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High resolution X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected with Bragg-Brentano geometry on samples of MgO using Ni-filtered and graphite-monochromated CuKαradiation. Selection of the characteristic radiation by Ni-filtering produces severe peak asymmetry, truncates the low-angle foot of the peak, lowers the general level of background on the low angle side, and leaves a remnant Kβpeak for all foils of reasonable thickness. When step-scan data produced by this method are used for Rietveld analysis, all of these features cause difficulties in fitting a smooth function to the background and in successfully modelling the detailed profiles of the peaks. On the other hand, Kαradiation from a diffracted-beam monochromator provides inherently more symmetric peaks and a smoothly varying background on both sides of the peak centre, both of which effects can be adequately modelled during Rietveld analysis. The primary disadvantage with monochromation is that, even with very careful setting of the pulse height discrimination, the monochromator may pass a small proportion of the λ/2 component of the incident radiation. In samples containing small quantities (i.e., 2 wt%, or less) of impurity phases, the undesirable features of the diffractometer profile (i.e., asymmetric and truncated background, and Kβand λ/2 peaks) can be of similar intensity to the main peaks arising from the impurities (as well as substructure peaks from the primary phases), thereby leading to difficulties in their identification and quantification. Nevertheless, with due care and long data collection times, the abundances of minor phases can be measured with Rietveld analysis down to levels of the order of 0.1 wt%.
Legislation in the United States and Canada requires labelling of products containing ≥ 0.1 wt.% crystalline silica. Kaolin clays are used in a variety of industries and usually contain low levels of total (i.e., respirable plus non-respirable) quartz, even after beneficiation. X-ray diffraction procedures have been developed here which are suitable for the quantification of total quartz in commercial kaolins with accuracy sufficient to satisfy the legislation. Separation and analysis of the respirable fraction is not addressed in this paper; however, the procedures described would be applicable to such samples if sufficient were available. Use of the 50.1° 2θrather than the 26.6° 26 (CuKα) quartz peak avoids most of the potential problems of overlap with reflections from other accessory minerals. It is shown that profile fitting techniques and optimised experimental procedures allow the determination of quartz in bulk samples to ± 0.03 wt.% (95% confidence) at the 0.1 wt.% level, and ± 0.1 wt.% at the 1.0 wt.% level, with tolerable data collection times.
The importance of surface roughness to the measurement of integrated intensity in X-ray powder diffraction is discussed following studies conducted with materials in both powder and bulk (rolled sheet/billet) forms possessing different absorption characteristics. A simple procedure is described which allows for surface roughness effect.
Limitations in powder diffractometry imposed by scatter slits and/or a diffracted-beam monochromator, which have been ignored in the past, are discussed and mapped quantitatively. These limitations become manifest especially with ωoffsets, i.e.in stress measurements and with ωoscillation to improve the reproducibility of intensities in the presence of too coarse grains. The limitations can only be established with knowledge of slit sizes and with precise alignment of all slits, their holders and the diffracted-beam monochromator. To that end, concise, accurate procedures for obtaining these measurements in-situare proposed.
An algorithm has been derived, forming the basis of a computer program called BBCCURV, which calculates a Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffractometer intensity correction curve (intensity correction factor Kivs. 2θi) given the diffractometer and sample dimensions, and the effective (not theoretical) linear absorption coefficient of the sample. Use of this calibration curve gives a set of intensity data free from aberrations, which are caused mainly by sample transparency, curvature of the diffraction cones passing through the receiving slit and possible beam overflow past the specimen at low angles.
The algorithm was confirmed with a full-profile Rietveld refinement of Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffraction data from a H+-ZSM5 zeolite sample. On introducing a BBCCURV correction curve, the profile R-factor over the pattern points dropped from 30.8% to 16.5%, a significantly better fit when the data were corrected with a BBCCURV curve.
BBCCURV intensity calibration curves from LiF (μ= 1.5 mm−1) through zeolites, clays, ZnO, rutile, Pb(NO3)2and finally solid metal (μ= 1000 mm−1) (CoKα) indicate upward revision of the measured diffractometer intensities by factors of between 2 and 10 at 2θ= 5° for these sample types, normalised to a correction factor of 1.0 at 2θ= 44°. Corrections of this magnitude to Bragg-Brentano data are thus significant in full-profile structure refinement and quantitative analysis with Bragg-Brentano data. Use of a variable divergence slit (VDS) is not appropriate in full-profile refinements as the intensity aberrations are magnified, and conversion from VDS data to aberration-free data is sample- and transparency-dependent, and not the simple area (sinθ)−1function generally assumed. Use of a fixed divergence slit with a BBCCURV-type calibration is recommended.
