Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-kpqxq Total loading time: 2.564 Render date: 2022-12-07T17:49:43.892Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Development status and trends in side-deep fertilization of rice

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 June 2022

Jinfeng Wang
College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150000, China
Zhentao Wang
College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150000, China
Wuxiong Weng
College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150000, China
Yuanfeng Liu
College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150000, China
Zuodong Fu
College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150000, China
Jinwu Wang*
College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150000, China
Author for correspondence: Jinwu Wang, E-mail:


Overuse of fertilizer is detrimental to the sustainability of crop production from an economic and environmental perspective. While rice side-deep fertilization technology can significantly improve fertilizer utilization efficiency, improve crop yield and reduce environmental pollution caused by improper use of fertilizer compared with conventional fertilization methods. Therefore, side-deep fertilization technology has an important role in the sustainable development of agriculture. This article describes fertilizer selection, side-deep fertilization devices and the effects of side-deep fertilization technology on rice plants and soil. We summarize the types and characteristics of side-deep fertilizers and their ratios and modes. The basic principles and characteristics of the key components of mechanical fertilization devices are described in detail, including fertilizer discharging devices (rotating disc type, outer groove wheel type, screw type), fertilizer conveying devices (pneumatic, mechanical forced type) and sensors. The effects and mechanisms of side-deep fertilization on rice growth, yield, quality, fertilizer utilization efficiency and soil microorganisms are summarized. Finally, based on current research on side-deep fertilization, future directions are identified to aid the development of this promising technology.

Review Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Alchanatis, V, Ridel, L, Hetzroni, A and Yaroslavsky, L (2005) Weed detection in multi-spectral images of cotton fields. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 47, 243260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alimate, B, Fofana, B, Sansan, Y, Ebenezer, S, Robert, A and Opoku, A (2015) Effect of deep placement with urea super granule on nitrogen use efficiency of irrigated rice in Sourou Valley (Burkina Faso). Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 102, 7989.Google Scholar
Anh, PTQ, Gomi, T, MacDonald, LH, Mizugaki, S, Van Khoa, P and Furuichi, T (2014) Linkages among land use, macronutrient levels, and soil erosion in northern Vietnam: a plot-scale study. Geoderma 23, 352362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anton, F, Hubert, Z and Georg, B (2007) Mass Flowmeter for Screw Conveyors Based on Capacitive Sensing. Instrumentation & Measurement Technology Conference. IEEE, Warsaw, Poland. Scholar
Aphale, A, Bolander, N, Park, J, Shaw, L, Svec, J and Wassgren, C (2003) Granular fertilizer particle dynamics on and off a spinner spreader. Biosystems Engineering 85, 319329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arif, BT (2010) Variable rate fertilizer application in Turkish wheat agriculture: economic assessment. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5, 647652.Google Scholar
Atique-ur, R, Farooq, M, Nawaz, A and Ahmad, R (2014) Influence of boron nutrition on the rice productivity, kernel quality and biofortification in different production systems. Field Crops Research 169, 123131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azeem, B, Kushaari, KZ, Man, ZB, Basit, A and Trinh, TH (2014) Review on materials & methods to produce controlled release coated urea fertilizer. Journal of Controlled Release 181, 1121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bacenetti, J, Paleari, L, Tartarini, S, Vesely, FM, Foi, M, Movedi, E, Ravasi, RA, Durello, S, Ceravolo, C, Amicizia, F and Confalonieri, R (2020) May smart technologies reduce the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilization? A case study for paddy rice. Science of the Total Environment 715, 136956.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Behera, SK and Panda, RK (2013) Effect of fertilization on crop responses and solute transport for rice crop in a sub-humid and sub-tropical region. Paddy & Water Environment 11, 227239.Google Scholar
