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The Journal of William Schellinks' Travels in England

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 October 2009

Extract

On the 14th July at 7 o'clock in the morning I went by boat with Monsr Jaques Thierry and Madame his wife and Mr. Jacobi his son from Amsterdam to Haarlem, and came at 10 o'clock to the pleasant homestead of Mr. Rombouts called Westerhout. Having refreshed ourselves we walked from there with Mr. Rombouts, Mr. Grotius, Monsr Jacob van Rijn, and Monsr R. Block to the Leiden canal, where we found Mr. Rombouts's very elegant pleasure yacht ready, with silken flags flying from mast and stern, and well provided with all kinds of special delicacies and drinks, fruit and other things in plenty. The draught horse was harnessed, and we started off through Leiden, and went with Mr. Rombouts and some of the party to his country house at Zoeterwoude. There we refreshed ourselves and then went by waggon to the canal, where the yacht with the rest of the company awaited us. We sailed on to 's Gravenhage, arrived there at 10 o'clock in the evening, and stayed the night with Mr. van Streijen.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Royal Historical Society 1993

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References

1 Damlooper, a flat bottomed boat, suitable for dragging over a dam.

2 Up to this point the two MSS differ greatly, the Copenhagen MS giving more personal information, which is included here.

3 Goring: Earl of Norwich (1608–57), and Sir Charles Lucas (1613–48), served in the Royalist army in the Civil War. On the surrender of Colchester in 1648 they were both taken; Lucas was court martialled and shot in Colchester Castle, Lord Norwich was tried by his peers, condemned, but later pardoned (DNB).

4 New Hall, Elizabethan mansion (on the site of a Tudor house of Henry VIII) near Boreham, now a school. (Pevsner, BoE, Essex).

5 Prevoor, parvoor, paravoor, a small rowing boat with two oarsmen, frequently referred to by Schellinks and defined later. See text-note 40.

6 The drawing of this view is in the British Museum. Croft-Murray, Edward and Hulton, Paul, Catalogue of British Drawings at the British Museum, London 1960Google Scholar (Referred to as ECM) i, 573.

7 Maarsen and Breukelen, two places near Utrecht on the river Vecht, a small river, so the ferryboats would be of modest size.

8 The royal bride Catherine of Braganza; she finally arrived in Portsmouth in May 1662, and at Hampton Court on 8 June 1662, see below.

9 Schellinks describes the culture of oysters in Essex in detail on 19 Oct. 1662, see text-note 213.

10 The game they saw being played seems to be a form of Prisoner's Base, see e.g. Strutt, Joseph, The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England. New edn. 1969, pp. 6769Google ScholarIona, and Opie, Peter, Childrens Games in Streets and Playgrounds, 1969, pp. 143–6Google Scholar.

There is a sketch along the bottom of the relevant Copenhagen manuscript page, showing positions A and B and many running figures.

11 There is no figure given in the Copenhagen MS; the distance is about 80 English miles. Schellinks generally uses English miles; he roughly defines a Dutch mile of the urne on 21 Aug. 1662 as 4 to 5 Dutch miles to 12 English miles.

12 Naarden, ancient fortified town in the ‘Gooi’, east of Amsterdam.

13 The inscription copied by Schellinks differs slightly in spelling from that quoted in R.A. Brown's Guidebook of Dover Castle, 1966Google Scholar, for ‘Queen Elizabeth's Pocket Pistol’, where it is translated as: ‘Breaker my name of rampart and wall,

Over hill and dale I throw my ball’.

14 Charles II landed at Dover from Holland on his Restoration, arriving on 25 May 1660 old style (o.s.).

15 Henry Howard, earl of Northampton (1540–1614) was Warden of the Cinque Ports, buried in the chapel of Dover Castle. The monument erected on his grave was removed in 1696 to the chapel of the College of Greenwich (DNB).

16 Arnold Braems (1602–81), descendant of a Flemish refugee, Dover merchant active in the development of Dover harbour, owner of wharves and warehouses, was a fervent Royalist who joined Prince Rupert's fleet with his own ship. He was instrumental at the Restoration in ensuring Lawson's fleet came over to the King.

In 1660 he was knighted by the King (who was on his way to London) at Canterbury, and for a short time he was M.P. for Dover. He bought the manor of Blackmanbury at Bridge near Canterbury and built there a mansion, described by Schellinks on 12 Sept. 1661. His son, Walter, mentioned by Schellinks, succeeded him at Bridge, which was sold by his descendants in 1704. See Wm. Minet, ‘Some unpublished plans of Dover harbour’, Archaeologia lxxii (19211822), 185224Google Scholar, a reference owed to Mrs P.M. Godfrey, Dover Libraries. See also Henning, B.D., The House of Commons, 1660–1690, 3 vols. 1983, iii, 707Google Scholar (with references to State papers) and The Visitations of Kent in 1663–1668, p. 24.Google Scholar

17 ‘Straits’ ships traded with the Mediterranean countries through the Straits of Gibraltar.

18 Sir John Mennes, comptroller of the Navy Nov. 1661–71, frequently mentioned by Pepys.

19 Prince Johan (Jan) Maurits of Nassau-Siegen, in England as ambassador of the Elector of Brandenburg, to discuss the guardianship and education of the ten years old orphaned Prince William of Orange, the future King William III of England, whose mother Mary, a sister of King Charles II, had just died; the Elector of Brandenburg's wife was a sister of prince Willem's father (Bittner, L. and Grosz, L., Repertorium der diplomatischen Vertreter aller Länder, Oldenburg/Berlin (1936)Google Scholar, and Rijks Geschiedkundige Publ. XXVIII, letter of Constantine Huijgens to Sir Edward Nicholas, 1 04 1661)Google Scholar.

Jan Maurits (1604–79), a nephew of Willem the Silent was a soldier and naval commander, governor of Brazil for the Dutch West Indies Company, etc., since 1647 also in Brandenburg diplomatic service. Founder of the Maurits House and art collection at the Hague.

20 The Royal Sovereign, built 1637, see Pepys, ii, 1516.Google Scholar

21 This refers to the Tudor Palace of Placentia, mainly of Henry VII's time. It was badly neglected during the Commonwealth and its demolition was about to start; Evelyn reports on 19 October 1661 o.s. being consulted on the siting of its replacement, and on 24 January 1662 says ‘His Majesty entertained me with his intentions of building his Palace of Greenwich and quite demolishing the old one, on which I declared my thoughts.’ See Pevsner-Cherry, BoE., London South and note 216 below.

22 Horn Stairs and Cuckolds Point are still to be found in Rotherhithe. For the legend of Cuckolds Point and its flagpole see The Diary of Henry Machin (from 1550 to 1563), Camden Society xlii (1848).

23 First Dutch war (1652–4); see Introduction note 12.

24 Hugh Peters (1598–1660), Commonwealth preacher, who, after the Restoration, was condemned for allegedly plotting with Cromwell for the execution of Charles I. Hanged at Charing Cross in October 1660 (DNB).

25 For the office of Lion Keeper see Strype's 1720 edition of Stow's Survey of London, p. 118Google Scholar, and Howel, 's Londinopolis (1657), p. 24.Google Scholar

26 Mrs Sarah Barter-Bailey, librarian of the Royal Armories, has kindly compared Schellinks's description with contemporary inventories and thereby enabled us to identify some armour and locations described, and also several personalities, whose names are grossly misspelled in the MSS. The correct spelling is given where identified. It seems that Schellinks's tour started in the ‘small gun office’, where some curiosities were at the time included amongst new arms. He ends his tour in ‘a room full of pikes’. These were kept at the time in ‘the long storehouse’, which was partly behind the chapel, which would explain the comment that he ‘saw the chapel through a window’.

