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The objective of this study was to understand the variables or study habits that inform study in undergraduate and postgraduate students attending Trinity College Dublin.
A descriptive, cross-sectional anonymous online survey was used to gather data to explore student study habits. Survey 1 was completed by participants in April 2019 and survey 2 was completed by participants in April 2020, during the COVID-19 restrictions.
A total of 1557 participants completed survey 1 in 2019, and 1793 participants completed survey 2 in 2020. In both surveys a majority reported using caffeine, library study, sleep pattern adjustment and excercise to aid academic performance. Survey 2 participants reported COVID-19 resulted in increased difficulty studying (91%). In particular loss of structure and routine was negatively impacted by the pandemic (92%), and increased feelings of stress were reported (75%).
Our study suggests a potential role of the college environment as a target for the implementation of interventions to promote student learning, healthy study habits and well-being. The global pandemic has resulted in additional challenging demands for universities to serve an essential role in supporting college students study habits.
Climate change presents a dire political problem. If we are unable to check carbon emissions, increasing temperatures could produce devastating effects around the globe. Effective global climate action requires international coordination; compliance with an international agreement, requires public support of climate policy; and public support of climate policy depends on individuals’ climate beliefs. How can experiments shed light on the political challenges involved in addressing climate change? This chapter examines experiments investigating climate beliefs, climate action, and climate coordination, focusing on what we have already learned and where experiments can usefully contribute more.
To examine the rates of antipsychotic prescribing in the Irish paediatric and young adult population enrolled in the Irish General Medical Services Scheme pharmacy claims database from the Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Services database, with a focus on age and sex differences. To examine concomitant prescribing of certain other related medicines in this population.
Data were obtained from the Irish General Medical Services (GMS) scheme pharmacy claims database from the Health Service Executive (HSE) – Primary Care Reimbursement Services (PCRS). Participants included children aged <16 years and youth aged 16–24 years availing of medicines under the HSE-PCRS GMS scheme between January 2005 and December 2015. Outcome measures included prescribing rates of antipsychotics from 2005 to 2015, differences in prescribing rates between different ages and sexes, and percentage of concomitant prescriptions for antidepressants, psychostimulants, anxiolytics and hypnosedatives.
Overall the trend in prescribing rates of antipsychotic medications was stable at 3.94/1000 in 2005 compared with 3.97/1000 in 2015 for children <16 years, and 48.37/1000 eligible population in 2005 compared to 39.64/1000 in 2015 for those aged 16–24. There was a significant decrease in prescribing rates for males in the 16–24 age group.
While rates of antipsychotic prescribing have decreased or remained stable over the timeframe of the study, we did find a significant proportion of this population were prescribed antipsychotics. This study also shows that co-prescribing of antidepressants increased and highlights the need for guidelines for antipsychotic prescribing in children and youth in terms of clinical indication, monitoring, co-prescribing and treatment duration.
When separation is a problem in binary dependent variable models, many researchers use Firth's penalized maximum likelihood in order to obtain finite estimates (Firth, 1993; Zorn, 2005; Rainey, 2016). In this paper, I show that this approach can lead to inferences in the opposite direction of the separation when the number of observations are sufficiently large and both the dependent and independent variables are rare events. As large datasets with rare events are frequently used in political science, such as dyadic data measuring interstate relations, a lack of awareness of this problem may lead to inferential issues. Simulations and an empirical illustration show that the use of independent “weakly-informative” prior distributions centered at zero, for example, the Cauchy prior suggested by Gelman et al. (2008), can avoid this issue. More generally, the results caution researchers to be aware of how the choice of prior interacts with the structure of their data, when estimating models in the presence of separation.
Although the term ‘tracheostomy’ simply means a hole entering the trachea, it can be usefully divided into tracheostomy (in which a hole is made between the anterior neck and the trachea, which remains otherwise intact) and laryngectomy (in which the larynx is removed and the trachea is joined to the neck as a blind-ending stoma). Both groups of patients have an increased risk of complications outside and within hospitals. Many of these are entirely avoidable by better knowledge and reliability of care. There is confusion about different types of tracheostomy and between management of complications of tracheostomy and laryngectomy stoma. There is a need for clear understanding of the differences and what represents good care of such patients and their airways. Complications include airway blockage and displacement. Harm may occur if airway emergencies are not managed promptly and in a structured manner. Standard operating procedures, algorithms and checklists have a role in improving reliability of care and approaches to emergencies. Recent evidence shows multidisciplinary teams using quality improvement principles can reduce complications, hasten decannulation and improve patient experience. The National Tracheostomy Safety Project and the Global Tracheostomy Collaborative have been established to improve education and safety of tracheostomy care.
Suffering can make sacred, so it may partly be nature, and not culture alone, that leads us to apprehend a sacred aspect in victims of oppression. Those who recognize this sacredness show piety—a special form of respect—toward members of oppressed groups. The result is a system of social constructions often dismissed as “identity politics.” This essay starts with an analysis of the intentionality of piety and sacredness and how they relate to suffering, sacrifice, sanctions, pollution, and purification. It then argues that the sacralization of oppressed groups is an expression of the perennial human disposition to acknowledge sacredness and to respond piously. The essay then analyzes this sacred status as socially constructed. Based on the sacred-making (that is, “sacrificial”) power of suffering, the sacred status elicits piety, gives its bearers special authority, surrounds them with sanctions, and calls for symbolic sacrificial punishments of the impious. By dissecting sacrificial politics as a system of social constructions, we see that, although the oppressed groups are made sacred, certain people in the oppressor groups—“the Pious”—continue to exercise fundamental power. This essay, by displaying the inner logic of this cultural phenomenon, helps us both to sympathize with and to critique the system and then to pose questions about what good or bad the system might be doing.
