To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Positive psychology tackles the big questions: What does it mean to live a 'good life'? What helps people to flourish and access their optimal potential? And how can we increase our capacities for joy, meaning, and hope? This engaging textbook emphasizes the science of positive psychology - students don't simply learn about positive psychology in the abstract, but instead are exposed to the fascinating research that supports its conclusions.Bridging theory and practice, this textbook connects up-to-date research with real-world examples and guides students to apply evidence-based practices in their own lives. Its comprehensive coverage includes major new topics, such as spirituality, therapeutic interventions, mindfulness, and positive relationships. Featured pedagogy includes 'Are You Sure about That?' boxes presenting methodological and statistical principles in context, and 'Practice Positive Psychology' activities to extend student learning, while online resources include lecture slides, a test bank, and an instructor manual.
Over the last two decades, Routine Dynamics has emerged as an international research community that shares a particular approach to organizational phenomena. At the heart of this approach is an interest in examining the emergence, reproduction, replication and change of routines as recognizable patterns of actions. In contrast to other research communities interested in those phenomena, Routine Dynamics studies are informed by a distinctive set of theories (especially practice theory and related process-informed theories). This Handbook offers both an accessible introduction to core concepts and approaches in Routine Dynamics as well as a comprehensive and authoritative overview of research in different areas of Routine Dynamics. The chapters of this Handbook are structured around four core themes: 1) Theoretical resources for research on the dynamics of routines, 2) Methodological issues in studying the dynamics routines, 3) Themes in Routine Dynamics research and 4) Relation of Routine Dynamics to other communities of thought.
Patients with cyanotic heart disease are at an increased risk of developing thrombosis. Aspirin has been the mainstay of prophylactic anticoagulation for shunt-dependent patients with several reports of prevalent aspirin resistance, especially in neonates. We investigate the incidence of aspirin resistance and its relationship to thrombotic events and mortality in a cohort of infants with shunt-dependent physiology.
Aspirin resistance was assessed using the VerifyNow™ test on infants with single-ventricle physiology following shunt-dependent palliation operations. In-hospital thrombotic events and mortality data were collected. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of aspirin resistance on in-hospital thrombotic events and mortality risk.
Forty-nine patients were included with 41 of these patients being neonates. Six patients (12%) were aspirin resistant. A birth weight < 2500 grams was a significant factor associated with aspirin resistance (p = 0.04). Following a dose increase or additional dose administration, all patients with initial aspirin resistance had a normal aspirin response. There was no statistically significant difference between aspirin resistance and non-resistance groups with respect to thrombotic events. However, a statistically significant incidence of in-hospital mortality in the presence of thrombotic events was observed amongst aspirin-resistant patients (p = 0.04) in this study.
Low birth weight was associated with a higher incidence of aspirin resistance. Inadequate initial dosing appears to be the primary reason for aspirin resistance. The presence of both thrombotic events and aspirin resistance was associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality indicating that these patients warrant closer monitoring.
We investigated ecological patterns of richness and abundance of Anastrepha fruit flies, based on a long-term series with a dataset from 1998 to 2010, subdivided into four subseries describing pest management through the systems approach (integration of different measures, at least two of which act independently, with cumulative effects), and its impact on abundance and diversity of fruit flies. Richness and abundance were influenced by time and distance but to different extents. Spatio-temporal analysis taking into account the implementation of the systems approach revealed clear effects of the pest management on fruit fly richness and abundance. However, abundance was affected by the systems approach three years before richness was. Abundance and richness also showed different relationships with time and distance between orchards and forest. The Gompertz model, used to describe the relationship between area and species richness, was the function that showed the best fit to the data. The richness-partitioning analysis, which decomposes beta diversity, indicated different distributions of richness values and predictions for additive partitioning that were directly associated with the implementation of the systems approach. The spectral analysis projected different trends for peaks, indicating that the systems approach is able to delay the time for new population peaks of fruit flies.
Major depression (MD) is often characterised as a categorical disorder; however, observational studies comparing sub-threshold and clinical depression suggest MD is continuous. Many of these studies do not explore the full continuum and are yet to consider genetics as a risk factor. This study sought to understand if polygenic risk for MD could provide insight into the continuous nature of depression.
Factor analysis on symptom-level data from the UK Biobank (N = 148 957) was used to derive continuous depression phenotypes which were tested for association with polygenic risk scores (PRS) for a categorical definition of MD (N = 119 692).
Confirmatory factor analysis showed a five-factor hierarchical model, incorporating 15 of the original 18 items taken from the PHQ-9, GAD-7 and subjective well-being questionnaires, produced good fit to the observed covariance matrix (CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.038, SRMR = 0.031). MD PRS associated with each factor score (standardised β range: 0.057–0.064) and the association remained when the sample was stratified into case- and control-only subsets. The case-only subset had an increased association compared to controls for all factors, shown via a significant interaction between lifetime MD diagnosis and MD PRS (p value range: 2.23 × 10−3–3.94 × 10−7).
