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Since 1990, nearly 100 countries extended voting rights to citizens living abroad, including 32 in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the actual ability for emigrants to vote in subsequent elections varies widely. Whereas others view diaspora enfranchisement as a signal to emigrant and international audiences, I argue that incumbent parties expand or restrict emigrant voter access depending on party perceptions of political support abroad. I first leverage the multiple reversals over emigrant inclusion in South African elections since 1994 to illuminate how changing dynamics between an incumbent party and citizens abroad shape emigrant voter access. I further test my argument with an original dataset covering multiple dimensions of external voting in every African election where emigrants had voting rights from 1990 to 2015. I find a robust relationship between emigrant voter access and diaspora support for the incumbent party.
Two crucial human cognitive goals are to understand and to learn. Both goals often require active management, actively questing for knowledge. Children’s questions, both purposeful and incidental, both verbal and nonverbal, do this. Questions start early in life, change in nature and influence, but powerfully impact cognitive development all along the way. Often they do so as an antecedent and a consequence of children’s investment in explanatory understanding. I use my research and the research of my collaborators to address these topics as well as describe several of the steps and processes whereby questions and explanations drive the development of children’s comprehension and learning.
Obligation as defined by Tomasello requires mutually capable parties, but one-sided caregiver relationships reveal its developmental and evolutionary precursors. Specifically, “coercive” emotions may prompt protective action by caregivers toward infant primates, and infants show distress toward caregivers when they appear to violate expectations in their relationships. We argue that these early social-relational expectations and emotions may form the base of obligation.
We used in-depth interviews with 101 participants in the East York section of Toronto, Canada to understand how digital media affects social connectivity in general—and networked individualism in particular—for people at different stages of the life course. Although people of all ages intertwined their use of digital media with their face-to-face interactions, younger adults used more types of digital media and have more diversified personal networks. People in different age-groups conserved media, tending to stick with the digital media they learned to use in earlier life stages. Approximately one-third of the participants were Networked Individuals: In each age-group, they were the most actively using digital media to maintain ties and to develop new ones. Another one-third were Socially Bounded, who often actively used digital media but kept their connectivity within a smaller set of social groups. The remaining one-third, who were Socially Limited, were the least likely to use digital media. Younger adults were the most likely to be Networked Individuals, leading us to wonder if the percentage of the population who are Bounded or Limited will decline over time.
We identify the significance and typical requirements of developmental analyses of the microbiome-gut-brain (MGB) in parents, offspring, and parent-offspring relations, which have particular importance for neurobehavioral outcomes in mammalian species, including humans. We call for a focus on behavioral measures of social-emotional function. Methodological approaches to interpreting relations between the microbiota and behavior are discussed.
Although palliative care is critical to managing symptoms, pain, and transitions to end-of-life care among those facing serious or chronic illness, it is often underused, which may be due to stigma associated with palliative care representing giving up fighting one's illness. The goal of the present studies was to test the theoretical framework of stigma within the context of palliative care to inform future work on intervention development that addresses potential barriers to palliative care utilization.
In study 1, participants (n = 152) had an oncologist describe two treatment options to a terminally ill cancer patient: (1) palliative care and (2) chemotherapy. Participants were then randomly assigned to read that the patient chose palliative care or chemotherapy. In study 2, these stereotypes about those receiving palliative care were examined as a potential mediator between perceived palliative care stigma and prospective palliative care use. Participants (n = 199) completed self-report measures of palliative care stigma, negative stereotypes about palliative care users, and prospective use of palliative care. Mediation analysis tested the mediational effects of stereotypes on the relationship between palliative care stigma and prospective usage of palliative care.
In study 1, those in the palliative care condition endorsed significantly higher levels of negative stereotypes about the patient, viewed the decision more negatively, and saw the patient as less afraid of death. In study 2, palliative care stigma was associated with less prospective usage of palliative care for self and for one's family member. This relationship was mediated by negative stereotypes about individuals receiving palliative care.
Significance of results
Results suggest that palliative care stigma exists (study 1) and that this stigma may be a barrier to the utilization of palliative care (study 2). Future research should examine stigma reduction as a potential intervention target to improve palliative care utilization.
Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness. We report the collaborative investigative efforts of US and Canadian public health officials during the 2013–2014 international outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder. The investigation included open-ended interviews of ill persons, traceback, product testing, facility inspections, and trace forward. Ninety-four persons infected with outbreak strains from 16 states and four provinces were identified; 21% were hospitalized and none died. Fifty-four (96%) of 56 persons who consumed chia seed powder, reported 13 different brands that traced back to a single Canadian firm, distributed by four US and eight Canadian companies. Laboratory testing yielded outbreak strains from leftover and intact product. Contaminated product was recalled. Although chia seed powder is a novel outbreak vehicle, sprouted seeds are recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness; firms should follow available guidance to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination during sprouting.
Detailed quantitative data has previously been collected from plant megafossil assemblages from a Middle Jurassic (Aalenian) plant bed from Hasty Bank, North Yorkshire, UK. We conducted a similar analysis of palynological dispersed sporomorph (spore and pollen) assemblages collected from the same section using the same sampling regime: 67 sporomorph taxa were recorded from 50 samples taken at 10 cm intervals through the plant bed. Basic palynofacies analysis was also undertaken on each sample. Both dispersed sporomorph and plant megafossil assemblages display consistent changes in composition, diversity (richness), and abundance through time. However, the dispersed sporomorph and plant megafossil records provide conflicting evidence for the nature of parent vegetation. Specifically, conifers and ferns are underrepresented in plant megafossil assemblages, bryophytes and lycopsids are represented only in sporomorph assemblages, and sphenophytes, pteridosperms, Caytoniales, Cycadales, Ginkgoales and Bennettitales are comparatively underrepresented in sporomorph assemblages. Combined multivariate analysis (correspondence analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling) of sporomorph occurrence/abundance data demonstrates that temporal variation in sporomorph assemblages is the result of depositional change through the plant bed. The reproductive strategies of parent plants are considered to be a principal factor in shaping many of the major abundance and diversity irregularities between dispersed sporomorph and plant megafossil data sets that seemingly reflects different parent vegetation. Preferential occurrence/preservation of sporomorphs and equivalent parent plants is a consequence of a complex array of biological, ecological, geographical, taphonomic, and depositional factors that act inconsistently between and within fossil assemblages, which results in notable discrepancies between data sets.
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause bacteraemia, meningitis, and complications during pregnancy. In July 2012, molecular subtyping identified indistinguishable L. monocytogenes isolates from six patients and two samples of different cut and repackaged cheeses. A multistate outbreak investigation was initiated. Initial analyses identified an association between eating soft cheese and outbreak-related illness (odds ratio 17·3, 95% confidence interval 2·0–825·7) but no common brand. Cheese inventory data from locations where patients bought cheese and an additional location where repackaged cheese yielded the outbreak strain were compared to identify cheeses for microbiological sampling. Intact packages of imported ricotta salata yielded the outbreak strain. Fourteen jurisdictions reported 22 cases from March–October 2012, including four deaths and a fetal loss. Six patients ultimately reported eating ricotta salata; another reported eating cheese likely cut with equipment also used for contaminated ricotta salata, and nine more reported eating other cheeses that might also have been cross-contaminated. An FDA import alert and US and international recalls followed. Epidemiology-directed microbiological testing of suspect cheeses helped identify the outbreak source. Cross-contamination of cheese highlights the importance of using validated disinfectant protocols and routine cleaning and sanitizing after cutting each block or wheel.