Bei, SK, Zhang, YL, Li, TT, Christie, P, Li, XL and Zhang, JL (2018) Response of the soil microbial community to different fertilizer inputs in a wheat-maize rotation on a calcareous soil. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 260, 5869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Birrell, SJ and Hummel, JW (2001) Real-time multi ISFET/FIA soil analysis system with automatic sample extraction. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 32, 4567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burks, TF, Shearer, SA, Heath, JR and Donohue, KD (2005) Evaluation of neural-network classifiers for weed species discrimination. Biosystems Engineering 91, 293304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cai, XB (2002) Effect of different methods of application on degenerated soil in middle part of Tibet. Journal of Soil Water Conservation 16, 5176.Google Scholar
Camacho-Tamayo, JH, Barbosa, AM, Pérez, NM, Leiva, FR and Rodríguez, GA (2009) Operational characteristics of four metering systems for agricultural fertilizers and amendments. Engenharia Agrícola 29, 605613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cao, ZP, Hu, C, Ye, ZN and Wu, WL (2006) Impact of soil fertility maintaining practice on microbial biomass carbon in high production agro-ecosystem in northern China. Acta Ecologica Sinica 26, 14861493.Google Scholar
Cao, SJ, Wang, SJ, Wang, Y, Feng, GZ, Yan, L, Yuan, YM, Du, S and Gao, Q (2019) Physical properties and suitability of common base fertilizers for blending fertilizers. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers 25, 647653.Google Scholar
Champagne, ET, Bett-Garber, KL, Grimm, CC and McClung, AM (2007) Effects of organic fertility management on physicochemical properties and sensory quality of diverse rice cultivars. Cereal Chemistry 84, 320327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, XF, Luo, XW, Wang, ZM, Zhang, MH, Hu, L, Yang, WW, Zeng, S, Zang, Y, Wei, HD and Zheng, L (2015) Design and experiment of fertilizer distribution apparatus with double-level screws. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 31, 1016.Google Scholar
Chen, HZ, Zhu, DF, Lin, XQ and Zhang, YP (2010) Effect of microbial fertilizer on yield and nitrogen use efficiency in rice. Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences 24, 10511055.Google Scholar
Cool, S, Pieters, J, Mertens, KC, Hijazi, B and Vangeyte, J (2014) A simulation of the influence of spinning on the ballistic flight of spherical fertiliser grains. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 105, 121131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corbin, JL, Orlowski, JM, Harrell, DL, Golden, BR, Larry, F and Jason, KL (2016) Nitrogen strategy and seeding rate affect rice lodging, yield, and economic returns in the midsouthern United States. Agronomy Journal 108, 19381943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crusciol, CAC, Costa, AD, Borghi, E, Castro, GSA and Fernandes, DM (2010) Fertilizer distribution mechanisms and side dress nitrogen fertilization in upland rice under no-tillage system. Scientia Agricola 67, 562569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cui, ZL, Zhang, FS, Chen, XP, Miao, YX, Li, JL, Shi, LW, Xu, JF, Ye, YL, Liu, CS, Yang, ZP, Zhang, Q, Huang, SM and Bao, DJ (2008) On-farm evaluation of an in-season nitrogen management strategy based on soil Nmin test. Field Crops Research 105, 4855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cui, BS, Zhao, H, Li, X, Zhang, KJ, Ren, HL and Bai, J (2010) Temporal and spatial distributions of soil nutrients in Hani terraced paddy fields, Southwestern China. Procedia Environmental Sciences 2, 10321042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cui, XW, Zhang, YZ, Gao, JS, Peng, FY and Gao, P (2018) Long-term combined application of manure and chemical fertilizer sustained higher nutrient status and rhizospheric bacterial diversity in reddish paddy soil of central south China. Scientific reports 8, 5564.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ding, YF, Zhao, CH and Wang, QS (2003) Effect of application stage of panicle fertilizer on rice grain yield and the utilization of nitrogen. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University 26, 58.Google Scholar
Drescher, GL, Silva, LSD, Sarfaraz, Q, Drescher, MS, Brunetto, G, Silva, AAKD, Tassinari, A and Silva, L (2021) Rice nitrogen uptake as affected by different nitrogen application depths. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 67, 5365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Du, J, Yang, QJ, Xia, JF and Li, G (2020) Discrete element modeling and verification of an outer groove wheel fertilizer applicator with helical teeth. Transactions of the ASABE 63, 659664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duan, R, Long, XE, Tang, YF, Wen, J, Su, SM, Bai, LY, Liu, RL and Zeng, XB (2018) Effects of different fertilizer application methods on the community of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in a paddy soil. Journal of Soil & Sediments 18, 2438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falkowski, PG, Fenchel, T and Delong, EF (2008) The microbial engines that drive Earth's biogeochemical cycles. Science 320, 10341039.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fan, FL, Yang, QB, Li, ZZ, Wei, D, Cui, XA and Liang, YC (2011) Impacts of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nitrification in a cold climate soil are linked to the bacterial ammonia oxidizer community. Microbial Ecology 62, 982990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fu, WQ, Meng, ZJ, Huang, WQ, Chen, LP and Wang, X (2008) Variable rate fertilizer control system based on CAN bus. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 24, 127132.Google Scholar