27 The Swansdown Coverlet covering the codpiece can be seen on some contemporary portraits of Henry VIII.

28 Schellinks says here ‘Duke of Gloucester’, but the contemporary inventories (note 26) prove this to be that of the Earl of Leicester.

29 ‘Lord’ de Courcy, the conqueror of Ulster (d.c.1219), was at one time imprisoned in the Tower. His exploits and great strength were legendary (see e.g. Fuller's Worthies of England, Somerset). Fuller's tale differs substantially from the one hinted at by Schellinks. In the eighteenth century Lord de Courcy's armour was shown in the Tower armoury with ‘the very sword he took from the Champion of France’. See DNB and note 26 above.

30 See Schellinks's description of his visit to the Royal Mint on 28 March 1663.

31 Wrestling was apparently between contenders from Devon and Cornwall (the West) and Cumberland (the North). See Strutt, Sports and Pastimes, pp. 6973Google ScholarPepys, ii, 127Google Scholar. The Vinegar was a fellow who made the ring and kept order (OED). Fencing and prize fighting using various weapons, often with bloody results, is mentioned by Pepys several times.

32 The building described burned down in the great fire of 1666. The list below is as in Copenhagen MS; the Bodlerian MS differs slightly. Like the following Latin, neither is entirely accurate.

33 Refers to Christ's Hospital, founded 1553 as a home for orphans and poor children. The boys’ school moved to Horsham in 1902, where they wear the uniform described (EoL).

34 Erected for the coronation of Charles II, 23 April 1661 o.s. Some of these were blown down in the storm on 28 February 1662 (see note 74 below).

35 The New Exchange opened in 1609: a shopping arcade with sleeping accommodation above, near the Adelphi. Pepys went shopping there several times (see Pepys iv, 100 and vii, 70 etc.).

36 Charing Cross: Parliament ordered its destruction in 1643, the actual demolition took place in 1647 (EoL)

37 Much of what follows, describing the ancient history of Westminster Abbey and London Bridge, comes from Stow's Survey of London, first published 1598.

38 Northampton House, later Northumberland House, completed in 1605, demolished to make way for Northumberland Avenue c. 1873 (EoL).

39 York House or Buckingham House: between Charing Cross and the river, let in 1661 to the Spanish ambassador, according to EoL. This and most of the buildings, wharves and streets mentioned can be found in EoL.

40 Schellinks here defines a type of craft, seen in contemporary illustrations, used on the Thames for passenger transport. He variously spells it as prevoor, parvoor, or paravoor.

41 Londinopolis; Schellinks seems to have mixed up here Stow's Survey (see note 25) and Howel, James's Londinopolis, an Historical Discourse of the City of London, 1657.Google Scholar

42 Schellinks and Thierry later bought horses here for their journey to the west country, see below, 30 June 1662.

43 There is a small sketch at the bottom corner of the Copenhagen MS page, where Lincoln's Inn is described, showing one of the entrance gates with stone pillars.

44 Inigo Jones's famous Piazza and St. Paul's Church, Covent Garden, were built in the 1630s.

45 The effigies in Purbeck marble in Temple Church were badly damaged in the last war, but have been restored. Pevsner-Cherry, BoE. London I, lists these. The idea that those with their legs crossed had been on a crusade to the Holy Land, and Schellinks's explanation that the custom arose to distinguish them from Turks and Jews, does not have any foundation in fact.

46 New Spring Gardens, later better known as Vauxhall Gardens, laid out after the restoration. Visited by Evelyn on 2 July 1661, and by Pepys, who went to both the Old and the New Spring Gardens in May 1662 (Pepys, iii, 95).Google Scholar

47 Blind Beggar's House, also called Bednall House or Kirby's Castle, at Bethnal Green, an Elizabethan mansion. Shown on Rocque's map of 1760. Pepys admired the house, and dined there in June 1663 with Sir William Rider, and stored his valuables there during the fire of London. (Pepys iv, 200; vii, 272). For the legend and ballad of the ‘Blind beggar of Bednall Green’ see Child, F.J., English and Scottish Ballads iv (1857), 161.Google Scholar

48 Sir Edward Walker (1612–77), Garter King of Arms (DNB); Pepys i, 160, vii, 410 etc.

49 Sir John Robartes, Lord Privy Seal (1661–73), lived at Danvers House, Chelsea (DNB); Pepys ii, 149 etc.

50 The Bodleian MS reads ‘Court of War’. Stow does not mention such an office in his description of Westminster Hall but includes all others referred to by Schellinks. The Copenhagen MS does not include these words, ending at ‘Chancery’. See Stow, John, The Survey of London, 1603 (Everyman's Library edn. 1987, pp. 416–8).Google Scholar

51 Mary, Queen of Scots developed her passion for embroidery during her years of confinement in various castles. The piece Schellinks described has not been traced. See Fraser, Antonia, Mary Queen of Scots, 1969, p. 412.Google Scholar

52 Probably Jacob Lucie, an important merchant of Flemish descent, Alderman, London 1683–7, Deputy Governor, Royal Africa Company, 1684–5. See Pepys, ii 66; x. 236; Woodhead, J.R., The Rulers of London, 1660–89 (London and Middlesex Arch. Soc., 1965).Google Scholar

53 The French Church had in that year moved into the chancel of the original Savoy Chapel. A translation of the Book of Common Prayer was used (see Pepys, iii, 207).Google Scholar

54 Mr. Jan Thierry, cousin of young Jaques Thierry, Schellinks' companion. For the activities of the Thierrys at the High Court of Admiralty see Introduction iii.Google Scholar

55 Schellinks uses the English word ‘Alderman’, however no record has been found of any Thierry having been proposed or appointed an alderman of the City. According to the minutes book of the Weavers' Company James Therry paid on 30 September 1661 o.s. his subscription and a £5 donation on his admission to the livery.

56 Edward, second marquis of Worcester, had leased Vauxhall Manor (on the riverside, near Spring gardens) from the Crown, where he carried out his mechanical and hydraulical experiments, assisted by Caspar Kaltoff, a ‘practical working engineer or machinist, stated to be a Dutchman’ (Dircks, H., The Life, Times, and Scientific Labours of the second Marquis of Worcester, London 1865Google Scholar, and Survey of London xxiii (Lambeth, 1951)Google Scholar, part 1, 418 and appendix G).

57 He uses the term ‘ordinary’, an eating house, where meals were provided at a fixed price.

58 John Tradescant (d.1638) and his son John (1608–62) amassed a large collection of naturalia and other curiosa at their home in Lambeth, which was accessible to the public on payment of an admission fee. These were inherited by Elias Ashmole and transferred by him to Oxford, where they formed the foundation of the Ashmolean Museum. The tomb of John Ashmole the Elder is at St Mary's Church, Lambeth (see ‘Ark to Ashmolean’, Ashmolean Museum and Tradescant Trust).

59 The Lord Mayor installed in 1661 was Sir John Frederick. See Tatham, John, London's Tryumphs … in honour of … Sr. John Frederick, London: Thomas Mabb 1662Google Scholar, which describes the ceremonies of 1661. Flesher, J., The order of my Lard Mayor, the aldermen and the sheriffs…, 1656Google Scholar, laid down procedures for formal occasions. Schellinks may have used these sources for his accurate description, cf. note 220.