An association between MD PRS and a continuous phenotype of depressive symptoms in case- and control-only subsets provides support against a purely categorical phenotype; indicating further insights into MD can be obtained when this within-group variation is considered. The stronger association within cases suggests this variation may be of particular importance.
We describe the glacial geomorphology and initial geochronology of two ice-free valley systems within the Neptune Range of the Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica. These valleys are characterized by landforms associated with formerly more expanded ice sheet(s) that were at least 200 m thicker than at present. The most conspicuous features are areas of supraglacial debris, discrete debris accumulations separated from modern-day ice and curvilinear ridges and mounds. The landsystem bears similarities to debris-rich cold-based glacial landsystems described elsewhere in Antarctica and the Arctic where buried ice is prevalent. Geochronological data demonstrate multiple phases of ice expansion. The oldest, occurring > 3 Ma, overtopped much of the landscape. Subsequent, less expansive advances into the valleys occurred > 2 Ma and > ~1 Ma. An expansion of some local glaciers occurred < 250 ka. This sequence of glacial stages is similar to that described from the northernmost massif of the Pensacola Mountains (Dufek Massif), suggesting that it represents a regional signal of ice-sheet evolution over the Plio-Pleistocene. The geomorphological record and its evolution over millions of years makes the Neptune Range valleys an area worthy of future research and we highlight potential avenues for this.
In this chapter, we describe long-run trends in global merchandise trade and immigration from 1870 to 2010. We revisit the reasons why these two forces moved largely in parallel in the decades leading up to World War I, collapsed during the interwar period, and then rebounded (but with much more pronounced growth in trade than in immigration). More substantively, we also document a large redistribution in the regional sources of goods and people, with a shift from the former industrialized core countries – especially Europe – to those in the former periphery – especially Asia – as well as a very striking change in the composition of merchandise trade towards manufactured goods precisely dating from 1950. Finally, using a triple differences framework in combination with a dramatic change in US immigration policy, we find evidence that immigration and trade potentially acted as substitutes, at least for the United States in the interwar period.
Introduced mammalian predators are responsible for the decline and extinction of many native species, with rats (genus Rattus) being among the most widespread and damaging invaders worldwide. In a naturally fragmented landscape, we demonstrate the multi-year effectiveness of snap traps in the removal of Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans from lava-surrounded forest fragments ranging in size from <0.1 to >10 ha. Relative to other studies, we observed low levels of fragment recolonization. Larger rats were the first to be trapped, with the average size of trapped rats decreasing over time. Rat removal led to distinct shifts in the foraging height and location of mongooses and mice, emphasizing the need to focus control efforts on multiple invasive species at once. Furthermore, because of a specially designed trap casing, we observed low non-target capture rates, suggesting that on Hawai‘i and similar islands lacking native rodents the risk of killing non-target species in snap traps may be lower than the application of rodenticides, which have the potential to contaminate food webs. These efforts demonstrate that targeted snap-trapping is an effective removal method for invasive rats in fragmented habitats and that, where used, monitoring of recolonization should be included as part of a comprehensive biodiversity management strategy.
In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, there were shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) and healthcare personnel across severely affected regions. Along with a lack of testing, these shortages delayed surveillance, and possible containment of the virus. The pandemic also took unprecedented tolls on the mental health of many healthcare workers who treated and witnessed the deaths of critically ill patients. To address these effects and prepare for a potential second wave, a literature review was performed on the response of healthcare systems during the Influenza pandemics of 1918, 1957, 2009, and the epidemics of Ebola, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). We can use lessons identified to develop a competent and effective response to the current and future pandemics. The public must continue to engage in proper health mitigation strategies including utilization of face coverings, physical distancing, and hand washing. The impact the pandemic has had on the mental health of frontline healthcare workers cannot be disregarded as it is essential in ensuring effective patient care and mitigating psychological comorbidities. The lessons identified from past public health crises can help contain and limit morbidity and mortality with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Approximate Entropy is an extensively enforced metric to evaluate chaotic responses and irregularities of RR intervals sourced from an eletrocardiogram. However, to estimate their responses, it has one major problem – the accurate determination of tolerances and embedding dimensions. So, we aimed to overt this potential hazard by calculating numerous alternatives to detect their optimality in malnourished children.
Materials and methods:
We evaluated 70 subjects split equally: malnourished children and controls. To estimate autonomic modulation, the heart rate was measured lacking any physical, sensory or pharmacologic stimuli. In the time series attained, Approximate Entropy was computed for tolerance (0.1→0.5 in intervals of 0.1) and embedding dimension (1→5 in intervals of 1) and the statistical significances between the groups by their Cohen’s ds and Hedges’s gs were totalled.
The uppermost value of statistical significance accomplished for the effect sizes for any of the combinations was −0.2897 (Cohen’s ds) and −0.2865 (Hedges’s gs). This was achieved with embedding dimension = 5 and tolerance = 0.3.
Approximate Entropy was able to identify a reduction in chaotic response via malnourished children. The best values of embedding dimension and tolerance of the Approximate Entropy to identify malnourished children were, respectively, embedding dimension = 5 and embedding tolerance = 0.3. Nevertheless, Approximate Entropy is still an unreliable mathematical marker to regulate this.