Grift, TE, Walker, JT and Hofstee, JW (1997) Aerodynamic properties of individual fertilizer particles. Transaction of the ASAE 40, 1320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guo, Z, Han, JC, Li, J, Xu, Y, Wang, XL and Li, Y (2019) Effects of long-term fertilization on soil organic carbon mineralization and microbial community structure. PLoS ONE 14, 216227.Google ScholarPubMed
Hofstee, JW and Huisman, W (1990) Handling and spreading of fertilizers part 1: physical properties of fertilizer in relation to particle motion. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 47, 213234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hu, KJ (2013) The Research on Venturi Feeder in Pneumatic Conveying System (M.S. thesis). Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, China.Google Scholar
Huang, H (2021) Effect of Different Lateral and Deep Nitrogen Application Methods on Nitrogen Utilization, Grain Yield, and Quality of Rice (M.S. thesis). Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.Google Scholar
Huang, H, Jiang, HX, Liu, GM, Yuan, JQ, Wang, Y, Zhao, C, Wang, WL, Huo, ZY, Xu, K, Dai, QG, Zhang, HC, Li, DJ and Liu, GL (2021) Effects of side deep placement of nitrogen on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency. Acta Agronomica Sinica 47, 2322249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huda, A, Gaihre, YK, Islam, MR, Singh, U, Islam, MR, Sanabria, J, Satter, MA, Afroz, H, Halder, A and Jahiruddin, M (2016) Floodwater ammonium, nitrogen use efficiency and rice yields with fertilizer deep placement and alternate wetting and drying under triple rice cropping systems. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 104, 5366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishfaq, M, Akbar, N, Zulfiqar, U, Jabran, K and Farooq, M (2021) Influence of nitrogen fertilization pattern on productivity, nitrogen use efficiencies, and profitability in different rice production systems. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 21, 312324. Scholar
Ji, HJ, Zhang, XX, Dai, ZY, Wang, BH, Tan, CL, Zhang, HX and Zhao, BH (2011) Effect of fertilizer management on grain quality of direct-seeding japonica rice Yang jing 4038. Journal of Yangzhou University (Agricultural and Life Science Edition) 32, 3944.Google Scholar
Jiang, DL, Chen, XG, Yan, LM, Mo, YS and Yang, SM (2019) Design and experiment on spiral impurity cleaning device for profile modeling residual plastic film collector. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 50, 137145.Google Scholar
Ji-Chen, W, Geoff, R, Qi-Wei, H and Qi-Rong, S (2018) Plant growth stages and fertilization regimes drive soil fungal community compositions in a wheat-rice rotation system. Biology & Fertility of Soils 54, 731742.Google Scholar
Jin-Feng, W, Guan-Bao, G, Wu-Xiong, W, Jin-Wu, W, Dong-Wei, Y and Bo-Wen, C (2018) Design and experiment of key components of side deep fertilization device for paddy field. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 49, 92104.Google Scholar
Jin-Feng, W, Wen-Hu, S, Wu-Xiong, W, Jin-Wu, W, Qi, W and Xin-Sheng, C (2021) Design and experiment of disc ejection type paddy field side deep fertilization device. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 52, 6272.Google Scholar
Jing, J, Zhang, F, Rengel, Z and Shen, J (2013) Localized fertilization with P plus N elicits ammonium-dependent enhancement of maize root growth and nutrient uptake. Field Crops Research 133, 176185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kai-Le, Z, Lin, C, Yong, L, Philip-C, B, JianMing, X and Yu, L (2017) The effects of combinations of biochar, lime, and organic fertilizer on nitrification and nitrifiers. Biology & Fertility of Soils 53, 7787.Google Scholar
Kargbo, MB, Pan, SG and Mo, ZW (2016) Physiological basis of improved performance of super rice (Oryza sativa L.) to deep placed fertilizer with precision hill-drilling machine. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 18, 797804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ke, X, Jun, Z, Hong-Cheng, Z, Jin, H, Bao-Wei, G, Zhong-Yang, H, Qi-Gen, D, Hai-Yan, W, Hui, G, Pei-Jian, Z, Fei-Hu, C, Da-Shan, H, Zhong-Ping, C and Guo-Liang, C (2014) Nitrogen managements of late japonica rice in double-cropping rice area. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer 20, 10631075.Google Scholar
Khanal, S, Anex, RP, Gelder, BK and Wolter, C (2014) Nitrogen balance in Iowa and the implications of corn-stover harvesting. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 183, 2130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, YJ, Kim, HJ, Ryu, KH and Rhee, JY (2008) Fertiliser application performance of a variable-rate pneumatic granular applicator for rice production. Biosystems Engineering 100, 498510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kodaira, M and Shibusawa, S (2013) Using a mobile real-time soil visible-near infrared sensor for high resolution soil property mapping. Geoderma 199, 6479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kretz, D, Callau-Monje, S, Hitschler, M, Hien, A and Raedle, M (2015) Discrete element method (DEM) simulation and validation of a screw feeder system. Powder Technology 287, 131138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumar, VJF and Durairaj, CD (2000) Influence of head geometry on the distributive performance of air-assisted seed drills. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 75, 8195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumar, U, Nayak, AK, Shahid, M, Gupta, VVSR, Panneerselvam, P, Mohanty, S, Kaviraj, M, Kumar, A, Chatterjee, D, Lal, B, Gautam, P, Tripathi, R and Panda, BB (2018) Continuous application of inorganic and organic fertilizers over 47 years in paddy soil alters the bacterial community structure and its influence on rice production. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 262, 6575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leng, XL, Li, ML, Zhang, LZ and Ren, WJ (2018) Design and experiment of horizontal pneumatic screw combination adjustable quantitative fertilizer feeding device for granular fertilizer. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 34, 918.Google Scholar
Li, J, Webb, C, Pandiella, SS, Campbell, GM and Dyakowski, T (2005) Solids deposition in low-velocity slug flow pneumatic conveying. Chemical Engineering & Processing 44, 167173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, HB, Zhang, FS and Shen, JB (2012) Contribution of root proliferation in nutrient-rich patches to nutrient uptake and growth of maize. Pedosphere 22, 776784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, M, Wang, T and Li, L (2019) Effects of long-term nitrogen fertilizer application on rhizosphere microorganisms under different soil types. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 28, 17711784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, ZC, Dai, QG and Ye, SC (2012) Effects of nitrogen application levels on ammonia volatilization and nitrogen utilization during rice growing season. Rice Science 19, 125134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, DX, Fan, XH and Hu, F (2017) Ammonia volatilization and nitrogen utilization efficiency in response to urea application in rice fields of the Taihu lake region, China. Pedosphere 17, 639645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ling, QH (2007) The Theory and Technology of Precise and Quantitative Cultivation of Rice, 1st Edn. Beijing: Agriculture Press.Google Scholar
Linquist, BA, Adviento-Borbe, MA, Pittelkow, CM, Van Kessel, C and Van Groenigen, KJ (2012) Fertilizer management practices and greenhouse gas emissions from rice systems: a quantitative review and analysis. Field Crops Research 135, 1021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, H, Lin, YH, Zhang, YS, Tan, XX and Wang, XH (2008) Effects of long-term fertilization on biodiversity and enzyme activity in grey desert soil. Acta Ecologica Sinica 28, 38983904.Google Scholar
Liu, RL, Li, YH, Wang, F, Zhao, TC, Chen, C, Hong, Y and Zhou, LN (2014) Effect of slow-release fertilizer side bar fertilization technology on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency. Journal of Agricultural Resources and Environment 31, 4549.Google Scholar
Liu, TQ, Fan, DJ, Zhang, XX, Chen, J, Li, CF and Cao, CG (2015) Deep placement of nitrogen fertilizers reduces ammonia volatilization and increases nitrogen utilization efficiency in no-tillage paddy fields in central China. Field Crops Research 184, 8090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li-Wei, L, Zhi-Jun, M, Xiao-Ou, W, Xiao-Fei, A, Pei, W and Guang-Wei, W (2018) Simulation analysis of gas-solid two phase flow in pneumatic conveying fertilizer feeder of rice fertilizer applicator. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 49, 171180.Google Scholar
Lyu, YF, Yang, XD, Pan, HY, Zhang, XH, Cao, HX, Ulgiati, S, Wu, J, Zhang, YZ, Wang, GY and Xiao, YL (2021) Impact of fertilization schemes with different ratios of urea to controlled release nitrogen fertilizer on environmental sustainability, nitrogen use efficiency and economic benefit of rice production: a study case from southwest China. Journal of Cleaner Production 293, 116128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maona, L, Yun-Ling, W, Ardeshir, A and Hai-Jun, Y (2018) Effects of application methods and urea rates on ammonia volatilization, yields and fine root biomass of alfalfa. Field Crops Research 218, 115125.Google Scholar
Marcello, B, Pietro, G and Paolo, M (2013) Aerodynamic properties of six organo-mineral fertiliser particles. Journal of Agricultural Engineering 2, 8395. Scholar