60 The MSS leave a blank here. The description is completed by reference to the sources quoted in note 59. Foyns = beech marten. Budge = lambskin dressed with the wool outside.

61 This barge can clearly be seen in the ‘Aqua Triumphalis’ print, showing the arrival of the King and Queen at Whitehall on 23 August 1662.

62 Baynard's Castle, a medieval castle, last rebuilt by Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, which stood near the present City of London School. Leased to the Earl of Pembroke at the time (Pepys, i, 178Google Scholar and EoL).

63 Evelyn reports on 1 January 1661/2 O.S. being ‘invited to the solemn foolery of the Prince de la Grange at Lincoln's Inn’ and adds ‘One Mr. Lort was the young spark who maintained the pageantry.’

64 Bedlam, a corruption of Bethlehem, originally a priory of St. Mary of Bethlehem, situated just outside Bishop's Gate. Since the fourteenth century used as a lunatic asylum, commonly visited by sightseers. Moved to Moorfields in 1676 (EoL).

65 Charterhouse Hospital for old gentlemen, and a school set up in 1661. The school moved to Godalming in 1872 (EoL).

66 Artillery Gardens was off Pettycoat Lane. The ward, for which Thierry had sent over a signboard might have been Bishop's Gate Without (EoL).

67 The start of Hilary Law Term.

68 They were members of the tribunal condemning Charles I, but did not sign the death warrant, so their lives were spared, but they were condemned to this annual penance in 1661 (see Pepys, iii, 19).Google Scholar

69 Bridewell Hospital at the time was a house of correction, where punishment was meted out in public. Orphans and young criminals were trained there for various occupation (EoL).

70 Schellinks went there on 6 December 1661.

71 The King's Evil, scrofula, was supposed to be cured by the touch of a King; the ceremony was revived after the Restoration (Pepys, i, 182; ii, 74).Google Scholar

72 The game of ‘Throwing at Cocks’ was considered a fair sport in the time of Henry VIII and James I and continued well into the eighteenth century. The duke of Newcastle recommended the game ‘Thrashing of hens’ at Shrove Tuesday to Charles II as ‘one of the divertisements to amuse the people's thoughts and keep them in harmless action’. See Thirsk, Joan, The Restoration, 1976, p. 184Google Scholar, and also Bartlett, VernonThe Past of PastimesGoogle Scholar; Strutt, , Sport and Pastimes, p. 292.Google Scholar

73 Both Pepys and his wife took St Valentine's day seriously, arranging the first person to be met to be a desirable Valentine. (Pepys, iii, 28–9Google Scholar and other years on 14th February).

74 ‘Windy Tuesday’: ‘perhaps the worst storm between 1362 and 1703’ (Pepys iii, 32 (footnote) and note 34 above.

75 The mint at this time was in the Tower. Schellinks gives a detailed description of it on 28 March 1663.

76 Spital sermons were preached annually in the open until 1642, revived at the Restoration; only the Lord Mayor and aldermen sat under cover. Pepys went to listen to the sermon two days later, but got bored (EoL and Pepys iii, 57–8). The drawing is not with the MS.

77 Lady Ramsey, wife of Sir Thomas Ramsey, Lord Mayor 1577, left various endowments in her will dated 12 January 1596 to a number of charities (Endowed Charities, 32; vi, 102).Google Scholar

78 Andrea Mantegna (1431–1506), Italian painter, whose series of nine large cartoons on ‘The Triumph of Caesar’ were bought by Charles I in 1627. These are now at Hampton Court in the Orangery. They were apparently borrowed to copy them as tapestries at Mortlake (June Osborne, Hampton Court Palace, 1984Google Scholar; Jones, Mary Eirwen, British and American Tapestries, 1952Google Scholar. Bénézit, E., Dictionnaire des Peintres, 1976 ed.)Google Scholar

79 See 7 June to 14 June 1662 below.

80 The Round Tower was built in 1343, David II of Scotland was imprisoned there in 1346, Jean II of France in 1356 (DNB).

81 The order of the names is the same as on the face of the map of Berkshire in John Speed's Theatre of the Empire, 1611; see also Holmes, Grace, Order of the Garter, 1348 to 1984, Windsor 1984.Google Scholar

82 The three regicides, who had signed the death warrant of Charles I, had fled to Holland, but were arrested there and brought to trial in England (Pepys iii, 45 and 66–7). The drama of their arrest in The Hague in March 1662, took place while Schellinks was in England. See Beresford, John, The Godfather of Downing Street, 1925, p. 141.Google Scholar

83 Coronation of Charles II, 23 April 1661 o.s. (Pepys ii, 83–8).

84 The five were accused, as stated, of having murdered the Stoke Newington tanner on 18/28 April 1662. They were charged with manslaughter, but later acquitted (Pepys iii, 34–6).

85 This is taken from the Copenhagen MS. The Bodleian version says: ‘In this place the first King Athelstan, being a Dane, was smitten to death in the middle of a wassail in the year 1037 or 1038’. However, according to DNB, Canute died 1035 at Marlborough, and Athelstane, a Saxon King, died in 940. Hardecanute, a son of Canute, died suddenly during a wedding feast of one of his thegns at Westminster in 1042.

86 Pall-Mall, a game somewhat similar to croquet.

87 The description of this ceremony of ‘Beating the Bounds’, which appears in the Bodleian MS in the text, is, in the Copenhagen MS, written on both sides of an unnumbered insert.

88 Catherine of Braganza. See 8 June below for her arrival at Hampton Court.

89 On his earlier Journey in France in 1646 Schellinks had seen the giant antlers in the church at Amboise (see Van den Berg, , Introduction iv, above p. 16 note 65).Google Scholar

90 The ‘straight and circular avenues’ were there in an eighteenth-century drawing of Hampton Court by Leonard Knijff. The gardens were reconstructed, only the maze survives (Osborn, note 78 above).

91 Schellinks's drawing of the Epsom Well (c.46 × 142cm, c.18″ × 56″), is incorporated in the Van der Hem Atlas, now in Vienna. See above Introduction ii.

92 The arrival of the Queen, Catherine of Braganza. She had arrived at Portsmouth from Portugal on 24 May 1662, when Schellinks reports bell ringing and bonfires. On 29 May he reports the departure of the King for Portsmouth to welcome her.

93 After his exile Charles II arrived from Holland at Dover on 25 May 1660 o.s. (4 June n.s.), and entered London four days later, on 29 May, his birthday (see Pepys i, 157–8 for his arrival at Dover, Evelyn i, 341 for his entry into London).

94 Richard Allestree (1619–81), Royalist divine, who maintained contact with Charles II during his exile; after the restoration he became Canon of Christ Church, Oxford, and later a chaplain in ordinary to the King, and Provost of Eton (DNB); see 9 July 1662 below.

95 Lord Berkeley's house, the Durdans, Epsom, which must have been a substantial establishment at the time, since Charles II dined there on 1 September 1662 with his family and ‘an abundance of noblemen’, see Evelyn, , 1 09 1662Google Scholar. The house was later rebuilt in about 1682 using some materials from the demolished Nonsuch Palace. This house burnt down soon after and was rebuilt again immediately.

96 Sir Henry Vane, a republican, was treasurer of the Navy during the Commonwealth; he was executed on 24 June, but in a less barbarous way than the sentence reads: he was beheaded. The editor of Pepys's Diary says that he was reckoned to be too dangerous to live (Pepys, iii, 103–4 and 108–9Google Scholar). Major General Lambert was also a republican.

