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Difficulties in the ability to adapt beliefs in the face of new information are associated with psychosis and its central symptom – paranoia. As cognitive processes and psychotic symptoms are both known to be sensitive to stress, the present study investigated the exact associations between stress, adapting of beliefs [reversal learning (RL), bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE), and jumping to conclusions (JTC)] and paranoia. We hypothesized that paranoia would increase under stress and that difficulties in adapting of beliefs would mediate or moderate the link between stress and paranoia. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the investigated effects would be strongest in the group of individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder.
We exposed 155 participants (38 diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, 40 individuals with attenuated psychotic symptoms, 39 clinical controls diagnosed with an obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 38 healthy controls) to a control condition and a stress condition, in which we assessed their levels of paranoia and their ability to adapt beliefs. We applied multilevel models to analyze the data.
Paranoia was higher in the stress condition than in the control condition, b = 1.142, s.e. = 0.338, t(150) = 3.381, p < 0.001. RL, BADE, and JTC did not differ between conditions and did not mediate or moderate the association between stress and paranoia (all ps > 0.05).
The results support the assumption that stress triggers paranoia. However, the link between stress and paranoia does not seem to be affected by the ability to adapt beliefs.
Maternal age and related factors, such as social vulnerability, are associated with neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders in offspring.
To examine the influence of maternal age and its related factors on the appearance of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alterations in executive functions and behavioral syndromes of the offspring.
A prospective study was conducted, consisting of 131 healthy pregnant women aged 20 to 41 years, recruited at 38 weeks’ gestation. Their offspring were followed up to 2 years after birth, when psychopatology was assessed. Maternal age and possible related factors were considered predictors. Bayesian ordinal regression models were performed for each outcome variable.
Symptoms of ASD in children were associated with an older maternal age (OR = 0.188; 95% CI[1.062, 1.401]) and a lower educational level of the parents (OR = -0.879; 95% CI[0.202, 0.832]), meanwhile poor social support predicted most ADHD symptoms OR = -0.086; 95% CI[0.838, 1]) and executive dysfunctions OR = -0.661; 95% CI[0.313, 0.845]. Lower parental education predicted both externalizing and internalizing behavior.
Maternal age-related factors were the main predictors of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring, rather than maternal age. The performance of prenatal interventions in pregnant women with advanced age and anxious depressive symptoms or adverse social situation, is crucial to reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Likewise, being able to carry out an early detection of childhood psychopathology would allow the implementation of resources that improve their long-term prognosis.
Refugee history at present lacks a conceptual framework, notwithstanding the proliferation of recent contributions that contribute to enlarging the field. Our article seeks to advance refugee history by drawing upon extensive research into historical case studies and proposing the framework of refugeedom. Refugeedom takes proper account of the states and other actors that defined the ‘refugee’ as a category and sought to manage refugees as figures of concern, but it also insists upon the need to consider refugees as an active and assertive historical presence in situations of crisis and constraint. It offers a promising approach for analysing episodes and sites of mass population displacement from the perspectives of governments, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. Crucially, refugeedom incorporates the experiences of refugees and how they narrated displacement. Finally, the article outlines a direction for global history by drawing attention to past episodes of displacement in ways that capture not only its global scale, but also the multiple relationships and practices of refugeedom.
Maternal age has progressively increased in industrialized countries. Most studies focus on the consequences of delayed motherhood for women's physical and mental health, but little is known about potential effects on infants' neurodevelopment. This prospective study examines the association between maternal age and offspring neurodevelopment in terms of both psychomotor development (Ages & Stages Questionnaires-3) and emotional competences (Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire).
We evaluated a cohort of healthy pregnant women aged 20–41 years and their offspring, assessed at 38 weeks gestation (n = 131) and 24 months after birth (n = 101). Potential age-related variables were considered (paternal age, education level, parity, social support, maternal cortisol levels, and maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms). Bayesian ordinal regression models were performed for each neurodevelopmental outcome.
Maternal age was negatively associated with poor child development in terms of personal-social skills [odds ratio (OR) −0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–0.99] and with difficult temperament in terms of worse emotional regulation (OR −0.13, 95% CI 0.78–0.96) and lower positive affect (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.75–0.95). As for age-related variables, whereas maternal anxiety symptoms and cortisol levels were also correlated with poor child development and difficult temperament, maternal social support and parental educational level were associated with better psychomotor and emotional competences.