The 2013 multistate outbreaks contributed to the largest annual number of reported US cases of cyclosporiasis since 1997. In this paper we focus on investigations in Texas. We defined an outbreak-associated case as laboratory-confirmed cyclosporiasis in a person with illness onset between 1 June and 31 August 2013, with no history of international travel in the previous 14 days. Epidemiological, environmental, and traceback investigations were conducted. Of the 631 cases reported in the multistate outbreaks, Texas reported the greatest number of cases, 270 (43%). More than 70 clusters were identified in Texas, four of which were further investigated. One restaurant-associated cluster of 25 case-patients was selected for a case-control study. Consumption of cilantro was most strongly associated with illness on meal date-matched analysis (matched odds ratio 19·8, 95% confidence interval 4·0–∞). All case-patients in the other three clusters investigated also ate cilantro. Traceback investigations converged on three suppliers in Puebla, Mexico. Cilantro was the vehicle of infection in the four clusters investigated; the temporal association of these clusters with the large overall increase in cyclosporiasis cases in Texas suggests cilantro was the vehicle of infection for many other cases. However, the paucity of epidemiological and traceback information does not allow for a conclusive determination; moreover, molecular epidemiological tools for cyclosporiasis that could provide more definitive linkage between case clusters are needed.
In this essay, I argue that absent special circumstances, there are no moral, judicial procedural rights. I divide this essay into four main sections. First, I argue that there is no general moral right against double jeopardy. Next, I explain why punishing a criminal without first establishing her guilt via a fair trial does not necessarily violate her rights. In the third section, I respond to a number of possible objections. And finally, I consider the implications of my arguments for the human right to due process.
Assemblages of well-preserved dispersed spores have been recovered from the ‘Lower Old Red Sandstone’ deposits of the Berriedale Outlier in the Northern Highlands of Scotland. They belong to the annulatus–sextantii Spore Assemblage Biozone (AS SAB), in the spore zonation of Richardson & McGregor (1986), indicating an Early Devonian Emsian (but not earliest Emsian or latest Emsian) age. Comparison with the spore zonation of Streel et al. (1987) suggests they may be confined to the annulatus–bellatulus Oppel Zone (AB OZ), further constraining the age to early Emsian. This new biostratigraphical datum provides an age constraint for the onset of ‘Lower Old Red Sandstone’ sedimentation in the Orcadian Basin and, in particular, northwest of the Great Glen Fault System on the Northern Highlands. In the Orcadian Basin, there is a gap between ‘Lower Old Red Sandstone’ and ‘Middle Old Red Sandstone’ sedimentation, represented by either unconformity or disconformity, which appears to be variable in duration. In the Berriedale Outlier, it is estimated to represent up to 16 million years, but with an unknown thickness of ‘Lower Old Red Sandstone’ sequence removed at the unconformity. However, this basin-wide unconformity/disconformity is likely due to minor, local rather than large-scale, regional tectonism, and the evidence suggests little, if any, syn-depositional strike-slip movement along the Great Glen Fault System during Devonian ‘Old Red Sandstone’ deposition. The described spore assemblage is the most diverse AS SAB/AB OZ assemblage described from the British Isles. However, compared to contemporary spore assemblages from elsewhere on the Old Red Sandstone continent, the Scottish material is rather depauperate, with certain key taxa absent. This probably reflects subtle ecological effects, with the Scottish material representing restricted floras of the inland intermontaine basins.
No political theorist of the twentieth century has been more celebrated than John Rawls, and none has been more frequently misinterpreted. A Theory of Justice (TJ) was routinely misunderstood because readers were unprepared for the breathtakingly original types of arguments therein. Political Liberalism (PL) was systematically misjudged because many of us did not understand that it was concerned principally with legitimacy rather than justice. In this essay, I suggest that many commentators may have also misinterpreted John Rawls's project in The Law of Peoples (LP). In particular, I raise the possibility that many of the standard criticisms of this work miss their mark by presuming that Rawls sought to offer a comprehensive theory of global justice, when he meant more minimally to respond to a specific, practical problem: “How can we eliminate the great evils of human history?”
I divide this essay into three sections. First, I offer a very brief summary of The Law of Peoples. In the second section, I survey a number of criticisms that have been raised against Rawls's arguments and the conclusions he draws from them. Finally, I suggest an alternative interpretation of LP, one that both squares with Rawls's own description of his project and enables the rebuttal of the standard objections to this work.
High-quality evidence on morale in the mental health workforce is
To describe staff well-being and satisfaction in a multicentre UK
National Health Service (NHS) sample and explore associated factors.
