to experienced professionals in paediatrics, psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. The practical tasks of meeting the child and family, planning treatments, and working with colleagues are all covered, building on existing texts that mainly focus on diagnostic criteria, protocols, and laws. This book respects the evidence base, while also pointing out its limitations, and suggests ways in which to deal with these. Psychiatry is placed within broader frameworks including strategy, learning, management, philosophy, ethics, and interpersonal relations. With over 200 educational vignettes of the authors' vast experience in the field, the book is also highly illustrated. The Art of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is an indispensable guide to thoughtful practice in children's mental health.
Global challenges ranging from climate change and ecological regime shifts to refugee crises and post-national territorial claims are rapidly moving ecosystem thresholds and altering the social fabric of societies worldwide. This book addresses the vital question of how to navigate the contested forces of stability and change in a world shaped by multiple interconnected global challenges. It proposes that senses of place is a vital concept for supporting individual and social processes for navigating these contested forces and encourages scholars to rethink how to theorise and conceptualise changes in senses of place in the face of global challenges. It also makes the case that our concepts of sense of place need to be revisited, given that our experiences of place are changing. This book is essential reading for those seeking a new understanding of the multiple and shifting experiences of place.
In Canto XVIII of Paradiso, Dante sees thirty-five letters of Scripture - LOVE JUSTICE, YOU WHO RULE THE EARTH - 'painted' one after the other in the sky. It is an epiphany that encapsulates the Paradiso, staging its ultimate goal - the divine vision. This book offers a fresh, intensive reading of this extraordinary passage at the heart of the third canticle of the Divine Comedy. While adapting in novel ways the methods of the traditional lectura Dantis, William Franke meditates independently on the philosophical, theological, political, ethical, and aesthetic ideas that Dante's text so provocatively projects into a multiplicity of disciplinary contexts. This book demands that we question not only what Dante may have meant by his representations, but also what they mean for us today in the broad horizon of our intellectual traditions and cultural heritage.
The theory and practice of civil disobedience has once again taken on import, given recent events. Considering widespread dissatisfaction with normal political mechanisms, even in well-established liberal democracies, civil disobedience remains hugely important, as a growing number of individuals and groups pursue political action. 'Digital disobedients', Black Lives Matter protestors, Extinction Rebellion climate change activists, Hong Kong activists resisting the PRC's authoritarian clampdown…all have practiced civil disobedience. In this Companion, an interdisciplinary group of scholars reconsiders civil disobedience from many perspectives. Whether or not civil disobedience works, and what is at stake when protestors describe their acts as civil disobedience, is systematically examined, as are the legacies and impact of Henry Thoreau, Mahatma Gandhi, and Martin Luther King.
If Totem and Taboo and Moses and Monotheism can be framed as “the bookends” (being the first and last of Freud’s works on religion), then Future of an Illusion and Civilization and Its Discontents can be called “the twins.” Written a scant three years apart (1927 and 1930, respectively), they form the essential core, the most widely known and influential of Freud’s varied analyses of religion. While the two works are joined by central themes that continue to preoccupy Freud’s ruminations on the relation between the individual, civilization, religion, and the historical process, they also evince a striking disparity in tone. Future of an Illusion exudes an enlightenment agenda, valorizing the power of reason, the efficacy of psychoanalytic modes of personal transformation, and the eventual victory of humanism, science, and tolerance. Civilization and Its Discontents, on the other hand, prescient in what was to come (namely, World War II), is more pessimistic, warning of the ascendancy of the darker forces of human nature, the “unpsychological” structures of social institutions, and the growing uneasiness of humans in civilization. In this chapter we will focus on Future of an Illusion, leaving our treatment of Civilization and Its Discontents for Chapter 5.
Technical innovation in agriculture preceded that in mining, and the value of colonial agricultural production exceeded that of diamonds throughout the nineteenth century. After the Cape received responsible government in 1874 a colonial scientific bureaucracy was gradually expanded to include a veterinary surgeon, a Department of Agriculture, and a state botanist, geologist, entomologist and marine biologist. The discovery of diamonds in the 1860s and Witwatersrand gold in the 1880s reshaped the contours of race and science. Mining became reliant on increasingly sophisticated technology and on cheap black labour. Rapid growth in the mining sector has been analysed by historians in terms of the relationship between capital and labour. Scientific and technological innovations were also critical: applied geology, water pumps, explosives, stamping gear and the recently discovered cyanide process for gold extraction. The geostrategic importance of southern Africa became a point of growing competition, and the borders of a unitary South African state in 1910 emerged out of wars of conquest against African societies and intense conflict between English- and Dutch-speaking citizens. Imperial conquest and expansion were in turn associated with rapid technological change: steamships, railways, transatlantic cables and breech loading rifles. Together these constituted a ‘full-blown socio-technical imaginary’.