Increasing maternal age may be associated with child temperament difficulties and psychomotor delay in terms of social interaction skills. Early detection of neurodevelopment difficulties in these babies would allow preventive psychosocial interventions to avoid future neuropsychiatric disorders.
This article discusses the absolute chronology of collective burials of the Trzciniec Cultural Circle communities of the Middle Bronze Age in East Central Europe. Based on Bayesian modeling of 91 accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dates from 18 cemeteries, the practice of collective burying of individuals was linked to a period of 400–640 (95.4%) years, between 1830–1690 (95.4%) and 1320–1160 (95.4%) BC. Collective burials in mounds with both cremation and inhumation rites were found earliest in the upland zone regardless of grave structure type (mounded or flat). Bayesian modeling of 14C determinations suggests that this practice was being transmitted generally from the southeast to the northwest direction. Bayesian modeling of the dates from the largest cemetery in Żerniki Górne, Lesser Poland Upland, confirmed the duration of use of the necropolis as ca. 140–310 (95.4%) years. Further results show the partial contemporaneity of burials and allow formulation of a spatial and temporal development model of the necropolis. Based on the investigation, some graves were used over just a couple of years and others over nearly 200, with up to 30 individuals found in a single grave.
The algebraic properties of the combination of probabilistic choice and nondeterministic choice have long been a research topic in program semantics. This paper explains a formalization in the Coq proof assistant of a monad equipped with both choices: the geometrically convex monad. This formalization has an immediate application: it provides a model for a monad that implements a nontrivial interface, which allows for proofs by equational reasoning using probabilistic and nondeterministic effects. We explain the technical choices we made to go from the literature to a complete Coq formalization, from which we identify reusable theories about mathematical structures such as convex spaces and concrete categories, and that we integrate in a framework for monadic equational reasoning.
On 20 November 2019, we celebrated the 30th anniversary of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), which is the reason why this issue of the European Yearbook on Human Rights is dedicated to children's rights. With 196 States parties, and only the US still missing, the CRC is the most widely ratified of all human rights treaties. By introducing a human rights-based approach to children, and including both civil and political rights as well as economic, social and cultural rights, the CRC brought about a paradigm shift in the way children are perceived today. The perception of the child has evolved from objects of rights in need of protection to the subject of rights whose opinions and active engagement is asked and strived for. They are no longer considered only as a vulnerable group in need of care and protection but also as a distinct group of young individuals in need of self-determination, autonomy and the right to participate in all decisions that directly affect their lives. Adults are expected to better understand that children are experts in their own right and whose views shall be taken into account in major decision-making processes. The recent Fridays for Future strikes, initiated and organised by high school children across the world, made clear that children are, with good reason, worried about their future in times of a dramatic climate crisis and demand to be involved in decisions aimed at drastically reducing global warming to save our planet. Children also increasingly make use of their more recent right to submit individual complaints to the Committee on the Rights of the Child in accordance with the respective Optional Protocol to the CRC on a Communication Procedure of 2011.
The CRC incorporates a broad variety of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, which may be grouped into protection, provisions and participation rights. It is based on the following four general principles identified by the Committee on the Rights of the Child:
– the inherent right to life, which also contains the positive obligation of States to ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child (Art. 6);
– the obligation to respect and ensure all children's rights without discrimination of any kind (Art. 2);
– the right to participation of children in all matters affecting them (Art. 12);
In light of the 30th anniversary of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in 2019, the twelfth edition of the European Yearbook on Human Rights is dedicated to the rights of the child. In their contributions, renowned scholars, emerging voices and practitioners provide a cross-section of the progress and gaps with regard to the protection of children. Topics include children deprived of their liberty, compulsory adoption and children's rights to participate in public debates on climate change, to name but a few. Besides the thematic focus on the rights of the child, this edition includes valuable insights from the European Court of Human Rights and the OSCE on the current challenges for the protection of human rights in Europe. Contributions focusing on the human rights implications of artificial intelligence, state sovereignty and gender identities raise awareness of the complexities of human rights protection and stimulate debate and further research in the field. At a time of an unprecedented global health crisis which has had widespread economic, social, humanitarian and human rights dimensions, the European Yearbook on Human Rights continues to provide a platform to address existing gaps in the systems designed to protect human rights and to bring forward suggestions to remedy identified weaknesses. Philip Czech is a researcher at the Austrian Institute for Human Rights, University of Salzburg and editor of the Newsletter Menschenrechte. Lisa Heschl is a post-doctoral research and teaching fellow at the European Training and Research Centre for Human Rights and Democracy, University of Graz. Karin Lukas is a senior researcher and Head of Department at the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights. Manfred Nowak is Secretary General of the Global Campus of Human Rights, Venice and Professor of International Human Rights, University of Vienna. Gerd Oberleitner is UNESCO Chair in Human Rights and Human Security and Director of the European Training and Research Centre for Human Rights and Democracy.