97 The Old Library of St. John's College (c. 1596). The New Library, adjacent, was added by Archbishop Laud (1573–1645) as part of the Canterbury Quadrangle in 1631–6 and is now known as the Laudian Library. This still has some of the items mentioned by Schellinks, including the portrait of King Charles I, also noted by Celia Tiennes some thirty years later. The writing has sadly faded. The two globes have been replaced. The two skeletons have been removed, but are shown on a drawing, reproduced in Colvin, H.M., The Canterbury Quadrangle, Oxford, 1988Google Scholar. Laud's bust now stands in the staircase, one of his bookcases at the far end (Information kindly supplied by Miss Angela Williams, Assistant Librarian).

The ‘Public library’, which Schellinks visits later, is now known as Duke Humphrey's Library at the Bodleian, still reached by a square winding staircase.

98 Jacob Bobart the elder (1599–1680) born in Brunswick, botanist, (DNB); a copy of his Catalogue of Plants in the Physic Garden in Oxford, 1648, is in the Bodleian Library.

99 Roger Bacon (c.1214?–g4) Franciscan friar, philosopher, experimented in many branches of science, and gained a reputation as a wonder worker, imprisoned in Paris and later in Oxford for his heretical writings (DNB). Friar Bacon's Tower is shown on South Bridge on the plan of early Oxford in Anthony Wood's Antiquities of the City of Oxford (first published 1675, new edn. by Andrew Clark, 1889) but the location described by Schellinks seems to be Osney Bridge and Botley Causeway,

100 The date of Wolsey's humiliation was 1529.

101 Holywell Mill, Middlee, Aristotle Well, and Holywell are shown on the plan referred to in note 99. Middlee, or Medley, mentioned in George Wither's contemporary poem ‘I loved a Lass’ (‘In summer time to Medley, my love and I would go’). Brouwmen's Well or Aristotle: called after Bruman le Rich or de Walton; ‘frequented by our peripatetics’ (Wood, , Antiquities of Oxford).Google Scholar

102 The printed publication on Oxford, is The Foundation of the Universitie of Oxford by Gerard Langbaine, London, 1651.Google Scholar

103 Better known as Robert, duke of Normandy, d.1134.

104 Osric mistakenly described as a Saxon King, he was Prince of Mercia.

105 Local lore, harts are the badge of Richard II.

106 General Lawrence Crawford, son of Hugo Crawford, killed at the siege of Hereford 1645. The tomb was removed at the Restoration.

107 This tomb in the south aisle was ascribed to Humphrey de Bohun, Constable of England, whose tomb, however, is at the Abbey of Walden. His son-in-law was Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, Constable of England, d.1397, who was succeeded as Constable by his nephew, Edward, duke of York, d.1415. The present attribution to Sir John Brydges, d.1437, is doubtful. See Bristol & Glos. Archæol. Soc. xxvii (1904), 299Google Scholar. Schellinks's note seems to indicate the Bohun connection.

108 The paucity of books in the library was not due to the war; the library had only been installed in 1656, during the Commonwealth (Information for notes 103–108 kindly supplied by Canon David Welander, Gloucester).

109 Probably Alvin Gate, mentioned in Rudder, Samuel's History and Antiquities of Gloucester (1781), p. 513.Google Scholar

110 These can be seen on Speed's map of 1610. See also Antiquaries Journal liv (1974), 46.Google Scholar

111 The Latin version given is that of the Copenhagen MS. Rudder, pp. 33–4, writes: ‘there was lately a pillar on the great key made of timber, and the following inscription engraven on a brass plate, at the top of it, about two foot diameter.

1650, Qui feliciter optat Civitati Glevensi,

non ut Herculeam Colummam, sed perpucillam.

Hoc pignus amoris est gratitudinis.

In the middle are these arms: On a cheveron three roses, and on a canton an Ulster, to denote they belonged to a baronet.

112 Thornbury Castle, started 1511, but incomplete when Buckingham was executed in 1521. Roofed in part in 1720 (see Verey-Pevsner, BoE, Gloucestershire: The Vale of Dean and the Forest of Dean).

113 The Bristol Nails (outside the later Corn Exchange), on which merchants completed their money transactions, can still be seen. Hence ‘paying on the nail’.

114 Millerd's plan of 1671 notes 10 gates.

115 The spire of St. Mary Redcliffe was damaged by lightning in 1446 and remained truncated until 1874.

116 Schellinks's version of the inscription is incomplete, and its spelling imperfect. The text given here is taken from Britton, J., An Historical and Architectural Essay relating to Redcliffe Church, Bristol, London 1813Google Scholar. See also Williams, Edith, The Chantries of William Canynges in St. Mary's Redcliffe, Bristol 1950Google Scholar. William Canynges the younger, a major benefactor to the church, d.1474.

117 Hongerree or Hongerred not found. King Road is shown in the Severn, downstream from the mouth of the Avon, on a navigational map in Capt. Grenvil Collins's Great Britain's Coasting Pilot, 2nd edn. 1723. Crackan Pill is also shown on this map.

118 Clifton Hot Wells.

119 Bristol diamonds: nodules of quartz, found e.g. in Dulcote Quarry near Wells and elsewhere near Bristol.

120 Bladud, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, The History of the Kings of Britain, legendary King of Britain, father of Leir (Shakespeare's King Lear). Geoffrey of Monmouth, however, does not record the story of Bladud's pigs

121 The drawing of Bath is in the Van der Hem Atlas (see Appendix I above).

122 Vicars' Close, a street built for the Cathedral clergy in the time of Bishop Ralph of Shrewsbury c.1348. The Hall closed the street on the cathedral side (Pevsner, BoE, North Somerset).

123 The story of the two heads, one of a king and one of a bishop, has not survived into modern times, but the heads are still to be seen on the south side of the nave. Schellinks's Bishop Barber, William Barlow (DNB), became Bishop of Bath and Wells in 1548, after the death of Henry VIII. The ‘attached figure’ does not appear in either of the two manuscripts.

William Piers (Pierce), 1580–1670, bishop of Bath and Wells 1632–1670. Robert Creighton (Crighton), 1593–1672, member of Charles II's court in exile, Dean of Wells on the restoration, succeeded Piers as bishop 1670 (DNB).

124 ‘Turcker Street’ is today's Tucker Street, ‘Southows Street’ Southover, ‘St. Crop Lane’ Grope Lane (now Union Street).

The current names of the lead mines are: Rowpits, Green Ore, (Rives Leen not identified), Priddy, Chewton, Harptree, and Charterhouse (Information on this and the preceding note kindly supplied by Miss J.F.K. Swinyard, Area Librarian, Wells.)

125 Richard Whiting, last abbot of Glastonbury, was tried for treason and hanged on Tor Hill in 1539 (DNB).

126 The Three Cups Inn, now the County Hotel.

127 There were rumours of disturbances in the West Country in the summer of 1662. See Cal. State Papars Domestic, 1661–2, 439Google Scholar, and Evelyn, 20 August 1662. Colonel Pym has not been identified.

128 Composting with sea sand in Cornwall is referred to in the County Reports to the Board of Agriculture, 1818. In Devon and Cornwall some lanes leading from the sea are still called Sand Lane or Sanding Way. See note 131.

129 It is surprising that Schellinks refers to the important events around 24 August (St. Bartholomew's Day) nearly a month before that day. Perhaps it was the talk of the town at the time. See note 153.