Widely regarded as one of the earliest examples of Asian American literature, Younghill Kang’s 1937 novel East Goes West wields many of the signifiers of the immigrant novel, including an incisive critique of American racism and capitalism. However, East Goes West is only a part of his body of work, the majority of which goes ignored by Asian American scholarship. It is an understandable neglect, for Kang’s biography and writing resists conforming to the neat contours of existing paradigms. In one period, he traveled among New York’s literati as a writer, genial native informant, and advocate for Korean liberation from Japanese colonialism, and in another period toiled in obscurity as a journeyman intellectual. Yet even as he did so, glimpses of his ambivalence – veiled criticism of the US literary scene, open admiration of Japanese poetry, and increasing alarm regarding the US empire – complicate the narrative. This chapter frames the entirety of Kang’s work and life through a transpacific lens to fully comprehend his multivalent writerly projects.
A single high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal (HFHC) results in elevated postprandial glucose (GLU), triglycerides (TAG) and metabolic load index (MLI; TAG (mg/dl) + GLU (mg/dl)) that contributes to chronic disease risk. While disease risk is higher in older adults (OA) compared to younger adults (YA), the acute effects of exercise on these outcomes in OA is understudied. Twelve YA (age 23.3 ± 3.9 yrs, n = 5 M/7 F) and 12 OA (age 67·7 ± 6.0 yrs, n = 8 M/4 F) visited the laboratory in random order to complete a HFHC with no exercise (NE) or acute exercise (EX) condition. EX was performed 12 hours prior to HFHC at an intensity of 65 % of maximal heart rate to expend 75 % of the kcals consumed in HFHC (Marie Callender’s Chocolate Satin Pie; 12 kcal/kgbw; 57 % fat, 37 % CHO). Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 90 minutes, and then every hour until 6 hours post-meal. TAG levels increased to a larger magnitude in OA (Δ∼61 ± 31 %) compared to YA (Δ∼37 ± 34 %, P < 0·001), which were attenuated in EX compared to NE (P < 0·05) independent of age. There was no difference in GLU between OA and YA after the HFM, however, EX had attenuated GLU independent of age (NE: Δ∼21 ± 26 %; EX: Δ∼12 ± 18 %, P = 0·027). MLI was significantly lower after EX compared to NE in OA and YA (P < 0·001). Pre-prandial EX reduced TAG, GLU and MLI post-HFHC independent of age.
As part of the Pathology, Alzheimer’s and Related Dementias Study, we conducted uniform structured interviews with knowledgeable informants (72% children) of 1,493 older (age > 65) Brazilian decedents.
The interview included measures of social isolation (number of family and friends in at least monthly contact with decedent), emotional isolation (short form of UCLA Loneliness Scale), and major depression plus the informant portion of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale to diagnose dementia and its precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Decedents had a median social network size of 8.0 (interquartile range = 9.0) and a median loneliness score of 0.0 (interquartile range = 1.0). On the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, 947 persons had no cognitive impairment, 122 had MCI, and 424 had dementia. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, education, sex, and race, both smaller network size (odds ratio [OR] = 0.975; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.962, 0.989) and higher loneliness (OR = 1.145; 95% CI: 1.060, 1.237) were associated with higher likelihood of dementia. These associations persisted after controlling for depression (present in 10.4%) and did not vary by race. After controlling for depression, neither network size nor loneliness was related to MCI.
Social and emotional isolation are associated with higher likelihood of dementia in older black and white Brazilians.
To determine the impact of a documented penicillin or cephalosporin allergy on the development of surgical site infections (SSIs).
Appropriate preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis reduces SSI risk, but documented antibiotic allergies influence the choice of prophylactic agents. Few studies have examined the relationship between a reported antibiotic allergy and risk of SSI and to what extent this relationship is modified by the antibiotic class given for prophylaxis.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass, craniotomy, spinal fusion, laminectomy, hip arthroplasty and knee arthroplasty at 3 hospitals from July 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017. We built a multivariable logistic regression model to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of developing an SSI among patients with and without patient-reported penicillin or cephalosporin allergies. We also examined effect measure modification (EMM) to determine whether surgical prophylaxis affected the association between reported allergy and SSI.
We analyzed 39,972 procedures; 1,689 (4.2%) with a documented patient penicillin or cephalosporin allergy, and 374 (0.9%) resulted in an SSI. Patients with a reported penicillin or cephalosporin allergy were more likely to develop an SSI compared to patients who did not report an allergy to penicillin or cephalosporins (adjusted odds ratio, 3.26; 95% confidence interval, 2.71–3.93). Surgical prophylaxis did not have significant EMM on this association.
Patients who reported a penicillin or cephalosporin allergy had higher odds of developing an SSI than nonallergic patients. However, the increase in odds is not completely mediated by the type of surgical prophylaxis. Instead, a reported allergy may be a surrogate marker for a more complicated patient population.