A questionnaire-based survey (n = 2258) was conducted in
100 wards and 36 community teams in England. Measures included a set of
frequently used indicators of staff morale, and measures of perceived job
characteristics based on Karasek's demand–control–support model.
Staff well-being and job satisfaction were fairly good on most
indicators, but emotional exhaustion was high among acute general ward
and community mental health team (CMHT) staff and among social workers.
Most morale indicators were moderately but significantly intercorrelated.
Principal components analysis yielded two components, one appearing to
reflect emotional strain, the other positive engagement with work. In
multilevel regression analyses factors associated with greater emotional
strain included working in a CMHT or psychiatric intensive care unit
(PICU), high job demands, low autonomy, limited support from managers and
colleagues, age under 45 years and junior grade. Greater positive
engagement was associated with high job demands, autonomy and support
from managers and colleagues, Black or Asian ethnic group, being a
psychiatrist or service manager and shorter length of service.
Potential foci for interventions to increase morale include CMHTs, PICUs
and general acute wards. The explanatory value of the
demand–support–control model was confirmed, but job characteristics did
not fully explain differences in morale indicators across service types
In this article I argue that critics of John Rawls's The Law of Peoples wrongly presume that Rawls sought to offer a comprehensive theory of global justice, when he meant more minimally to respond to a specific practical problem: “How can we eliminate the great evils of human history?” I concede that my reading is not uniformly supported by all aspects of the text, but The Law of Peoples is a rich and complex work that does not univocally recommend any single reading, and my construal squares with Rawls's own description of the project. More importantly, my interpretation is recommended by the principle of charity, insofar as it provides Rawls with plausible responses to the commonly-voiced objections. In other words, if Rawls is understood as offering a comprehensive theory of global justice, then many of the standard criticisms appear quite damning. But if his aim is the more modest one of recommending how liberal (and decent) societies might permissibly organize their foreign policies so as to help eliminate unjust war, oppression, religious persecution and the denial of liberty of conscience, starvation, poverty, genocide and mass murder, then Rawls's book is not problematic in the ways that so many have supposed.
Practitioners increasingly use the enterprise multiple (EM) as a valuation measure. EM is (equity value + debt + preferred stock – cash) / (EBITDA). We document that EM is a strong determinant of stock returns. Following Fama and French (1993) and Chen, Novy-Marx, and Zhang (2010), we create an EM factor that generates a return premium of 5.28% per year. We interpret EM as a proxy for the discount rate. Firms with low EM values appear to have higher discount rates and higher subsequent stock returns than firms with high EM values.
Dispersed spore assemblages have been recovered from the Am Binnein Sandstones from the upper part of the ‘Lower Old Red Sandstone’ sequence on the island of Arran, Scotland. The spore assemblages belong with the Emphanisporites annulatus–Camarozonotriletes sextantii (AS) Spore Assemblage Biozone (SAB), indicating an Early Devonian, Emsian (but not earliest Emsian or latest Emsian) age. This is the first reliable age constraint for the ‘Lower Old Red Sandstone’ of Arran, and enables correlation with the more extensive sequence developed on the mainland in the Midland Valley of Scotland. The Am Binnein Sandstones are confirmed as correlatives of the Strathmore Group.
Background: Computer based treatment for depression and anxiety has been available for several years and has demonstrated useful clinical effects. Most existing computerized CBT products in the UK that are designed to treat depression and co-morbid anxiety require patients to visit a clinic and require staff input to manage the process. Such intervention adds to the costs and bottlenecks in delivering a clinically effective treatment with mass availability. Internet treatment options are becoming more readily available, although data to support use are not yet strong, and most still require human assessment and telephone support. Blues Begone® is a new computerized CBT program that has been designed to be used at home with minimal human support. Method: This pilot project provides data from an open trial of Blues Begone® with both primary and secondary care patients. Results: One hundred patients started Blues Begone®, 58 completed the program, 72% (n = 42) of completers achieved reliable change and (n = 36) 62% achieved both reliable and clinically significant change, and may be considered to have recovered by the end of the program. Conclusion: These data provide the first demonstration of the potential viability of Blues Begone® as a home based computerized treatment for depression and anxiety.