It was primarily after World War II, in the second (1945–1969) and third (1970 to present) periods of the psychology and religion movement, that classic Freudian psychoanalysis, having achieved the founder’s wish of international dissemination, being informed by a new clinical base from diverse cultures, alternate complexes not named Oedipus, and a generational turnover of theorists, began to evince the creation of new clinical techniques and formulations. During this time, there emerged dozens of diverse figures who not only have come to dominate the contemporary “what” of psychoanalysis but have done so in ways that creatively assimilate the best of Freud while repudiating some of his less-compelling formulations. It is safe to say that Freud himself would have been uncomfortable with at least some of these innovations, particularly those that valorize an appreciative view of religion. At the same time, Freud was willing to admit that his efforts at applied psychoanalysis reflected his own proclivities; that his various analyses of religion were his “personal views, which coincide with those of many non-analysts and pre-analysts, but there are certainly many excellent analysts who do not share them”; and that his preferences “need deter no-one from using the non-partisan method of analysis for arguing the opposite view.” Indeed, many of his heirs took him up on that offer.
Freud was invested in translating abstract, experience-distant “metaphysics” into the more existentially accessible, experience-near dimensions of human experience. Psychoanalysis did this by providing a “function” (projection) tied to a “developmental infrastructure” (the interplay between id, ego, and super-ego as they are determined by the stages of childhood development) to any metaphysical abstraction. In other words, as noted in the introductory chapter, religion is not from the hand of the divine but the very human projection of complex developmental issues and unconscious wishes. One can subsume all of Freud’s varied analyses of the expressions of religion (be they myths, symbols, scripture, faith, conversion, mysticism, etc.) under this general methodological umbrella.
South Africa was a regional rather than a world power; it was not a global centre for invention or new scientific ideas. Yet its geographic position on the African continent made it a staging post for Portuguese, Dutch and British colonialism and part of a global imaginary. Colonisation by Britain brought the region into connection with a technologically advanced world empire. South Africa was at key moments an incubator and testing ground of innovation, which had profound social and economic effects on the country: agricultural technology underpinned exports of wool and ostrich feathers; new rifles changed the balance of power in favour of colonial regimes; the mineral revolution necessitated developments in applied geology and gold extraction. Key advances were often a response to urgent economic requirements, but the scientific imagination was also more exploratory with respect to astronomy, palaeontology, and wildlife conservation. And as a crucible of racial politics in the twentieth century, South Africa has long been seen as a social laboratory for the study of 'race relations'. We aim to illustrate the scientific imagination as an expression of human curiosity and ingenuity, to discuss the politics of science and to examine its imbrication with white political power.
The transfer of the Cape to British control in 1806 gave the region new geopolitical prominence and the Cape sea-route more importance as the colonial authorities sought to consolidate control of the hinterland. British colonisers legitimated their presence in the region by insisting on their commitment to civilisation, progress, better governance and scientific accomplishment. This included conquest of the Xhosa, the British settlement programme in 1820, and scientific institutions. African kingdoms were also changing rapidly as they absorbed new military technologies such as horses and firearms. In the 1820s, a Royal Observatory was sited at Cape Town to expand knowledge of astronomy in the southern hemisphere and help with navigation and mapping. In the first half of the nineteenth century, scientific networks and associations gained footholds in local colonial society leading to the establishment of a natural history museum, the revival of the botanical garden and zoological expeditions. Geological exploration revealed fossils in the Karoo, prompting new thinking about the age of the earth. Flints and middens helped to catalyse archaeology as a field of interest – as did rock art. The science of race, which slip-streamed in Darwin’s wake, was given impetus by imperial conquest in South Africa.
In the winter of 2016 I partook in a tour of the front lines facing the Dawla al Islamia, the Islamic State, in northern Iraq. Two years earlier ISIS had burst on to the world stage and conquered vast swathes of territory in a now borderless region known as ‘Syraq’. In 2014, Iraq alone suffered a third of the world’s terrorism fatalities. But not all these deaths came at the hands of ISIS or its predecessor ‘Al Qaeda in Iraq’. With Sunni ISIS garnering attention as the world’s most deadly terrorist group, less attention has been paid to the terror campaign carried out by Shiite groups that was launched, in part, as a response to the terror campaign by Sunni Al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) and ISIS. Many observers who commented on this wave of terrorism described the spectacular rise of ISIS in 2012–14 and emergence of Iranian-backed Iraqi Shiite terrorist groups as coming ‘out of the blue’. But there was a long and rarely studied prehistory to the rise of terrorism in this land that begins with the 2003 US–British invasion of this secular, Baathist-dominated country that had previously served as ‘firewall’ against both Shiite and Sunni sectarian radicalism. An understanding of this background history and the role of 2003’s Operation Iraqi Freedom in opening the Pandora’s box of sect-based terrorism in Iraq is crucial to explaining the origins, goals, tactics and local and global impact of the terrorists operating in this land.
We live in an era in modern Western countries that many culture theorists describe as “therapeutic.” Among the most important of the figures who have contributed to this change is Sigmund Freud. It is beyond dispute that his theories and nomenclature have become a part of everyday life. Terms such as the unconscious, ego, and superego have been disseminated not only through psychoanalytic clinical sessions but also through movie screens, television, literature, and social media. Our shared public culture is suffused with unconscious fantasies and psychoanalytic ways of thinking about self, other, and society.
It is common fare to think that Freud reflected mainly on Judaism and Christianity, leaving Eastern religions in the lurch. Part of this is attributable to the fact that in Freud’s era relatively little was known of Buddhism and Hinduism. Before 1880, which is to say, the beginning of the psychology and religion movement, the engagement with Eastern religions in Europe and North America was sporadic and piecemeal, informed primarily through the auspices of missionaries, business enterprises, travel, and trade. By the time the psychology of religion was establishing itself as an intellectual discipline, the gradual dissemination of Eastern religions in the West was only just beginning. With respect to academia, chairs in Oriental studies and comparative religion at Ivy League schools and European institutions (including the University of Vienna where Freud studied and taught) were newly minted, giving rise to an initial generation of scholars (e.g., Rudolph Otto, Friedrich Heiler, Max Müller) and the introduction of the first accessible translations (notably, the classic Sacred Books of the East series). On the wider cultural scale, Eastern religious ideas were beginning to be disseminated through the auspices of philosophers and poets (e.g., Nietzsche, Emerson, the Theosophical movement) and visits from Eastern holy men (e.g., Vivekananda, Yogananda), the latter initiated by the World’s Parliament of Religions in Chicago (1893). In the United States one finds for the first time the establishment of institutions for meditative techniques aided by a social base of Asian immigrants (approximately one million strong). The exemplars of Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as their Western sympathizers, were eager to frame Eastern religions as commensurate with the scientific enterprise.
When the Dutch plunged into the Indian Ocean at the beginning of the seventeenth century, they brought with them both a new form of capitalism and fresh ways of looking at nature. Their sprawling seaborne empire turned Amsterdam and Leiden into centres for the collection of global knowledge. Colonised regions were systematically scoured for valuable natural resources and curiosities. Jan van Riebeeck, Simon van der Stel and Rijk Tulbagh, among other Cape governors, were keen amateur naturalists. The Cape’s natural diversity in plants and animals attracted literate travellers with a scientific bent and the botanical gardens served as a portal to exchange of botanical knowledge. The late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries produced a rich literature on South Africa, as scientific interest drew it into the orbit of educated Europeans. Some of the writers became scientists of consequence, including Thunberg, who became the leading botanist in Sweden; Lichtenstein, a professor of zoology in Berlin; and Barrow, a key scientific figure in the British Admiralty. These travellers often reported local knowledge and collectively created a literary tradition about the Cape that helped to define the region’s character and interest to scientists.
During the course of this volume we have become familiar with three basic psychoanalytic approaches (i.e., classic-reductive, adaptive, transformational) as they emerged from Freud and developed through history, as well as the multiple enterprises (psychology of, psycho-spirituality, the dialogical projects) animating the psychology and religion movement. Through various cautionary tales, siphoned through the latter projects and advances in psychoanalytic theory, we arrived at the need for a reflexive, dialogical, inclusive psychoanalytic theory of religion, as well as portable lessons that can further its application. At the very least, we now see that a simple “cookie-cutter” approach to religious phenomena that emphasizes only the Oedipal in a classic-reductive sense is altogether too narrow. While the latter has its value when judiciously applied, the contemporary state of both psychoanalysis and the academic study of religion is far more sophisticated than that of Freud’s era. The psychoanalytic theory of religion must follow suit and implement proper revisions lest it be marginalized as a tool for the investigation of religious phenomena.