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Household-level double burden of malnutrition in Ethiopia: a comparison of Addis Ababa and the rural district of Kersa

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 August 2021

Lilia Bliznashka*
Affiliation:
Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Building 1, 11th Floor, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Mia M Blakstad
Affiliation:
Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Building 1, 11th Floor, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Yemane Berhane
Affiliation:
Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Yeka Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Amare W Tadesse
Affiliation:
Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Yeka Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK
Nega Assefa
Affiliation:
College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia
Goodarz Danaei
Affiliation:
Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Building 1, 11th Floor, Boston, MA 02115, USA Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
Chelsey R Canavan
Affiliation:
Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Building 1, 11th Floor, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Elena C Hemler
Affiliation:
Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Building 1, 11th Floor, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Wafaie W Fawzi
Affiliation:
Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Building 1, 11th Floor, Boston, MA 02115, USA Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
*
*Corresponding author: Email lilia.bliznashka@gmail.com

Abstract

Objective:

To examine the prevalence of and factors associated with different forms of household-level double burden of malnutrition (DBM) in Ethiopia.

Design:

We defined DBM using anthropometric measures for adult overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), child stunting (height-for-age Z-score <-2 sd) and overweight (weight-for-height Z-score ≥2 sd). We considered sixteen biological, environmental, behavioural and socio-demographic factors. Their association with DBM forms was assessed using generalised linear models.

Setting:

We used data from two cross-sectional studies in an urban (Addis Ababa, January–February 2018), and rural setting (Kersa District, June–September 2019).

Participants:

Five hundred ninety-two urban and 862 rural households with an adult man, adult woman and child <5 years.

Results:

In Addis Ababa, overweight adult and stunted child was the most prevalent DBM form (9 % (95 % CI 7, 12)). Duration of residence in Addis Ababa (adjusted OR (aOR) 1·03 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·06)), Orthodox Christianity (aOR 1·97 (95 % CI 1·01, 3·85)) and household size (aOR 1·24 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·54)) were associated factors. In Kersa, concurrent child overweight and stunting was the most prevalent DBM form (11 % (95 % CI 9, 14)). Housing quality (aOR 0·33 (95 % CI 0·20, 0·53)), household wealth (aOR 1·92 (95 % CI 1·18, 3·11) and sanitation (aOR 2·08 (95 % CI 1·07, 4·04)) were associated factors. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, only housing quality remained a significant factor.

Conclusions:

DBM prevalence was low among urban and rural Ethiopian households. Environmental, socio-economic and demographic factors emerged as potential associated factors. However, we observed no common associated factors among urban and rural households.

Type
Research paper
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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