Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-p2v8j Total loading time: 0.001 Render date: 2024-05-28T01:30:55.623Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Productivity and water use of organic wheat–chickpea intercropping system under limited moisture conditions in Northwest India

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 October 2017

Balwinder Singh
Affiliation:
Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, Punjab, India.
C.S. Aulakh*
Affiliation:
Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, Punjab, India.
S.S. Walia
Affiliation:
Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, Punjab, India.
*
*Corresponding author: aulakhcs@pau.edu

Abstract

Intercropping of legumes in cereals and manuring are important measures to sustain soil fertility and enhance crop productivity in general and under organic and limited moisture conditions in particular. This study evaluated different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) + chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) row ratios as intercrops under organic and limited moisture conditions in Northwest India with an aim to find out the suitable row ratio to get higher system productivity under these conditions. Chickpea, being a legume, produces nitrogen compounds that help the plant to grow itself and also makes them available to the companion wheat plants and thus helps in wheat nutrition, which otherwise becomes limited due to less mineralization of nitrogen under organic and cold weather conditions. The primary aim of the study was to get better productivity of wheat crop as this is an assured crop of this region. The intercropping system was evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications at Ludhiana, Punjab in Northwest India during 2013–2014 and 2014–2015. Effective tillers m−1 row length, number of grains spike−1 and 1000-grain weight of wheat were higher in wheat + chickpea (2:1) intercropping system as compared with sole wheat. This intercropping system produced significantly higher wheat grain yield, wheat equivalent yield and land equivalent ratio than sole wheat. Wheat + chickpea (2:1) and wheat + chickpea (3:1) intercropping systems gave higher water-use efficiency than sole wheat. However, chickpea gave higher yield attributes and seed yield as sole crop than that in different intercropping systems. Wheat + chickpea (2:1) and wheat + chickpea (3:1) intercropping systems produced mean wheat grain yields of 5.11 and 4.79 Mg ha−1, respectively, along with additional mean chickpea seed yields of 0.28 and 0.24 Mg ha−1, respectively.

Type
Research Paper
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Andrews, R.W. 1979. Intercropping, its importance and research needs. Field Crops Research 32:110.Google Scholar
Anil, L., Park, R., and Miller, F.A. 1998. Temperate intercropping of cereals for forage: a review of the potential for growth and utilization with particular reference to the UK. Grass and Forage Science 53:301317.Google Scholar
Anjaneyulu, V.R., Singh, S.P., and Pal, M. 1982. Effect of competition free period and technique and pattern of pearl millet planting for growth and yield of mungbean and total productivity in soil for pearl millet and pearl millet/mungbean intercropping system. Indian Journal of Agronomy 27:219226.Google Scholar
Banik, P. 1996. Evaluation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and legume intercropping under 1:1 and 2:1 row replacement series system. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 176:289294.Google Scholar
Das, A.K., Khaliq, Q.A., and Haider, M.L. 2012. Efficiency of wheat-lentil and wheat-chickpea intercropping systems at different planting configurations. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production 7:2533.Google Scholar
Dhakad, A., Rajput, R.S., Mishra, P.K., and Sarawgi, S.K. 2005. Effect of spatial arrangement and nitrogen scheduling on monetary advantage and economics of wheat + chickpea intercropping. Annals of Agricultural Research 26:335337.Google Scholar
Eskandari, H. 2011. Intercropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and bean (Vicia faba): Effects of complementarity and competition of intercrop components in resource consumption on dry matter production and weed growth. African Journal of Biotechnology 10:1775517762.Google Scholar
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) 2012. FAO Statistical Yearbook 2012, World Food and Agriculture. 1st ed., Stylus Pub Llc., Rome. ISBN-10: 9251070849, p. 366.Google Scholar
Gill, S., Abid, M., and Azam, F. 2006. Root-induced changes in potential nitrification and nitrate reductase activity of the rhizospheric soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany 38:991997.Google Scholar
Gill, S., Abid, M., and Azam, F. 2009. Mixed cropping effects on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany 41:10291036.Google Scholar
Houggaard-Nielsen, H. and Jensen, E.S. 2001. Evaluating pea and barley cultivars for complementarity in intercropping at different levels of soil N availability. Field Crops Research 72:185196.Google Scholar
Houggaard-Nielsen, H., Ambus, H.P., and Jensen, E.S. 2001. Inter-specific competition, N use and interference with weeds in pea-barley intercropping. Field Crops Research 70:101109.Google Scholar
Hussain, M.L., Shah, S.H., Hussain, S., and Iqbal, K. 2002. Growth, yield and quality response of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties to different levels of N, P and K. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 4:189198.Google Scholar
Imran, M., Ali, A., Waseem, M., Tahir, M., Mohsin, A.U., Shehzad, M., Ghaffari, M., and Rehman, H. 2011. Bio-economic assessment of sunflower-mungbean intercropping system at different planting geometry. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science 1:126136.Google Scholar
Islam, M.E. 1996. Study of fertilizer management in wheat-chickpea intercropping under rainfed condition. MSc Thesis, BAU, Myensingh, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
Jackson, M.L. 1967. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi. pp. 234246.Google Scholar
Jahansooz, M.R., Yunusa, I., and Coventry, D. 2004. Capture and use of water by wheat and chickpea in sole crops and intercrops under dryland conditions of South Australia. Proc IV International Crop Science Congress, Brisbane, Australia. 26 September-1 October.Google Scholar
Jedel, P.E., Helm, J.H., and Burnett, P.A. 1998. Yield, quality and stress tolerance of barley mixtures in central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 78:429436.Google Scholar
Jensen, E.S. 1996. Grain yield, symbiotic N2 fixation and inter-specific competition for inorganic N in pea-barley intercrops. Plant and Soil 182:2538.Google Scholar
Khan, M., Khan, R.U., Wahab, A., and Rashid, A. 2005. Yield and yield components of wheat as influenced by intercropping of chickpea, lentil and rapeseed in different proportions. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 42:34.Google Scholar
Mallick, A., Verma, U.N., Thakur, R., and Srivastava, V.C. 1993. Productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-based intercropping systems under limited irrigation. Indian Journal of Agronomy 38:178181.Google Scholar
Mengping, P. and Zhangjinsong, S. 2004. Effects of wheat based intercropping on water and land utilization efficiency. Forest Research 17:167171.Google Scholar
Midmore, D.J. 1993. Agronomic modification of resource use and intercrop productivity. Field Crops Research 34:357380.Google Scholar
Mitchell, C.E., Tilman, D., and Groth, J.V. 2002. Effect of grassland plant species diversity, abundance and composition on foliar fungal disease. Ecology 83:17131726.Google Scholar
Munir, M., Saeed, M., and Imran, M. 2004. Crop productivity and net returns in wheat-gram intercropping. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research 18:2024.Google Scholar
Ofori, F. and Stern, W.R. 1987. Cereal-legume intercropping systems. Advances in Agronomy 41:4189.Google Scholar
Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., and Dean, L.A. 1954. Estimation of Available Phosphorous in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. USDA Publisher, Washington.Google Scholar
Piper, C.S. 1966. Soil and Plant Analysis. Hans Publisher, Bombay. p. 368.Google Scholar
Reddy, T.Y. and Reddi, G.H.S. 2008. Principles of Agronomy. Kalyani Publishers, India. p. 8894.Google Scholar
Singh, D.K. and Yadav, D.S. 1992. Production potential and economics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum)-based intercropping systems under rainfed condition. Indian Journal of Agronomy 37:424429.Google Scholar
Singh, J. and Yadav, D.S. 1990. Studies on the wheat based intercropping systems under rainfed conditions. Indian Journal of Agronomy 35:262265.Google Scholar
Singh, M., Gandhi, R.T., and Raheja, P.C. 1960. A critical review of the method used to determine water requirements of crops and suggestions for planning future irrigation experiments. Indian Journal of Agronomy 4:276278.Google Scholar
Singh, N. 1982. Nitrogen requirements of mixed cropping of wheat + gram under rainfed conditions. MSc Thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.Google Scholar
Singh, R.K., Gangasaran, R., and Bandyopadhyay, S.K. 1996. Studies on spatial arrangement and N levels in wheat-gram intercropping system under dryland situation. Annals of Agricultural Research 17:7479.Google Scholar
Singh, S.K. and Sarawgi, S.K. 1995. Effect of row ratio, nitrogen and irrigation in wheat and chickpea intercropping system. Indian Journal of Agronomy 40:492495.Google Scholar
Stevenson, F.C. and Kessel, C.V. 1997. Nitrogen contribution of pea residue in a hummocky terrain. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61:494503.Google Scholar
Subbiah, B.V. and Asija, G.L. 1956. A rapid procedure for the estimation of available nitrogen in soils. Current Science 25:259260.Google Scholar
Willey, R.W. 1979. Intercropping: Its importance and research needs. I. Competition and yield advantages. Field Crop Abstracts 32:110.Google Scholar
Willey, R.W. and Osiru, D.S.O. 1972. Studies on mixture of maize and beans with particular reference to plant population. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 9:517519.Google Scholar
Willey, R.W. and Rao, M.R. 1980. A competitive ratio for quantifying competition between intercrops. Experimental Agriculture 16:117125.Google Scholar