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Associations of dietary diversity with anaemia and iron status among 5- to 12-year-old schoolchildren in South Africa

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 July 2020

Marina Visser
Affiliation:
Centre of Excellence for Nutrition (CEN), North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Tertia Van Zyl
Affiliation:
Centre of Excellence for Nutrition (CEN), North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Susanna M Hanekom
Affiliation:
Centre of Excellence for Nutrition (CEN), North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Jeannine Baumgartner
Affiliation:
Centre of Excellence for Nutrition (CEN), North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Marinka van der Hoeven
Affiliation:
Centre of Excellence for Nutrition (CEN), North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa Infectious Disease and Public Health, Vrije University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Christine Taljaard-Krugell
Affiliation:
Centre of Excellence for Nutrition (CEN), North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Cornelius M Smuts
Affiliation:
Centre of Excellence for Nutrition (CEN), North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Mieke Faber
Affiliation:
Centre of Excellence for Nutrition (CEN), North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Objective:

To examine the associations of dietary diversity with anaemia and iron status among primary school-aged children in South Africa.

Design:

An analysis was conducted with pooled individual data from the baseline surveys from three previously conducted independent intervention studies. Two different dietary diversity scores (DDS) were calculated based on data from 1-day (1-d) and 3-day (3-d) dietary recall periods, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the associations of dietary diversity with anaemia and iron status.

Setting:

KwaZulu-Natal and North West provinces, South Africa.

Participants:

Children (n 578) 5- to 12-year-old.

Results:

A DDS ≤ 4 was associated with higher odds of being anaemic (1-d P = 0·001; 3-d P = 0·006) and being iron deficient (ID) (3-d P < 0·001). For both recall periods, consumption of ‘vegetables and fruits other than vitamin A-rich’ and ‘animal-source foods (ASF)’ was associated with lower odds of being anaemic (both P = 0·002), and ‘organ meats’ with lower odds of being ID (1-d P = 0·045; 3-d P < 0·001). Consumption of ‘meat, chicken and fish’ was associated with lower odds of being anaemic (P = 0·045), and ‘vegetables and fruits other than vitamin A-rich’, ‘legumes, nuts and seeds’ and ‘ASF’ with lower odds of being ID for the 3-d recall period only (P = 0·038, P = 0·020 and P = 0·003, respectively).

Conclusion:

In order to improve anaemia and iron status among primary school-aged children, dietary diversification, with emphasis on consumption of vegetables, fruits and ASF (including organ meats), should be promoted.

Type
Research paper
Copyright
© The Authors 2020

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