130 Knight of the post: ‘A notorious perjurer; one who got his living by giving false evidence; a false bail’ (OED).

131 Mrs. Veronica Chesher, Hon. Research Fellow, Dept. of Continuing and Adult Education, University of Exeter, Dr. Todd Gray, Research Fellow, Institute of Cornish Studies, University of Exeter, and other local historians in Devon and Cornwall have identified many of the personalities and locations mentioned by Schellinks, such as:

The Sparks, wealthy merchants in Plymouth in the mid seventeenth century, and the Boones, a principal Dartmouth family, who lived at Mount Boone, just above the town. A note in Schellinks drawing (Hem 41 Appendix I) reads: ‘The House of J. Boone Esquire’, Hulton connects this to Sir Thomas Boone, who lived in the Manor House of Norton Downay.

William Godolphin had a newly built house in Paul c.1660.

Other valuable information provided by Mrs. Chesher has been marked by * in the relevant notes.

See also Palmer, June, The People of Penryn in the Seventeenth Century, 1986.Google Scholar

132 The fort, built in 1592, was replaced in 1666 by the citadel, intended as much to control the city as for a defence against invaders (Pevsner, , BoE, South Devon.)Google Scholar

133 Drake's Island.

134 The Copenhagen MS has William Innes, the Bodleian MS William Tennens, neither name has been traced. Sir John Skelton (d.1572) was Lieutenant Governor of Plymouth and Deputy Lieutenant of Devon (Information from Devon County Libraries, Plymouth).

135 Possibly Charles Church, see Pevsner, BoE, South Devon.

136 Devonian limestone, which polishes like marble.*

137 Mount Edgecumbe, built by Sir Richard Edgecumbe c.1550; the owner at the time was probably Col. Piers Edgecumbe*. The house was burned out in the 1939–45 war (Pevsner, BoE, Cornwall).

138 The Cornish fishing and raining industry of the period is described by Whetter, James, Cornwall in the 17th Century: an economic history of Kernow, 1974.Google Scholar

139 The lookout and signaller was called the ‘huer’ (from French huer = to shout). Newquay retains a ‘huer hut’, restored 1835. Pilchard fishing was described in R. Carew, The Survey of Cornwall, first published 1602. The method of signalling is illustrated in Harris, K., Hevea, 1983Google Scholar (Inf. Cornish Study Library, Redruth).

140 Godolphin Bal tin mine employed 300 persons c.1584, according to John Norden, topographer (died c.1625), in Speculum Britanniae Pars … Cornwall, 1610, publ. C. Bakeman 1728. Bal (Cornish) = a collection of tin mines.

141 Sir Francis Godolphin (1605–67), governor of the Scillies, from the ancient family long settled at Godolphin near Breage. (DNB).

142 Bryan Rogers was considered in his day, ‘the most opulent figure of any merchant in the West’. He imported goods from the Baltic and exported them to London. He also acted as agent in un-loading and re-loading cargoes from and to Amsterdam to circumvent the Navigation Act. He died in debt: see Whetter 1974.

143 Schellinks's description of the moving stone would fit that of the Men-Amber (Grid Reference 650322), given in John Norden's Speculum and John Speed's Theatrum Imperii Britanniœ Magnœ, 1611, but this was described, before 1660, by Peter Mundy of Penryn (British Library, Add. MS 33420), as having been lately seen by him ‘overturned from its basis, lying below on one side: Performed, by report, by Captaine Charles Shrubshall and some of his [parliamentarian] souldiers about the beginning of August 1650’. Mundy then mentions a smaller moving stone, 2½ miles to the west of Penryn; like many of these ‘logans’, this has by now been quarried away (see Stanier, P., The Work of GiantsGoogle Scholar, Truro, 1988, and R.M. Catling in Rep. Roy. Cornwall Poly. Soc. 1908 (1941))Google Scholar (Inf. Norman Nail, P. Stannier).

144 Schellinks writes ‘drinking’ tobacco. This now obsolete use of the word was common in several European languages at the time (see e.g. OED). Celia Fiennes, who, c.1698, travelled in Cornwall, notes the ‘universall smoaking, both men, women, and children, have all their pipes of tobacco in their mouths’. Journeys of Celia Fiennes, ed. Christopher Morris, 1982, p. 204). *

145 Colonel John St. Aubyn (d.1684) was captain of the Mount during the Cromwellian period and helped to quell a royalist uprising in 1649. He bought St. Michael's Mount at that time. The St. Aubin family still live there. See John Taylor, the ‘Water Poet’, in his Wanderings to see the Wonders of the West for his description of St. Michael's Mount in 1649. *

146 Charles I had promised the succession to the governership of Pendennis Castle to Sir Richard Arundell, royalist soldier and MP. In 1662 Charles II redeemed his father's promise. Arundell later became first Baron Arundell of Trerice and d.1687 (DNB).

147 Sir Lewis Tremayne (Tremaine), whose son Sir John Tremayne figures in DNB, was presumably the governor of the smaller (St. Mawes) castle at the time.

148 A Dutch ‘shipslast’ was equivalent to 1976 kg, 1.976 metric tonnes.

149 Falmouth received its charter only after the Civil War. The legend of the origin of the name ‘Penny-come-quick’ is prevalent in writings about the town.*

150 Richard Carew, in 1602, describes Hall Walk, an extensive pleasure ground, as it was before the neglect mentioned by Schellinks. See Carew, Richard, The Survey of Cornwall, p. 132. *Google Scholar

151 Cheesewring near Minions, on Bodmin Moor (Grid Ref.: SX 258725). Now extensive granite quarries. Schellinks' drawing of the Cheesewring is in the British Museum (see Appendix I).

152 They were on their way to Launceston, the county town at the time, to swear the oaths required by the Act of Uniformity. See text-note 153.

153 By the Act of Uniformity (14 Chas. II, c.4) all clergy were required:

a. by the last Sunday before St. Bartholomew's day (24 Aug. n.s.) to read Morning and Evening Prayers from the new book of Common Prayer, a revised version of which was authorised after its suppression during the Commonwealth.

b. to swear the oath of allegiance to the King and foreswear the Covenant.

c. if they were not ordained by a bishop, to obtain such ordination quickly.

If they failed in any of these they lost their living. The short period allowed for implementation – fourteen weeks – led to great confusion: see Green, I.M., The Reestablishment of the Church of England 1660–1683, 1978.Google Scholar

154 This seems an error for the cathedral church of St. Peter.*

155 Schellinks seems to refer to Maumbury Ring, a Roman amphitheatre, fortified by the parliamentarians in 1642 (Pevsner-Newman, BoE, Dorset).

156 Melcombe Regis.

157 The cathedral was built by Bishop Richard Poore (see note 164). The separate bell-tower (campanile), part of the thirteenth-century buildings, was swept away by James Wyatt c.1789; this, with his work on other cathedrals, earned him the name ‘Wyatt, the destroyer’ (Pevsner-Cherry, BoE, Wiltshire).

158 Humphrey Henchman, bishop of Salisbury 1660–63.

159 Dragon Street (in 1455: Drakehall Street), now St. John and Exeter Street; Love Street is Love Lane (Inf. Monty Little, librarian, Salisbury).

160 Evelyn, Pepys, and Celia Fiennes mention these runnels, which were in the middle of most streets.

161 The south range of Wilton House was rebuilt by John Webb with the advice of Inigo Jones, after a fire in 1647–8 (Pevsner-Cherry, BoE, Wiltshire).

The ‘Cebes tableau’ (Pinax) is a book, attributed to Cebes, a pupil of Socrates (see Plato, 's PhaedoGoogle Scholar), in which he describes a visit to the temple of Kronos (Saturn), where he sees a picture, an allegorical representation of the dangers and vicissitudes of life (comparable to Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress), which is pointed out to him, scene by scene, by a venerable old man. The book was current at Schellinks's time, and translated into many languages (Dutch in 1615); it was in use as a school text book, and was the subject of many pictures (see e.g. Clark, R. Thomson, The Tablet of Kebes, 1909Google Scholar, and Schleier, Reinhard, Tabula Cebetis…, Berlin, 1973)Google Scholar.

The painting at Wilton House was seen amongst those in the Hall by Aubrey in his Natural History of Wiltshire, published posthumously in 1697, where he describes it as ‘a very large picture, and done by a great master, which the genius describes to William, the first earl of this family, and lookes on him, pointing to avarice, as to be avoyded by a noble person.’

The hall was destroyed by fire c.1705, apparently with all the pictures.

162 The gardens and grotto, which Schellinks describes, were created for the fourth Earl of Pembroke by Isaac de Gaus c.1632. They extended on the south side of the house. The grotto was in the centre of a colonnade, closing off the north side; it contained elaborate waterworks, also described by Aubrey, and by Celia Fiennes, which were apparently designed to wet unsuspecting visitors. The ‘nightingale song’ appears to refer to the noise made by water, producing ‘the melody of nightingerlls and all sort of birds’ (Celia Fiennes, c.1682). The front of the grotto had fine carvings in stone. Inside were low-relief marble sculptures, said to have been brought from Italy. The gardens were totally reconstructed in mid eighteenth century, when the colonnade and grotto were moved to a new position east of the house. Later the front of the grotto was moved by Samuel Wyatt to what is now known as the Park School House, when the low-relief sculptures were incorporated in the Italian garden loggia (Aubrey's Wiltshire; Fiennes, Celia, Journeys; Country Life, 07 / 08 1963, 206–9, 264–7.Google Scholar

163 Vortigern, ‘a haughty tyrant’ (DNB), king of Britons in the fifth century, is said to have invited Saxon tribes to help defend his kingdom against the Picts. His son and his nobles were massacred by Saxon treachery. Ambrosius Aurelianus, a contemporary leader, is said to have conquered part of Vortigern's kingdom during a campaign to control the Saxons (DNB and EB).

164 Old Sarum. Bishop Poore, in 1219, obtained permission to abandon the uncomfort able hill-top site and built a new cathedral in the valley.

165 St. Cross Hospital was founded in 1136 as almshouses for men. Cardinal Beaufort's foundation (about 1445) was intended to include accommodation for 3 sisters, but it is doubtful whether that was ever carried out (VCH Hampshire, ii, 196Google Scholar). Miss Elizabeth Lewis, Museums Curator, Winchester, suggests that Schellinks may refer to St. John's House almshouses, which were on the east side of the High Street in 1554.

166 Squire Paulet, a relative of the Marquis of Winchester; his house stood on the site of 75 Hyde Street.

167 The stone screen, attributed to Inigo Jones, was removed by Gilbert Scott c.1875. It was shown in the first guide book of the cathedral (1715), reproduced as the front cover of Winchester Cathedral, an Anthology, 1970. The statues of James I and Charles I now stand inside to the left and right of the west door. Secondary sources about the cathedral state that these figures, by Hubert Le Sueur, were sold during the Commonwealth for £ 10 to a Mr. Newland in the Isle of Wight (see note 172 below), who hid them in his garden.

At the Restoration Bishop Buppa bought them back for £ 100 (Winch. Cath. Records 37 (1968), 4552Google Scholar, inf. from John Hardacre, curator, Winchester Cathedral).

168 The remains of Saxon Kings and Bishops, removed from the earlier Minster, were placed in eight chests on top of the newly erected sidescreens of the choir c.1525. Cromwellian soldiers desecrated four of diese, the contents of which were, at the restoration, placed in two new chests, those furthest away from the altar. Schellinks mentions these two chests, at that time uninscribed; the inscriptions were added between 1684 and 1692.

We have given in the text the version exactly as written in the Copenhagen MS. The version recorded by Ball in 1818, rearranged in the order used by Schellinks, is as follows: (King Edmund)

‘The inscription on each side is as follows:

Edmundus Rex, obit A.D.M.

Que theca hec retinet Edmudu suscipe Christe

Qui vivente patre regia sceptra tulit’

(King Edred)

‘The title and epitaph, which is alike on both sides of this chest, runs thus:

Edredus Rex, obit A.D. 955

Hoc pius in tumulo, Rex Edredi requiescit,

Qui has Britonum terras rexerit egregie.

(King Kenewalch [Kenulph] and King Egbert) ‘On the one side this chest is inscribed,

Kenulphus Rex, obit A.D.M. 784

on the other,

Egbertus Rex, obit ADM. 857.

The epitaph, which is alike on both sides, is as follows:

Hic Rex Egbertus pausat cum

Rege Kenulpho nobis egregia munera uterqz tulit’

(King Kinegils and King Ethelwolph [Adolphus])

‘It is inscribed thus, on the one side:

Rex Kyngils, obit A.D.M. 641

on the other,

Adulphus Rex, obit A.D.M. 859

The epitaph is the same on both sides:

Kyngilsi in cista hac simul ossa jacent et Adulphi

ipsius fundator, hic benefactor erat.’

The version given by Vaughan in 1919 differs somewhat from the above. It appears that the inscriptions were repainted on a number of occasions. See Ball, Charles, An Historical Account of Winchester with Descriptive Walks, Winchester 1818Google Scholar; Vaughan, John, Winchester Cathedral, its monuments and memorials, London, 1919.Google Scholar

169 Richard Weston, earl of Portland, treasurer to Charles I, d.1635. The tomb is in the Guardian Angels' Chapel, DNB.

170 Dr. Edward Stanley, headmaster of Winchester College before 1642, when he became a Prebendary of the Cathedral. He died in 1662 (Vaughan). The text is more likely Job 5 v.26.

171 Winchester College, founded 1382.

172 C.D. Webster and James O'Donnell, Isle of Wight Record Office, have kindly supplied us with information on the Newlands, a large family of seventeenth-century merchants, including a pedigree. Robert Newland (d.1637) was a main stockholder in the I.o.W. plantation in Virginia. Amongst his sons were:

a. William (1605–60), father of Sir Benjamin (c.1633–99), MR for Southampton 1679–99, who in 1672 was accused of acting as agent for the Dutch (Henning, , House of Commons, 1660–90, iii. 135–6)Google Scholar.

b. Benjamin (1607–71) the elder, father of Benjamin the younger (c.1636–c.1724). The latter is recorded in 1660 as owning considerable property, including two quays and two wharves at East Cowes and Whippingham (Feet of Fines, Hants., Trinity and Michaelmas 12 Chas. II). He seems to be the Benjamin who looked after Schellinks while in the I.o.W. One of his nephews, Isaac, was described as a ‘Duch merchant’.

c. John (1619–59), the Newland who was involved in the unsuccessful escape plots of Charles I from Carisbrooke Castle; see note 175 below.

173 Henry, duke of Gloucester (1639–60), youngest brother of Charles II. He was, with his younger sister Elizabeth (who died in 1650, monument in St. Thomas's Church, Newport), at Carisbrooke Castle from August 1650 to late 1652 and there most likely met Newland, a fervent royalist.

174 Bishop George Morley had been appointed a few months earlier.

175 Charles I was imprisoned in Carisbrooke Castle from December 1647 to November 1648. There were several plots for his escape, in all of which Newland was involved. In one of them acid was to be used to cut a window bar (see Jones, J.D., The Royal Prisoner, 1964Google Scholar. Inf. R.E. Brinton, Carisbrooke Castle).