Massoudi, M (2001) On the flow of granular materials with variable material properties. International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 36, 2537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Min, Z, Yuan-Lin, Y, Miao, Z, Bo-Wen, Z, Yu-Hua, T, Bin, Y and Zhao-Liang, Z (2017) Integration of urea deep placement and organic addition for improving yield and soil properties and decreasing N loss in paddy field. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 247, 236245.Google Scholar
Murase, J, Hida, A, Ogawa, K, Nonoyama, T, Yoshikawa, N and Imai, K (2015) Impact of long-term fertilizer treatment on the microeukaryotic community structure of a rice field soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 80, 237243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pan, GK, Zhou, P, Li, ZP, Smith, P, Li, LQ, Qiu, DS, Zhang, XH, Xu, XB, Shen, SY and Chen, XM (2009) Combined inorganic/organic fertilization enhances N efficiency and increases rice productivity through organic carbon accumulation in a rice paddy from the Tai Lake Region, China. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 131, 274280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pan, SQ, Zhao, YX, Jin, L, Qu, GB and Tian, Y (2016) Design and experimental research of external grooved wheel fertilizer apparatus of 2BFJ-6 type variable rate fertilizer applicator. Journal of Chinese Agricultural Mechanization 37, 4042.Google Scholar
Parkash, YS, Bhadoria, PBS, Amitava, R and Rakshit, A (2002) Relative efficacy of organic manure in improving milling and cooking quality of rice. International Rice Research Notes 27, 4344.Google Scholar
Patterson, DE and Reece, AR (1962) The theory of the centrifugal distributor. I: Motion on the disc, near-centre feed. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 7, 232240.Google Scholar
Pennock, D, Bedard-Haughn, A, Kiss, J and Van, DKG (2014) Application of hydropedology to predictive mapping of wetland soils in the Canadian prairie pothole region. Geoderma 23, 199211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qi, XL, Nie, LX, Liu, HY, Peng, SB, Shah, F, Huang, JL, Cui, KH and Sun, LM (2012) Grain yield and apparent N recovery efficiency of dry direct-seeded rice under different N treatments aimed to reduce soil ammonia volatilization. Field Crops Research 134, 138143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qian, Z, Guo-Qing, L, David-D, M and Wei, Z (2017) Variable responses of ammonia oxidizers across soil particle-size fractions affect nitrification in a long-term fertilizer experiment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 105, 2536.Google Scholar
Qin, J, Yang, ZY, Sun, YJ, Xu, H, Lv, TF, Dai, Z, Zheng, JK, Jiang, KF and Ma, J (2017) Effects of nitrogen topdressing for panicle initiation on leaf morphology, photosynthetic production and grain yield of two middle-season hybrid rice. Chinese Journal of Rice Science 31, 391399.Google Scholar
Rahman, MH, Haque, K and Khan, M (2021) A review on application of controlled released fertilizers influencing the sustainable agricultural production: a cleaner production process. Environmental Technology & Innovation 23, 101697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramirez, KS, Craine, JM and Fierer, N (2012) Consistent effects of nitrogen amendments on soil microbial communities and processes across biomes. Global Change Biology 18, 19181927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, TL, Norman, RJ, Ross, WJ, Slato, NA and Wilson, CE (2012) Soil depth coupled with soil nitrogen and carbon can improve fertilization of rice in Arkansas. Soil Science Society of America Journal 76, 268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rudolph, S, Wongleecharoen, C, Lark, RM, Marchant, BP, Garre, S, Herbst, M and Weihermiiller, L (2016) Soil apparent conductivity measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments: a case study from western-Thailand. Geoderma 267, 220229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rychel, K, Meurer, KHE, Brjesson, G, Strmgren, M and Ktterer, T (2020) Deep N fertilizer placement mitigated N2O emissions in a Swedish field trial with cereals. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 118, 4261. Scholar
Savant, NK and Stangel, PJ (1990) Deep placement of urea supergranules in transplanted rice: principles and practices. Fertilizer Research 25, 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savin, MC, Daigh, ALM, Brye, KR, Norman, R and Miller, D (2021) Vertical distribution of fertilizer nitrogen from surface water flooding of a silt loam and clay soil used for rice production. Soil Use Manage 37, 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savka, MA and Farrand, SK (1997) Modification of rhizobacterial populations by engineering bacterium utilization of a novel plantproduced resource. Nature Biotechnology 15, 363368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shi, YY, Chen, M, Wang, XC, Morice, OO, Li, CG and Ding, WM (2018) Design and experiment of variable-rate fertilizer spreader with centrifugal distribution cover for rice paddy surface fertilization. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 49, 8693.Google Scholar
