Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-79b67bcb76-pclkk Total loading time: 0.364 Render date: 2021-05-13T07:12:22.369Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Diplomacia económica y balanza de pagos. Los pactos Hispano-Estadounidenses de 1918*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 January 2010

José Antonio Montero Jiménez
Affiliation:
Georgetown Universitya

Abstract

This paper studies the links between the evolution of Spain's balance of payments and Spanish-American economic diplomacy along 1917 and 1918. The development of these relations may be useful to explain a great deal about the downturn in Spanish foreign commerce during the last year of WWI. After their entrance into the conflict, the United States toughened their commercial policies and made the Spaniards work hard to keep both their international trade and the freedom of their merchant marine. Contacts between the two countries dealt also with the repatriation of Spain's foreign debt and the use of its extraordinary profits to make loans to the Allied nations. The negotiations ended up in March and August, 1918 with the signing of two bilateral agreements, whose consequences can be followed using the monthly figures of trade between America and the Iberian Peninsula.

Resumen

Este artículo examina las conexiones existentes entre la evolución de la balanza de pagos española y la diplomacia económica hispano-estadounidense a lo largo de 1917 y 1918. El devenir de estas relaciones puede servir para explicar una parte sustancial de la desaceleración del comercio exterior de España que tuvo lugar en el último año de la Primera Guerra Mundial. El endurecimiento de la política comercial de los Estados Unidos tras su entrada en la contienda obligó a los españoles a trabajar seriamente para mantener tanto el nivel de sus intercambios mercantiles como la libertad de su marina mercante. Los contactos entre los dos países afectaron igualmente al proceso de repatriación de la deuda externa de España y al uso de sus beneficios extraordinarios para efectuar préstamos a las naciones aliadas. Finalmente, las negociaciones bilaterales produjeron la firma de dos acuerdos bilaterales en marzo y agosto de 1918, cuya gestación y repercusiones pueden seguirse a través de las cifras mensuales del comercio entre Norteamérica y la Península Ibérica.

Type
Articles/Artículos
Copyright
Copyright © Instituto Figuerola de Historia y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Bailey, T. A., (1966): The Policy of the United States Towards the Neutrals. Gloucester: Peter Smith.Google Scholar
Bliven, B., (1928): «Charles G. Dawes, Super-Salesman». New Republic 53 (686), pp. 263267.Google Scholar
Broder, A., (1981): «Le Rôle des intérêts étrangers dans la croissance économique de l'Espange, 1768–1924». Paris: Université Paris I, Thése de Doctorat d'État.Google Scholar
Collins, Th. M., (2002): Otto Kahn: art, money & modern time. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Cunningham, Ch. H., (1917): «Spain and the War». The American Political Science Review 11 (3), pp. 421447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dallek, R., (1975): Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Davis, L. E., y Engerman, S. L., (2006): Naval Blockades in Peace and War. An Economic History since 1750. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delaunay, J.-M., (1984): «Les crédits Urquijo et la France en guerre». Mélanges de la Casa de Velazquez 20, pp. 339353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Department of Commerce (1917): Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States in the fiscal year 1917. Washington DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Delaunay, J.-M., (1920): Statistical Abstract of the United States. 1919. Washington DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Fernández Almagro, M., (1977): Historia del reinado de Alfonso XIII. Barcelona:Montaner y Simón.Google Scholar
Ferro, M., (1994): La Gran Guerra (1914–1918). Madrid: Alianza.Google Scholar
Goedeken, E. A., (1986): «Charles G. Dawes and the Military Board of Allied Supply». Military Affairs 5 (1), pp. 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, B. A., (1974): Efficiency and Expansion. Foreign Trade Administration under the Wilson Administration. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
Kennedy, D. M., (1980): Over Here. The First World War and American Society. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Maluquer, J., (2005): «Consumo y precios», en A. Carreras y X. Tafunell (coords.): Estadísticas Históricas de España: siglos XIX y XX. Bilbao:Fundación BBVA, vol.3, pp. 1.2461.295.Google Scholar
Martín Aceña, P., y Pons, M.a A., (2005): «Sistema monetario y financiero», en A. Carreras y X. Tafunell (coords.): Estadísticas Históricas de España: siglos XIX y XX. Bilbao: Fundación BBVA, vol. 3, pp. 644706.Google Scholar
Pershing, J. J., (1995): My Experiences in World War I. New York: Da Capo Press, 2 vols.Google Scholar
Roldán, S., y García Delgado, J. L., (1973): La consolidación del capitalismo en España, 1914–1920. Madrid, Confederación Española de Cajas de Ahorros.Google Scholar
San Román, E., (1994): «Las consecuencias pacíficas de la Gran Guerra: La moviliza-ción industrial». Hispania 54 (187), pp. 611658.Google Scholar
San Román, E., (1999): Ejército e Industria: El nacimiento del INI. Barcelona: Crítica.Google Scholar
Sudrià, C., (1990): «Los beneficios de España durante la Gran Guerra. Una aproxima-ción a la balanza de pagos española, 1914–1920». Revista de Historia Económica 8 (2), pp. 363396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tena Junguito, A., (1985): «Una reconstrucción del comercio exterior español, 1914–1935: La rectificación de las estadísticas oficiales». Revista de Historia Económica, 3(1), pp. 77119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tena Junguito, A., (1992): Las Estadísticas Históricas del Comercio Internacional: Fiabilidad y Comparabilidad. Madrid, Banco de España.Google Scholar
Tena Junguito, A., (2005): «Sector Exterior», en A. Carreras y X. Tafunell (coords.): Estadísticas Históricas de España: siglos XIX y XX. Bilbao: Fundación BBVA, vol. 2, pp. 573644.Google Scholar
Vandellós, J. A., (1931): «La balanza comercial y el cambio de la peseta». Revista Nacional de Economía 32, pp. 317.Google Scholar
Whiteman, H. B., (1958): «Norman H. Davis and the search for international peace and security, 1917–1944». New Haven: Yale University, Ph. D. dissertation.Google Scholar
Woolsey, T. S., (1917): «The Rationing System». The American Journal of International Law 11 (4), pp. 844847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, A. N., (1920): Spanish Finance and Trade. Washington DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Diplomacia económica y balanza de pagos. Los pactos Hispano-Estadounidenses de 1918*
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Diplomacia económica y balanza de pagos. Los pactos Hispano-Estadounidenses de 1918*
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Diplomacia económica y balanza de pagos. Los pactos Hispano-Estadounidenses de 1918*
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *