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Glycaemic, gastrointestinal, hormonal and appetite responses to pearl millet and oats porridge breakfast: a randomized, crossover trial

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 October 2018

Jaber Alyami
Affiliation:
Deaprtment of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, King Abdulaziz University(KAU), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, University of Nottingham Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham (NIHR) Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham
Ella Whitehouse
Affiliation:
Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, University of Nottingham
Susan E. Pritchard
Affiliation:
Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham
Caroline L. Hoad
Affiliation:
Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham (NIHR) Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham
Khaled Heissam
Affiliation:
Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, University of Nottingham
Elaine Blackshaw
Affiliation:
Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering (MPCE), Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham.
Sally Cordon
Affiliation:
School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham
Robin C. Spiller
Affiliation:
Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, University of Nottingham Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham (NIHR)
Penny A. Gowland
Affiliation:
Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham (NIHR) Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham
Ian A. Macdonald
Affiliation:
Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham (NIHR) School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham
Guruprasad P. Aithal
Affiliation:
Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, University of Nottingham Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham (NIHR)
Luca Marciani
Affiliation:
Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, University of Nottingham Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham (NIHR)
Moira A. Taylor
Affiliation:
Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham (NIHR) School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham
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Abstract

Type
Abstract
Copyright
Copyright © The Authors 2018 

Wholegrain-based, breakfast-porridge consumption has been associated with beneficial health effects with respect to obesity, and related disease, risk factors(Reference Williams1). Dietary intake of oat grain has been associated with health-promoting characteristics including effects on glycaemic control and satiety(Reference Mackie, Bajka and Rigby2, Reference Rebello, O'Neil and Greenway3). However, limited data are available for ancient grains, such as pearl millet, which has a low glycaemic index(Reference Nambiar, Dhaduk and Sareen4). Pearl millet is also nutritious and increasing its use offers the potential for the development of a more sustainable and resilient agricultural system, with greater plant and dietary diversity(Reference Dwivedi, van Bueren and Ceccarelli5). Accordingly, this study aimed to compare the glycaemic, gastrointestinal, hormonal and appetite responses to a pearl millet and an oat porridge breakfast in healthy volunteers (HVs).

In a cross-over study, 26 HVs consumed two iso-energetic and iso-volumetric (meal volume (mL) +wa ter drink provided (mL)) breakfast porridges made from pearl millet and oats, on two separate occasions. Fasting and postprandial measurements over two hours, were made for glucose levels (using finger prick), plasma insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) (using venous sampling), gastric emptying (using MRI) and appetite (using VAS scales and food diaries). An ad libitum pasta meal was offered at lunchtime and the amount eaten measured.

All subjects completed the two study days. The IAUC0-120 min blood glucose was not significantly different between the porridges (P = 0·106). The AUC 2 h gastric volume was larger for pearl millet (29900, SEM 1637 mL.min) compared with oats (26144, SEM 1670 mL.min) (Fig. 1; P = 0·005). The AUC 2 h GIP concentration was lower for pearl millet (15796, SEM 858 pg/ mL) compared with oats (21643, SEM 1375 pg/ mL) (Fig. 2; P = 0·001). AUC 2 h serum insulin concentration was not significantly different between the porridges (P = 0·129). Subjective appetite ratings, the energy intakes from the ad libitum pasta meal and self-reported daily energy intakes were similar for both porridges (P > 0·05)

Fig. 1. AUC 2 h gastric volume.

Fig. 2. AUC 2 h GIP.

In conclusion, a pearl millet grain breakfast elicits glycaemic, insulinemic and appetite responses comparable to an isoenergetic and isovolumetric oats breakfast. Pearl millet could be an alternative and sustainable breakfast intervention.

References

1.Williams, PG (2014) Adv Nutr 5, 636S673S.Google Scholar
2.Mackie, AR, Bajka, BH, Rigby, NM et al. (2017) Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 313, G239G246.Google Scholar
3.Rebello, CJ, O'Neil, CE & Greenway, FL (2015) Nutr Rev 74, 131147.Google Scholar
4.Nambiar, VS, Dhaduk, J, Sareen, N et al. (2011) J Appl Pharm Sci.Google Scholar
5.Dwivedi, SL, van Bueren, ETL, Ceccarelli, S et al. (2017) Trends Plant Sci 22, 842856.Google Scholar
Figure 0

Fig. 1. AUC 2 h gastric volume.

Figure 1

Fig. 2. AUC 2 h GIP.