Siddikee, MA, Zereen, MI, Li, CF and Dai, CC (2016) Endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari and different doses of N-fertilizer alter microbial community structure and function in rhizosphere of rice. Scientific Reports 6, 32270.10.1038/srep32270CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simon, RC, Jan, GP, Joris, VA, Jan, VDB, Koen, CM, David, REN, Tim, CVDG and Jürgen, V (2016) Determining the effect of wind on the ballistic flight of fertiliser particles. Biosystems Engineering 151, 425434.Google Scholar
Singh, RA, Singh, OP and Singh, M (1976) Effect of soil compaction and nitrogen placement on weed population, yield and moisture use pattern of rainfed wheat. Plant and Soil 44, 8796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singh, BK, Millard, P, Whiteley, AS and Murrel, JC (2004) Unravelling rhizosphere microbial interactions: opportunities and limitations. Trends in Microbiology 12, 386393.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Six, J, Frey, SD, Thiet, RK and Batten, KM (2006) Bacterial and fungal contributions to carbon sequestration in agroecosystems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70, 555569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sudduth, KA, Drummond, ST and Kitchen, NR (2001) Accuracy issues in electromagnetic induction sensing of soil electrical conductivity for precision agriculture. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 31, 239264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sugirbay, AM, Zhao, J, Nukeshev, SO and Chen, J (2020) Determination of pin-roller parameters and evaluation of the uniformity of granular fertilizer application metering devices in precision farming. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 179, 1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, YJ, Sun, YY, Xu, H, Yang, ZY, Qing, J, Peng, Y and Ma, J (2013) Effects of water-nitrogen management patterns and combined application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on nutrient absorption of hybrid rice Gangyou725. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 46, 13351346.Google Scholar
Sun, JF, Chen, HM, Duan, JL, Liu, Z and Zhu, QC (2020) Mechanical properties of the grooved-wheel drilling particles under multivariate interaction influenced based on 3D printing and EDEM simulation. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 172, 105329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tian, GM, Cai, ZC, Cao, JL and Li, XP (2001) Ammonia volatilization from paddy field and its affecting factors in ZhenJiang hilly region. Acta Pedologica Sinica 38, 324332.Google Scholar
Tripathi, NM, Santo, N, Kalman, H and Levy, A (2018) Experimental analysis of particle velocity and acceleration in vertical dilute phase pneumatic conveying. Powder Technology 330, 239251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vibhu, K, Singh, U, Patil, SK, Magre, H, Shrivastava, LK, Mishra, VN, Das, RO, Samadhiya, VK, Sanabria, J and Diamond, R (2008) Rice growth, grain yield, and floodwater nutrient dynamics as affected by nutrient placement method and rate. Agronomy Journal 100, 526536.Google Scholar
Villette, S, Cointault, F, Piron, E and Chopinet, B (2005) Centrifugal spreading: an analytical model for the motion of fertiliser particles on a spinning disc. Biosystems Engineering 92, 157164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vivanco, L, Rascovan, N and Austin, AT (2018) Plant, fungal, bacterial, and nitrogen interactions in the litter layer of a native Patagonian forest. Peer Journal 6, 4754.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walker, JT, Grift, TE and Hofstee, JW (1997) Determining effects of fertilizer particle shape on aerodynamic properties. Transaction of the ASAE 40, 2127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, XB, Wu, P, Hu, B and Chen, QS (2002) Effects of nitrate on the growth of lateral root and nitrogen absorption in rice. Acta Botanica Sinica 44, 678683.Google Scholar
Wang, J, Xie, HT, Zhang, XD, Zhu, P and Wang, LL (2004) Effect of fertilization on soil microbial biologic carbon in black soil. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 12, 118120.Google Scholar
Wang, SS, Mao, JR and Liu, GW (2005) Mechanism of discharge pulsation of particles feeder and new method of restraining pulsation. Journal of Xian Jiaotong University 39, 3942.Google Scholar
Wang, X, Tang, HL and Shen, JB (2013) Root responses of maize to spatial heterogenous nitrogen and phosphorus. Journal of Plant Nutrition & Fertilizer 19, 10581064.Google Scholar
