The abundance of weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the soil seedbank was estimated in 2011 in Italian rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields with different histories of imidazolinone-resistant Clearfield® rice varieties (CL), non-Clearfield® varieties (NCL), and planting methods. A model was used to predict weedy rice seedbank dynamics over time under different control strategies. Soil samples were taken from 50 rice fields cultivated with CL varieties consecutively for 0, 1, 2, or 3 yr, and weedy rice seedbank data were used in a model considering eight scenarios: (A) rice monoculture with CL and NCL varieties in alternate years; (B) 2 yr of CL, followed by 1 yr with NCL; (C) 3 yr of CL followed by 1 yr of NCL; (D) rice monoculture with only CL; (E) rice monoculture with only NCL; (F) 2 yr of CL followed by 1 yr of rotation with another crop (CR), and then by an additional year with NCL; (G) 1 yr of CR followed by 2 yr of CL, and then by 1 yr of NCL; (H) 2 yr of CR followed by 2 yr of CL. The weedy rice seedbank exceeded 1,000 seeds m−2 in the surveyed fields with no significant differences between rice planting methods. Highest densities were found in fields cultivated for 1 yr with CL varieties. Simulations indicated that where CL varieties were used in rice monoculture, the susceptible weedy rice seedbank was gradually reduced, producing a depletion after 17, 13, 11, and 9 yr in scenarios A, B, C, and D, respectively. The weedy rice seedbank increased in NCL monoculture (E) and declined significantly in crop rotation scenarios (F, G, H). The simulations indicated that the introduction of crop rotation is crucial for obtaining a relatively fast reduction of weedy rice seedbank and delaying the evolution of herbicide-resistant populations.