Published online by Cambridge University Press: 29 March 2019
Multiple resistance to glyphosate, sethoxydim, and paraquat was previously confirmed in two Italian ryegrass [Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] populations, MR1 and MR2, in northern California. Preliminary greenhouse studies revealed that both populations were also resistant to imazamox and mesosulfuron, both of which are acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. In this study, three subpopulations, MR1-A (from seed of MR1 plants that survived a 16X rate of sethoxydim), MR1-P (from seed of MR1 plants that survived a 2X rate of paraquat), and MR2 (from seed of MR2 plants that survived a 16X rate of sethoxydim), were investigated to determine the resistance level to imazamox and mesosulfuron, evaluate other herbicide options for the control of these multiple resistant L. perenne ssp. multiflorum, and characterize the underlying ALS-inhibitor resistance mechanism(s). Based on LD50 values, the MR1-A, MR1-P, and MR2 subpopulations were 38-, 29-, 8-fold and 36-, 64-, and 3-fold less sensitive to imazamox and mesosulfuron, respectively, relative to the susceptible (Sus) population. Only MR1-P and MR2 plants were cross-resistant to rimsulfuron, whereas both MR1 subpopulations were cross-resistant to imazethapyr. Pinoxaden (ACCase inhibitor [phenylpyrazoline 'DEN']) only controlled MR2 and Sus plants at the labeled field rate. However, all plants were effectively controlled (>99%) with the labeled field rate of glufosinate. Based on I50 values, MR1-A, MR-P, and MR2 plants were 712-, 1,104-, and 3-fold and 10-, 18-, and 5-fold less responsive to mesosulfuron and imazamox, respectively, than the Sus plants. Sequence alignment of the ALS gene of resistant plants revealed a missense single-nucleotide polymorphism resulting in a Trp-574-Leu substitution in MR1-A and MR1-P plants, heterozygous in both, but not in the MR2 plants. An additional homozygous substitution, Asp-376-Glu, was identified in the MR1-A plants. Addition of malathion or piperonyl butoxide did not alter the efficacy of mesosulfuron on MR2 plants. In addition, the presence of 2,4-D had no effect on the response of mesosulfuron on the MR2 and Sus. These results suggest an altered target site is the mechanism of resistance to ALS inhibitors in MR1-A and MR1-P plants, whereas a non–target site based resistance apparatus is present in the MR2 plants.