Wang, Y, Williams, YK, Illiams, K and Jones, M (2017) CFD simulation methodology for gas-solid flow in bypass pneumatic conveying-a review. Applied Thermal Engineering 125, 185208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, XD, Xiang, J, Zhang, YP, Zhang, YK, Wang, YL and Chen, HZ (2020) Research advances and application of rice mechanized transplanting with side deep fertilization technology. China Rice 26, 5357.Google Scholar
Watanabe, T, Wang, G, Taki, K, Ohashi, Y, Kimura, M and Asakawa, S (2010) Vertical changes in bacterial and archaeal communities with soil depth in Japanese paddy fields. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 56, 705715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wei, HY, Chen, ZF, Xing, ZP, Zhou, L, Liu, QY, Zhang, ZZ, Jiang, Y, Hu, YJ, Zhu, JY, Cui, PY, Dai, QG and Zhang, HC (2018) Effects of slow or controlled release fertilizer types and fertilization modes on yield and quality of rice. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 17, 22222234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wei, GJ, Qi, B, Jiao, W, Shi, WS and Jian, SC (2020) Design and experiment of mechanical forced fertilizing device for paddy field. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 51, 161171.Google Scholar
Wen, XY, Jia, HL, Zhang, SW, Yuan, HF, Wang, G and Chen, TY (2020) Test of suspension velocity of granular fertilizer based on EDEM-Fluent coupling. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 051, 6977.Google Scholar
Wopereis-Pura, MM, Watanabe, H, Moreira, J and Wopereis, MCS (2005) Effect of late nitrogen application on rice yield, grain quality and profitability in the Senegal River valley. European Journal of Agronomy 17, 191198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, JQ and Song, XG (2021) Review on development of simultaneous localization and mapping technology. Journal of Shandong University 51, 1631.Google Scholar
Wu, M, Li, GL, Li, WT, Liu, M, Jiang, CY and Li, ZP (2017) Nitrogen fertilizer deep placement for increased grain yield and nitrogen recovery efficiency in rice grown in subtropical China. Frontiers in Plant Science 8, 1227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, L, Fei, D, Hui, H, Min, Z, Shuang, L, Shi-Lin, P and Wan-Jun, R (2018) Effect of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer on grain quality of machine-transplanted hybrid rice. Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences 32, 779787.Google Scholar
Wu, Q, Wang, YH, Ding, YF, Tao, WK, Gao, S, Li, QX, Li, WW, Liu, ZH and Li, GH (2021) Effects of different types of slow-and controlled-release fertilizers on rice yield. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 20, 15031514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xiao-Dan, W, Ya-Liang, W, Yu-Ping, Z, Jing, X, Yi-Kai, Z, De-Feng, Z and Hui-Zhe, C (2021) The nitrogen topdressing mode of indica-japonica and indica hybrid rice are different after side-deep fertilization with machine transplanting. Scientific Reports 11, 94105.Google Scholar
Xie, XB, Shan, SL, Wang, YM, Cao, FB, Chen, JN, Huang, M and Zou, YB (2019) Dense planting with reducing nitrogen rate increased grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in two hybrid rice varieties across two light conditions. Field Crops Research 236, 2432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, JG, Heeraman, DA and Wang, Y (1993) Fertilizer and temperature effects on urea hydrolysis in undisturbed soil. Biology & Fertility of Soils 16, 6365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamuangmorn, S, Insinjoy, R, Lordkaew, S, Dell, B and Prom-u-thai, C (2020) Responses of grain yield and nutrient content to combined zinc and nitrogen fertilizer in upland and wetland rice varieties grown in waterlogged and well-drained condition. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 20, 21122122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, MJ, Yang, L and Li, QD (2003) Agricultural mechanization system of rice production of Japan and proposal for China. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 19, 7782.Google Scholar
Yang, JC, Du, Y, Wu, CF, Liu, LJ, Wang, ZQ and Zhu, QS (2006) Growth and development characteristics of super-high-yielding mid-season japonica rice. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 39, 13361345.Google Scholar
Yang, YD, Ren, YF, Wang, XQ, Hu, YG, Wang, ZM and Zeng, ZH (2018) Ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria responding differently to fertilizer type and irrigation frequency as revealed by Illumina Miseq sequencing. Journal of Soils & Sediments 18, 10291040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, QL, Li, ZH, Li, HW, He, J, Wang, QJ and Lu, CY (2019) Numerical analysis of particle motion in pneumatic centralized fertilizer distribution device based on CFD-DEM. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 50, 8189.Google Scholar
Yang, WW, Fang, LY, Luo, XW, Li, H and Ye, YQ (2020) Experimental study of the effects of discharge port parameters on the fertilizing performance for fertilizer distribution apparatus with screw. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 36, 820.Google Scholar
