This is a follow up study of twins within the Stockholm area, including 32 families and their twins attending grade nine. The twins have been followed from birth to 16 years of age. The main purpose of this study from its inception was to assess mental and cognitive development at different ages. Another aim was to see how the twins who were born prematurely are developing during the school ages. A third aim has been to gain a deeper insight into the relationship between co-twins and the development of their identities, which is the focus of this paper. Several ability tests have been used, as well as questionnaires about interests, attitudes toward school, and leisure activities. At the 16-year follow-up, a psychological method, the Wartegg drawing test, designed to examine identity, ego strength, dependency, ambition, anxiety, willpower, creativity, empathy and coping strategies has been used. The results indicate that it is difficult for twins to develop independence and a positive identity, as they have to emancipate themselves both from their parents and from their co-twins. Some differences in identity, anxiety and ambition were observed between female and male twins, MZ and DZ twins, preterm and fullterm twins. Prematurity, sex and zygosity no longer had any relation to cognitive development at 16 years of age.