The contribution deals with a specific type of deprivation of liberty of children, namely, their detention in institutions for the purpose of educational supervision, as explicitly permitted by Article 5(1)(d) European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). This contribution addresses the issue of whether this special exception to the right to personal liberty of children and the respective jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) is still appropriate today. After a short introduction to the interrelation between the human rights to personal liberty and personal integrity, the jurisprudence of the ECtHR is analysed and critically reviewed. While the European Court accepts the detention of children in such institutions even for a period of a few years as long as children receive proper education, Article 37(b) of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) allows the detention of children only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time. This fairly strict standard led to a general trend towards deinstitutionalisation worldwide, and in Central and Eastern Europe in particular. This trend is reaffirmed by the UN Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty, which calls for urgent measures by states to stop or at least drastically reduce the detention of children in institutions, including institutions for the purpose of educational supervision. In conclusion, this contribution recommends that the ECtHR revisit its jurisprudence on Article 5(1)(d) ECHR by reaffirming the ECHR as a ‘living instrument’ and thereby properly taking the higher standards of the CRC into account, which has been ratified by all Member States of the Council of Europe (CoE). The recent publication of the Global Study might provide a welcome occasion for stimulating such a change of jurisprudence.
THE INTERRELATION BETWEEN THE RIGHTS TO PERSONAL LIBERTY AND PERSONAL INTEGRITY
The right to personal liberty and the right to personal integrity are two different human rights laid down in different provisions of international and regional human rights law.
This edition of the European Yearbook on Human Rights has been produced during an unprecedented global health crisis which has had economic, social and humanitarian dimensions, resulting in a severe impact on human rights. COVID-19 exposed the weaknesses of public healthcare systems and access thereto, prevailing structural inequalities and the fragility of the rule of law in times of emergency. Hate speech, fake news, the targeting of vulnerable groups, nationalism and populism have spread alongside the virus and pave the way for the adoption of repressive measures for purposes unrelated to the pandemic. Human rights appear as afterthoughts in the global pandemic rather than as the guiding principles for response and recovery measures. The crisis, however, did not disclose anything new. Instead, it revealed existing human rights protection gaps and exacerbated persistent shortcomings. The European Yearbook on Human Rights has always provided a platform to address contemporary human rights issues and identify weaknesses in the human rights protection system. Even though the topics had been selected well before the pandemic, they remain of great importance for the wider debate on the future of human rights protection in Europe both during and after the crisis.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) have ensured stability, security and peace in Europe over the last 70 years in a unique way. Therefore, this year's edition opens with a contribution from the former President of the ECtHR, Linos-Alexander Sicilianos, on ‘The European Convention on Human Rights at 70: The Dynamic of a Unique International Instrument’. In his contribution, he reflects on the dynamic the ECHR has developed over the years, creating its ‘extraordinary impetus for a protection of human rights’. However, the protection of human rights requires not only strong instruments but also effectively working institutions, and not just in times of crisis. In light of the pandemic, Katarzyna Gardapkhadze, First Deputy Director of the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), in her opinion piece, ‘On International Organisations and Responsible Leadership: A Snake Eating its Own Tail’, strikes a blow for the need for a new responsible leadership framework for international organisations rooted in strong moral values and being inclusive and people- centred in order to make international organisations become truly relevant and able to bring about the change they were founded for.
A Late Bronze Age hoard from Karmin, Poland, contained 16 socketed axes, half of which were made of copper. The copper axes represent the same local type as the bronze objects and bear the same traces of manufacturing and use. The authors argue that the move to copper was a response to unexpected difficulties in the tin supply.
The aim of this study was an assessment of the effects of urbanisation level, family size and parental education on body mass index (BMI) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) among Polish schoolchildren in cross-sectional surveys conducted between 1966 and 2012.
The analysis involved schoolchildren measured in four Polish Anthropological Surveys (1966, 1978, 1988 and 2012). Socio-economic factors involved: urbanisation level (city, town and village), family size (one child, two children, three children, four or more children), and father’s and mother’s education (lower and higher education).
Regions in Poland – cities: Warsaw, Lodz and Wroclaw; towns: Bystrzyca Klodzka, Pinczow, Siemiatycze, Wolsztyn and their rural surroundings.