176 Fossilised plant remains, which ‘were first noticed by Thomas Webster (in 1816)’, see White, H.J. Osborne, A Short Account of the Geology of the Isle of Wight, HMSO, 1921, p. 171.Google Scholar

177 This is clearly not the White Hart in White Hart Street, which is within the walls; Mrs Sarah Quail, City Records Officer, informs us that the Blue Posts on Broad Street, i.e. on the Point, was formerly called the White Hart.

178 Sir Charles Berkeley (1629/30–1665), of the Somerset (Bruton) branch of the Berkeley family, a favourite of Charles II and the Duke of York, later Viscount Fitzhardinge and Earl of Falmouth, lieutenant-governor of Portsmouth 1662–5, killed in the battle of Lowestoft: The Complete Peerage of England v.246 and 407–9, and Pepys, , CompanionGoogle Scholar. He was succeeded by his younger brother Sir William Berkeley, lieutenantgovernor of Portsmouth, 1665–6 (DNB).

179 Henry Mordaunt, second earl of Peterborough, governor of Tangiers 1661–2, see DNB; Pepys iii, no, 172 etc.

180 As part of the dowry of Catharine of Braganza, Tangiers became British in January 1661, potentially an important base to control Algerian piracy, but troubled by continuous attacks by the Moors, tying up large forces (cf. Pepys, , Companion, 407).Google Scholar

181 After the battle of Worcester Charles II eventually escaped to France from a creek near Shoreham, in a coalbrig Surprise, captain Nicholas Tattershall; Bryant, Arthur, King Charles II, 1933, pp. 33–9.Google Scholar

182 South Sea Castle.

183 Portsmouth was republican, hence the collection of arms; a number of town councillors were dismissed in 1662 (VCH Hampshire, iii, 178).Google Scholar

184 The ancient spire of Chichester Cathedral blew down in 1861, the present spire is a replica built by Gilbert Scott. The story of the apprentice, killed by his master out of jealousy, is told of other places, but has not survived at Chichester; there is no memorial tablet now (Inf. Dr. Mary Hobbs, Chichester Cathedral).

185 Henry King (1592–1669) was elevated to the see of Chichester in 1642, the day after the House of Lords deprived the bishops of their vote. When Chichester surrendered to Parliament in 1643 he lost his episcopal estates and found refuge with friends in Buckinghamshire and there assembled his poems, published in 1657. At the Restoration, he returned to his see (DNB).

186 The road from Chichester to Guildford, shown on Ogilby's road map of 1675, runs through Midhurst, Chiddingfold (an important place at the time), Milford, and Godalming. The route Schellinks describes, via Haslemere after Chiddingfold, may infer that he got lost.

187 On Tuesday, 26 August (5 September 1662 n.s.) a Royal Commission had dismissed the mayor, six magistrates, and the town clerk, for ‘refusing to take the oathes’ (Court Book, Guildford Muniment Room, p. 140r, Inf. Matthew Alexander, Guildford).

188 A Dutch colloquialism; the expression indicates that Schellinks feels himself badly done by.

189 Theobalds, near Cheshunt, enclosed by James I, sold during the Commonwealth and largely demolished. Pevsner-Cherry, BoE, Hertfordshire, p. 360Google Scholar

190 Stourbridge fair, near Chesterton, north east of Cambridge, was the largest in the world, according to Defoe, who describes it in detail in his Tour through England and Wales, 1724.Google Scholar

191 The house of Audley End was substantially altered in the early eighteenth century and partly demolished c.1721; of the structures described little is now to be seen; an etching by Winstanley (1676) shows the house as Schellinks saw it: On either side of the great court were arcades, above which the stone parapets were pierced to form letters, clearly readable against the sky. On one side the letters formed the motto of the Garter (partly sketched by Schellinks at the top of the relevant page of the Copenhagen MS), the text on the other side read: ‘Prudentis est in consilio fortunam semper habere’ (see Addison, William, Audley End, 1953Google Scholar). As in other places, Schellinks's copy of the Latin text is imperfect.

192 Marie de Valence, daughter of the Count of Châtillon and St. Pol (Pevsner, BoE, Cambridge, where most data on the founders of the Colleges are given, sometimes differing from Schellinks's dates, who obtained his information from Gerard Langbain's The Foundation of the Universitie of Cambridge, 1651).Google Scholar

193 Corpus Christi College was founded in 1352 by the guilds of Corpus Christi and St. Mary (Pevsner). Monmouth, i.e. Henry, duke of Lancaster (d.1361, DNB under Henry of Lancaster), was the noble patron, who obtained the royal licence for the college (B.D.G. Little, Colleges of Cambridge, 1973).

194 Margaret of Anjou, 1430–82, wife of Henry VI.

195 Lady Margaret Beaufort, countess of Richmond and Derby (d.1509).

196 John Williams, 1582–1650, bishop of Lincoln, later archbishop of York, studied at St. John's and made substantial contributions to the Library (DNB).

197 William Dillingham was deprived of the mastership on 24 August 1662 for refusing the oath ordered by the Act of Uniformity; his successor was William Sancroft, who had resigned his tutorship at the College during the Commonwealth, and later became archbishop of Canterbury (DNB).

198 The south west tower of St. Margaret's crashed in 1741, and the crossing tower, a lesser version of the one at Ely, had to be replaced (Inf. from David Lloyd to Soc. Prot. Anc. Build.)

199 The Customs House at the time was on the west side of Tuesday Market. The current Customs House was built as an exchange or merchants' meeting place in 1683 and converted to a customs house in 1718. ‘Common guard’ is the Common Staith Yard; the story of the millstone does not appear to have survived. See Henry Bell's ‘Groundplat’ of c.1680.

200 King John died at Newark Castle in 1216.

201 The sword and cup are still part of the civic regalia. The figures on the cup are now thought to represent hunters.

202 The version of the inscriptions on the sword are as noted by Schellinks in the Copenhagen MS. The correct version, given to us by Dr Paul Richards of King's Lynn is:

ENSIS HIC DONUM FUIT REGIS IOHANNIS

A SUO IPSIUS LATERE DATUM

and on the other side

VIVAT REX HENRICUS OCTAVUS

ANNO REGNI SUI 20

Dr. Richards suggests that the story about the millstones might have been promoted by the Corporation to justify its monopoly of the trade in millstones.

203 The Bodleian MS says ‘very beautiful’. Schellinks must have seen the still extant first catalogue of the library, from which he took the details about its founders as recorded by him. The story of the cannon ball survives, the ball used to hang in the entrance of Hampton Court across the street (Information for notes 199, 201–3 from Jane Lineham, Principal Librarian, King's Lynn).

204 Theophilus Elison, who had succeeded his father Johannis Elison (1581–1639), as Minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, Norwich. In 1634 Rembrandt painted lifesize portraits of Johannis and his wife, now in Boston (U.S.A.) Museum of Fine Arts. See Schwarz, Gary, Rembrandt, 1991.Google Scholar

205 The Duke's House: Tudor palace of Henry Howard, duke of Norfolk, between the river and Charing Cross, now demolished. Evelyn was shown the plans for its restoration and extension, but thought it a ‘wretched house’ (see Evelyn, 17 Oct. 1671).

206 Schellinks is here mistaken: the Little Ouse rises near Lopham, and does not come near Norwich (Inf. Barbara Green, Norfolk Museum Service, who also drew our attention to 2 drawings by Schellinks of Norwich. See Appendix I).