The ‘16Up’ study conducted at the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute from January 2014 to December 2018 aimed to examine the physical and mental health of young Australian twins aged 16−18 years (N = 876; 371 twin pairs and 18 triplet sets). Measurements included online questionnaires covering physical and mental health as well as information and communication technology (ICT) use, actigraphy, sleep diaries and hair samples to determine cortisol concentrations. Study participants generally rated themselves as being in good physical (79%) and mental (73%) health and reported lower rates of psychological distress and exposure to alcohol, tobacco products or other substances than previously reported for this age group in the Australian population. Daily or near-daily online activity was almost universal among study participants, with no differences noted between males and females in terms of frequency or duration of internet access. Patterns of ICT use in this sample indicated that the respondents were more likely to use online information sources for researching physical health issues than for mental health or substance use issues, and that they generally reported partial levels of satisfaction with the mental health information they found online. This suggests that internet-based mental health resources can be readily accessed by adolescent Australians, and their computer literacy augurs well for future access to online health resources. In combination with other data collected as part of the ongoing Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study, the 16Up project provides a valuable resource for the longitudinal investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation in a variety of human traits.
Treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) is imprecise and often involves trial-and-error to determine the most effective approach. To facilitate optimal treatment selection and inform timely adjustment, the current study investigated whether neurocognitive variables could predict an antidepressant response in a treatment-specific manner.
In the two-stage Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response for Clinical Care (EMBARC) trial, outpatients with non-psychotic recurrent MDD were first randomized to an 8-week course of sertraline selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or placebo. Behavioral measures of reward responsiveness, cognitive control, verbal fluency, psychomotor, and cognitive processing speeds were collected at baseline and week 1. Treatment responders then continued on another 8-week course of the same medication, whereas non-responders to sertraline or placebo were crossed-over under double-blinded conditions to bupropion noradrenaline/dopamine reuptake inhibitor or sertraline, respectively. Hamilton Rating for Depression scores were also assessed at baseline, weeks 8, and 16.
Greater improvements in psychomotor and cognitive processing speeds within the first week, as well as better pretreatment performance in these domains, were specifically associated with higher likelihood of response to placebo. Moreover, better reward responsiveness, poorer cognitive control and greater verbal fluency were associated with greater likelihood of response to bupropion in patients who previously failed to respond to sertraline.
These exploratory results warrant further scrutiny, but demonstrate that quick and non-invasive behavioral tests may have substantial clinical value in predicting antidepressant treatment response.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Another barrier to remedy for victims of human rights abuses is that courts may lack jurisdiction over the defendant in the case. As a threshold matter, for a court to adjudicate a case, it must have jurisdiction over the person who is the defendant, known as in personam jurisdiction, or personal jurisdiction. Almost always a court will have personal jurisdiction over an entity (a parent, subsidiary, or other entity) if it is domiciled or incorporated in the court’s country. Thus, if a victim of a human rights abuse can bring a claim against the corporate entity involved the harm in the country where the victim lives and the harm occurs, because the entity is domiciled or headquartered there, personal jurisdiction usually exists and will not typically pose a barrier to remedy. Similarly, if a victim is able to bring a claim for extraterritorial harm against the parent company in the parent company’s domicile or country where they are headquartered (either because they can “pierce the corporate veil” or because of the availability of an alternative theory allowing the victim to sue the parent), personal jurisdiction typically will not present a problem. Unfortunately, and as discussed above, in the high-risk countries and industries where human rights abuses take place, these situations are comparatively rare. Either the host country does not permit the cause of action, or there is no ability to pierce the corporate veil, or there is another barrier to suit. However, where a victim attempts to sue an entity, whether a parent, subsidiary or other entity, in a country that allows a cause of action for the harm but is not the country of legal domicile, personal jurisdiction may pose an insurmountable obstacle. For example, due to barriers in their own country, a victim might try to seek damages against an offending entity, such as a subsidiary, in the country where its parent is located; similarly, a victim may try to seek damages against a parent company that was involved in the abuse where it conducts substantial business, has offices, or operates through a subsidiary or subsidiaries. It is in these situations, where the country may well provide a cause of action that would allow the victim to bring a claim, that courts might find they do not have personal jurisdiction over the proposed defendant entity, and thus cannot adjudicate the case.
There are multiple obstacles to accessing judicial remedies for transnational harms, all of which combine to make access to justice for victims of human rights violations by TNCs exceptionally difficult and frequently impossible. The twin principles of separate legal personality and limited liability, together with limitations on extraterritorial jurisdiction and the evidentiary burdens of bringing a claim, are major barriers that victims encounter. While each issue plays an important role in denying victims a chance of obtaining access to remedy, the complex corporate structures that characterize the organization of modern business are at the heart of these obstacles. In the absence of legislation clarifying standards for parent company liability, victims face an enormous challenge to demonstrate how a parent company of a multinational enterprise, domiciled in the home state, bears responsibility for the harm carried out by its subsidiary in the host state.
The number of transnational corporations - including parent companies and subsidiaries - has exploded over the last forty years, which has led to a correlating rise of corporate violations of international human rights and environmental laws, either directly or in conjunction with government security forces, local police, state-run businesses, or other businesses. In this work, Gwynne Skinner details the harms of business-related human rights violations on local communities and describes the barriers, both functional and institutional, that victims face in seeking remedies. She concludes by offering solutions to these barriers, with a focus on measures designed to improve judicial remedies, which are the heart of international human rights law but often fail to deliver justice to victims. This work should be read by anyone concerned with the role of corporations in our increasingly globalized society.