A total sample consisted of 63 757 children (31 774 boys and 31 983 girls) aged 7–18 years.
Between 1966 and 1988, both BMI and MUAC had significantly higher values in children from cities, in families with one child and with higher parental education (P < 0·05). However, MUAC revealed significant differences between particular socio-economic groups more frequently than BMI. In 2012, urbanisation level and parental education ceased to show a differentiating effect on both indicators, while family size remained a significant social factor for both measures (BMI: P < 0·05; MUAC: P < 0·01).
Since MUAC reflected socio-economic differences more frequently than BMI, it could be a more sensitive and reliable anthropometric measure revealing the effects of socio-economic factors on children’s nutritional status.
Although sheep are known to be seasonal breeders and give birth in winter, not all of them follow this trend. A few breeds can be mated and give birth all year round, meaning that mothers and neonates will have to face contrasting climatic conditions. The aim of this study was to test whether lambing season affects maternal and neonatal behaviors in D’man sheep. During four different lambing seasons (winter, autumn, summer and spring), periparturient ewes (n = 111) and their lambs (n = 213) were kept under 24-h-video surveillance in order to record postpartum behaviors. Mother-young preference was tested around 48 h after parturition. Lamb vigor was studied by the determination of birth weight, early postnatal behavior and rectal temperature at birth and 48 h later. Litter expulsion time was not affected by lambing season, but birth weight was biased against summer and winter born lambs. Ewes provided a higher intensity of care to their offspring in winter: latency for grooming was shorter and time spent grooming was longer compared to lambing in spring and summer (P = 0.01 in all cases). On the other hand, lambs were the most active in spring as they were faster to extend their hind legs (P = 0.01), stand up (P = 0.04) and reach the udder (P = 0.04). Rectal temperature at 48 h was affected by season of birth (P < 0.001) with higher values observed in summer. Glycemia variation between birth and 48 h was the lowest in spring born lambs and plasma levels increased less in spring born lambs than in winter (P < 0.0001), autumn (P < 0.0001) and summer born lambs (P < 0.0001). In the choice test, mothers clearly preferred their own young and no season effect was detected except that in the first minute of the test they spent less time near their own young in winter than in the other seasons (P = 0.04). Lambs also chose their mother successfully without any major effect of the season however, but winter born lambs were the least vocal (P = 0.01). Overall, this study show that maternal care, lamb behavior and vigor vary lightly according to seasons, albeit not in a consistent manner. In conclusion, a season is no more detrimental than another for the onset of mother-young relationships.
The comparison of the effects of all forage offering methods would be particularly useful information in modeling growth performance and rumen fermentation of dairy calves. Therefore, this study attempted to evaluate the effects of methods of oat hay provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation and biochemical blood indices of dairy calves during preweaning and postweaning periods. At birth, 40 female Polish Holstein-Friesian calves (3 days of age; 39.6 ± 0.39 kg BW) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups differing in the access to chopped oat hay: CON (control, starter without oat hay), OH (starter feed containing 10% DM basis oat hay), OH-FC (starter feed containing 10% DM basis oat hay and oat hay fed as free-choice provision in different buckets) and FC (starter feed and oat hay fed as free-choice provision in different buckets). The calves were weaned on day 56, and then the study continued until day 84. Intakes of starter feed and oat hay were recorded daily, whereas BW and hip height (HH) on day 3 and then every 14 days. Samples of blood were collected on the initiation of experiment and then every 14 days, and rumen contents on day 28, 56 and 84. No treatment effects were found for starter, starch, CP, total DM intake, average daily gain, feeding efficiency, change in HH, ruminal fluid pH, concentrations of ruminal propionate and NH3-N, concentrations of urea nitrogen and non-esterified fatty acids in the blood. There were differences between treatments in terms of ruminal total volatile fatty acids and molar concentrations of acetate, butyrate and acetate to propionate ratio; highest in OH and OH-FC groups, especially during the postweaning period. On the other hand, lower concentrations of iso-valerate were found in OH and OH-FC groups on day 56 and 84. The concentrations of IGF-I throughout the experiment and β-hydroxybutyrate during the postweaning period in the blood were influenced by treatment, with the greatest values observed in OH and OH-FC calves. Results of this study indicate that starter feed containing chopped oat hay improves rumen fermentation parameters, which might allow successful transition from preruminant to mature ruminant state. Also, providing chopped oat hay with pelleted starter feed seems to be a better method than free-choice supplementation.