207 Edward Reynolds, Bishop of Norwich 1661–76; John Crofts, Dean 1660–70.

208 Bishop Herbert: Herbert de Losinga d. 1119.

209 Teertuinen, a quay on the west side of Amsterdam, where the merchants dealing in pitch and tar, important shipbuilding materials, had fine houses. Their wares were stacked in barrels in front of their houses.

210 St. John the Baptist, a medieval church, now disappeared, see Tricker, Roy, Ipswich Churches, Ancient and modern, 1983Google Scholar (Inf. Hilary Platts, Suffolk Libraries).

211 White Elm, on Ogilby's map of 1675 (Road from London to Yarmouth), between Copdock and Capel St. Mary.

212 As to the legend of Queen Helena and Colchester see Cutts, Edward L., Colchester, 1898.Google Scholar

213 In the seventeenth century in the Colchester area oysters were placed in special pits, as described by Schellinks, to cause them to turn green by a growth of innocuous algæ. Such oysters used to fetch a better price in some markets. This practice was discontinued in the nineteenth century: see Morant, P., History and Antiquities of the town of Colchester, 1748Google Scholar; Benton, P., History of Rochford Hundred, 18671888.Google Scholar

214 The legend of the seven kings, watering their horses here, goes back to Saxon times. Seven Kings Brook crosses the road nearby. See Tasker, G., Ilford Past and Present, 1901Google Scholar; Reaney, P.H., Place Names of Essex, Cambridge 1969Google Scholar (Inf. I. Dowling, Redbridge Central Library).

215 James Thierry was British born, baptized in the French Church, Threadneedle Street on 26 December 1603; his son, Schellinks's companion, was born in Holland, baptized in the Oude Kerk, Amsterdam on 3 May 1648. Naturalization at that time was by a Private Act of Parliament (7 J.I.c.2). Young Thierry was included in Killigrew's Bill of Naturalization (15 Car.II.c.34), which had its first reading on Thursday 12 March 1662/3, sent to me Lords on 6 April 1663 and was passed by them on 21 May 1663.

216 The new Palace of Greenwich by John Webb was only partially completed. The ‘King Charles's Block’ was later extended to form the Royal Naval Hospital. See Pevsner-Cherry, BoE, London South, and note 21 above.

217 For Friar Bacon see note 99.

218 Fifth Monarchy Men, a religious sect, believing that the second coming of Christ was imminent, who repudiated allegiance to any worldly government. They were considered a threat to the throne. (OED, Evelyn 10 August 1657, see also notes 228 and 229 below).

219 Pepys reports on 26 October o.s.: ‘All this day soldiers going up and down the towne, there being an alarme and many Quakers and other clapped up; but I believe without any reason, only they say in Dorsetshire there hath been some rising discovered’. In view of later events (see 1 January 1663 and note 229 below, and Pepys iii, 236) Pepys obviously underestimated at the time the seriousness of the disturbance. See also Hist. Manuscr. Com. Rep. 7/1, 463. As to Dorsetshire see 24–25 July 1662 above and note 127.

220 The details of the Lord Mayor's procession in 1662 are given in Tatham, John, London's Triumphs … in honour of … Sir John RobinsonGoogle Scholar, printed for H. Brome, London 1662. Schellinks may have used this. We have translated his version, but it is clear that this does not exactly correspond to Tatham. Cf. notes 59 and 60.

221 Three Cranes or Vintry, a tavern deriving its name from three timber cranes on Vintry Wharf to unload wine (EoL.).

222 The Lord Mayor installed in 1662 was Sir John Robinson, Lieutenant of the Tower of London (where there hangs a portrait of him), a member of the Clothworkers' Company.

223 Jack of Newbury, another name for John Winchcombe, the weaver from Newbury, who ‘was wonderous well beloved of rich and poore’ The pleasant History of John Winchcombe, by T.D. (Thomas Delaney), ninth edition 1633.

224 The song is included in the description of the procession referred to in note 220.

225 The need for restoration work to the old church was recognized from the time of James I, and money collected. Some work was carried out under Inigo Jones, but during the Commonwealth it was greatly neglected (EoL). The great fire of 1666 destroyed the old church entirely.

226 Oxfordshire Countrymen procession. The Copenhagen MS has, at the end of this passage, several blank lines, where Schellinks seems to have intended to make some observation on this ceremony. No record of the occasion has been found.

227 Tzar Alexis had sent four envoys, Prince Peter Semenovic Prozorovskj, Ivan Af'anas'evic Zeljabuzskij, Ivan Davydov, and Jurij Ivanovic Nikiforov, to congratulate the King, and negotiate trade and loans, who, on his orders, were received in state. They were put up at York House (between Charing Cross and the river), and had an audience with the King on 29 December 1662. See Bittner, L. and Grosz, L., Repertorium der Diplomatischen Vertreter alle Länder, 1936, p. 435Google Scholar, and Pepys, iii, 267–8Google Scholar and iv, 173; Evelyn, 29 Nov. 1662.

228 Thomas Thonge, George Philips, Francis Stubbes, and Nathaniel Gibbs were involved in the plot on 5 November (q.v.), and tried with others on 18 December (Mercurius Publicus of that date). See also note 219 above.

229 William Hill, a parliamentarian, lost his living at the Restoration and became involved with a number of fanatical plotters against the King. He turned informer, and as a result of his evidence the plot was discovered, the culprits arrested late in October, and four of them hanged at Tyburn (DNB).

230 Pepys, on 29 December o.s. (when he heard of it), comments on ‘the strange burning of Mr. Delaun, a mercant's house, in Loathbury’, who, with his whole family perished in the fire. The mystery was the greater, because the house was new and brickbuilt, which was rare before the great fire. (Pepys, iii, 296).Google Scholar

231 Pepys saw Shakespeare's ‘Hamlet, Prince of Denmark’ in Davenant's version, which was the only one licensed at the time, on 24 August, 27 November, and 5 December 1661 (Pepys, ii, 161, 221, 227Google Scholar), and on 28 May 1663, when he again much admired Betterton's performance (Pepys, iv, 162).Google Scholar

232 Gilbert Sheldon (1598–1677), a royalist, imprisoned during the Commonwealth, became bishop of London soon after the restoration (DNB). The text ‘Behold, thou art made whole: sin no more’ is John c.5 v.14.

233 Deptford Dry Docks founded 1513 by Henry VIII.

234 Cousin Dentier: See Introduction iii.Google Scholar

235 Jack of Newbury, an inn named after this popular character, see note 224.

236 Pierre Blondeau, engineer to Cromwell's mint, returned in 1662 to be responsible for minting milled money, introducing his new process. Pepys, ii, 38–9Google Scholar. Cooper, Denis R.Coinmaking, 1988.Google Scholar

237 On the north side of the Strand, previously known as Wimbledon House, Burghley House, and Cecil House. After the restoration Queen Henrietta Maria had a chapel there (see EoL).

238 The following entry for 12 April does not appear in the Bodleian MS, which has here two blank pages, and continues in a different handwriting, starting with a summary of the farewell meal given in detail below.

239 This document, on a smaller size of paper and different handwriting is bound in with the pages of the Copenhagen MS. It appears to have a seal on it.

240 This is written in a different hand on the reverse of the document referred to above.The Journal continues as described in the Introduction with their travels in Europe.

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The Journal of William Schellinks' Travels in England
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The Journal of William Schellinks' Travels in England
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