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Soy product consumption in 10 European countries: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2007

L Keinan-Boker*
Affiliation:
Julius Center for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, DO1.335, University Medical Centre Utrecht (UMCU), PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
PHM Peeters
Affiliation:
Julius Center for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, DO1.335, University Medical Centre Utrecht (UMCU), PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
AA Mulligan
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, UK
C Navarro
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology, Regional Health Council, Murcia, Spain
N Slimani
Affiliation:
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France
I Mattisson
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Orthopaedics, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
E Lundin
Affiliation:
Medical Bio-sciences/Pathology and Public Health and Clinical Medicine/Nutritional Research, University of Umeå, Sweden
A McTaggart
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, UK
NE Allen
Affiliation:
Cancer Research UK, Oxford, UK
K Overvad
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Aarhus University, Denmark
A Tjønneland
Affiliation:
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
F Clavel-Chapelon
Affiliation:
INSERM, E3N–EPIC Group, Institute Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
J Linseisen
Affiliation:
Division of Clinical Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg, Germany
M Haftenberger
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Germany
P Lagiou
Affiliation:
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Greece
V Kalapothaki
Affiliation:
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Greece
A Evangelista
Affiliation:
Unit of Epidemiology, National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy
G Frasca
Affiliation:
Cancer Registry, ‘Civile – M. P. Arezzo’ Hospital, Ragusa, Italy
HB Bueno-de-Mesquita
Affiliation:
Cancer Epidemiology, Centre of Chronic Diseases Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
YT van der Schouw
Affiliation:
Julius Center for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, DO1.335, University Medical Centre Utrecht (UMCU), PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
D Engeset
Affiliation:
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway
G Skeie
Affiliation:
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway
MJ Tormo
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology, Regional Health Council, Murcia, Spain
E Ardanaz
Affiliation:
Cancer Registry of Navarra, Institute of Public Health, Regional Government of Navarra, Spain
UR Charrondière
Affiliation:
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France
E Riboli
Affiliation:
Unit of Epidemiology, National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy
*Corresponding
*Corresponding author: Email L.K.Boker@jc.azu.nl
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Abstract

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Objective:

The aim of this study was to describe the variation of soy product intake in 10 European countries by using a standardised reference dietary method. A subsidiary aim was to characterise the pattern of soy consumption among a sub-group of participants with a habitual health-conscious lifestyle (HHL), i.e. non-meat eaters who are fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

Design:

A 24-hour dietary recall interview (24-HDR) was conducted among a sample (5–12%) of all cohorts (n = 36 900) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Study participants totalled 35 955 after exclusion of subjects younger than 35 or older than 74 years of age. Soy products were subdivided into seven sub-groups by similarity. Distribution of consumption and crude and adjusted means of intake were computed per soy product group across countries. Intake of soy products was also investigated among participants with an HHL.

Results:

In total, 195 men and 486 women reported consuming soy products in the 24-HDR interview. Although soy product intake was generally low across all countries, the highest intake level was observed in the UK, due to over-sampling of a large number of participants with an HHL. The most frequently consumed soy foods were dairy substitutes in the UK and France and beans and sprouts among mid-European countries. For both genders, the sub-group of soy dairy substitutes was consumed in the highest quantities (1.2 g day−1 for men; 1.9 g day−1 for women). Participants with an HHL differed substantially from others with regard to demographic, anthropometric and nutritional factors. They consumed higher quantities of almost all soy product groups.

Conclusions:

Consumption of soy products is low in centres in Western Europe. Soy dairy substitutes are most frequently consumed. Participants with an HHL form a distinct sub-group with higher consumptions of fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals and soy products compared with the other participants.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © CABI Publishing 2002

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