Yao, ZS, Zheng, XH, Zhang, YN, Liu, CY, Wang, R, Lin, S, Zuo, Q and Butterbach-Bahl, K (2017) Urea deep placement reduces yield-scaled greenhouse gas (CH4 and N2O) and NO emissions from a ground cover rice production system. Scientific Reports 7, 114125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yao, YL, Zhang, M, Tian, YH, Zhao, M, Zhang, BW, Zeng, K, Zhao, M and Yin, B (2018a) Urea deep placement in combination with Azolla for reducing nitrogen loss and improving fertilizer nitrogen recovery in rice field. Field Crops Research 218, 141149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yao, YL, Zhang, M and Tian, YH (2018b) Urea deep placement for minimizing NH3 loss in an intensive rice cropping system. Field Crops Research 218, 254266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yao-Ming, L, Li-Zhang, X, Zhong-Ping, X and Ling-Li, D (2005) Research advances of rice planting mechanization in Japan. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 21, 181184.Google Scholar
Yatskui, A, Lemiere, JP and Cointaulf, F (2017) Influence of the divider head functioning conditions and geometry on the seed's distribution accuracy of the air-seeder. Biosystems Engineering 161, 120134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ye, GP, Lin, YX, Liu, DY, Chen, ZM, Bolan, N, Fan, JB and Ding, WX (2019) Long-term application of manure over plant residues mitigates acidification, builds soil organic carbon and shifts prokaryotic diversity in acidic ultisols. Applied Soil Ecology 133, 2433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yi, Q, Feng, YW, Yang, SM, Lu, YS, Fu, HT, Li, P, Jiang, RP and Tang, SH (2013) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions in paddy field as influenced by fertilization. Ecology and Environmental Sciences 22, 14321437.Google Scholar
Yong-Mei, X, Jin-Yu, Y, Guang-Hui, Z, Jiu-Sheng, S, Hua, L and Xi-He, W (2014) The relationship between long-term carbon input and microbial quotient in grey desert soil of cropland. Xinjiang Agricultural Sciences 51, 23382346.Google Scholar
Yu, WX, Hu, XC, Wang, XX, Chen, YL, Dong, ZZ and Wu, LH (2016) Effects of slow controlled-release fertilizers on yield, quality and economic benefits of Indica-japonica hybrid rice. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin 32, 15.Google Scholar
Yuan, J, Li, M, Ye, F and Zhou, Z (2020) Dynamic characteristic analysis of vertical screw conveyor in variable screw section condition. Science Progress 103, 321333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhang, M, Bai, Z, Zhang, W, Ding, XL, Song, DY, Zhu, JF and Zhu, P (2007) Seasonal change of the long-term fertilization on microbial C and N of arable mollisol. Ecology and Environment 16, 14981503.Google Scholar
Zhang, HC, Wu, GC, Dai, QG, Huo, ZY, Xu, K, Gao, H, Wei, HY, Duanmu, YX, Sun, JY, Zhao, PH, Sha, AQ, Zhou, YY, Li, DJ, Xiao, YC, Wang, BJ and Wu, AG (2010) Formulation of and cultural approach to super-high yielding in japonica hybrid rice. Hybrid Rice 25, 346353.Google Scholar
Zhang, XD, Guo, DW, Blennow, A and Zorb, C (2021) Mineral nutrients and crop starch quality. Trends in Food Science & Technology 114, 4554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhao, CJ, Xun, XZ, Wang, X, Chen, LP, Pan, YC and Meng, ZJ (2003) Advance and prospects of precision agriculture technology system. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 19, 712.Google Scholar
Zhao, YH, Xiong, X and Wu, CX (2021) Effects of deep placement of fertilizer on periphytic biofilm development and nitrogen cycling in paddy systems. Pedosphere 31, 125133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu, CH, Chen, HZ, Zhang, YP, Xiang, J, Zhang, YK, Yi, ZH and Zhu, DF (2019a) Effects of side deep mechanical fertilization on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of early rice. China Rice 25, 4043.Google Scholar
Zhu, CH, Xiang, J, Zhang, YP, Zhang, YK, Zhu, DF and Chen, HZ (2019b) Mechanized transplanting with side deep fertilization increases yield and nitrogen use efficiency of rice in eastern China. Scientific Reports 9, 5667.Google Scholar
Zhu, CH, Zhang, YP, Xiang, J, Zhang, YK, Wu, H, Wang, YL, Zhu, DF and Chen, HZ (2019c) Effects of side deep fertilization on yield formation and nitrogen utilization of mechanized transplanting rice. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 52, 42284239.Google Scholar
Zhu, CH, Li, XY, Chen, HZ, Wu, H, Ouyang, YY, Yu, JQ, Huang, BM and Luo, X (2020) Effects of side deep placement of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency of mechanized direct-seeded rice. Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences 34, 20512058.Google Scholar
Zuo, XJ (2016) Design and Experiment on Air-Blast Rice Side Deep Precision Fertilization Device (M.S. thesis). Northwest A & F University, Yangling, China.Google Scholar
Zuo, XJ, Wu, GW, Fu, WQ, Li, LW, Wei, XL and Zhao, CJ (2016) Design and experiment on air-blast rice side deep precision fertilization device. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 32, 1421.Google Scholar