Search/Match methods were used to identify probable errors in the characterization of certain ruthenate compounds. It is suggested that patterns proposed for incorporation into the JCPDS-ICDD powder diffraction database be validated as original by Search/Match procedures before they are accepted.
X-ray powder patterns for the phases in the CaO-SrO-PbO ternary system, along with the corresponding crystal structures, were obtained from the literature and from the Powder Diffraction File. Available XRD patterns were compared with each other and with a simulated pattern for each phase, yielding a recommended reference pattern. The simulated powder patterns presented here deal with the phases found within the (Ca,Sr)2PbO4solid solution series and are recommended for the Powder Diffraction File (PDF).
Phase transitions were found with use of an in situX-ray anvil-type of apparatus with a boron annulus at pressures up to 12 GPa. The disordering of vacancies in the In sub-structure, or α→βtransition, was found in In2Te3at p > 1.9 GPa. The next transformation from the β-form into the Bi2Te3type of structure was observed in both sesquitellurides at 2.0 GPa and 5.0 GPa for In2TGe3and Ga2Te3respectively. The In2Te3metastable phase of the Bi2Te3resulted from heating up to 200° C at p > 4.0 GPa, and it remained in a normal condition on release of the pressure. The X-ray powder diffraction data of pressure-induced phases, volume changes and bulk modulus of both sesquitellurides are given. The compressibility anisotropy of the layer pressure-induced phase was observed. The mechanism of the crystal structure transformation from the face-centered cubic structure into the Bi2Te3type is proposed to be due to the displacement of atoms from the space diagonal of the cube  into -cubic direction and the rhombohedral distortion of the angle between these directions.
K2YZr(PO4)3and K2GdZr(PO4)3were found to have the langbeinite-type structure (K2Mg2(SO4)3). We determined the crystal structure of these compounds from powder diffraction data. They are cubic P213 (no. 198), with a = 10.3346(1)Å and a = 10.3457(3)Å respectively. The intensity values we observed and calculated are reported. Intensity measurements indicate a random distribution of Y3+(Gd3+) and Zr4+on both Mg2+sites of langbeinite.
The high-temperature phases Cu4In, Cu9In4(h) and Cu2In(h) cannot be retained by quenching. In contrast to this, splat-cooling specimens of these alloys yielded single phase products. Cell parameters in the range of homogeneity of these phases were measured. Powder crystal data for Cu4In(W type), Cu9In4(h) (Cu9Al4type) and Cu2In(h) (Ni2In type) are given.
Single crystals and powder samples of Ca2Bi5O5and Ca4Bi6O13have been synthesized and studied using single crystal X-ray diffraction as well as X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. Unit cell dimensions were calculated using a least squares analysis that refined to a δ2θof no more than 0.03°. A triclinic cell was found with space group , a = 10.1222(7), b = 10.1466(6), c = 10.4833(7) Å. α= 116.912(5), β= 107.135(6) and γ= 92.939(6)°, Z = 6 for the Ca2Bi2O5compound. An orthorhombic cell was found with space group C2mm, a = 17.3795(5), b = 5.9419(2) and c = 7.2306(2) Å, Z = 2 for the Ca4Bi6O13compound.
The X-Ray powder diffraction patterns of three franckeite specimens from Bolivia all lack the 2.91 and 2.82 Å reflections of 100 intensity reported in PDF 15-25. A new indexed pattern is given for the franckeite of the San José mine, Oruro.
High temperature superconducting phases in the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O system are ideally represented by the formula TlmCan−1Ba2CunO2(n+1)+m, with m either 1 or 2 and n = 1 to at least 3 (Parkin et at., 1988). Each of these phases contains one or more of the nearly planar CuO2sheets common to the cuprate superconductors. A single Ca atom separates adjacent CuO2sheets (n > 1). Single or double rock salt-like Tl-O layers are separated from the Can−1CunO2nregions by single Ba-O layers. Each of the Ca-containing members of this family crystallizes in a tetgragonal unit cell, with space group 14/mmm for the m = 2 series and P4/mmm for the m = 1 series.
Despite the general interest in this family of superconductors, little has been reported about the m = 1, n = 2 member, TlCaBa2Cu2O7−δ, hereafter called 1122. This lack of work is due at least in part to the difficulty in synthesizing the pure compound (Michel et at., 1991). Additionally, technological interest has focused on members of the family with higher superconducting transition temperatures, particularly Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3Oywith Tcup to 125 K. The critical temperature of 1122 has been reported from as low as 50 K (Hervieu et al., 1988) to as high as 103 K (Morosin et al., 1988), and at several values in between (Ganguli et al., 1988; Liang et al., 1988). Most of the samples had other superconducting phases in addition to 1122. Because of the nearly identical a axis lengths of the unit cells of the Tl-family of superconductors, syntactic intergrowths may be present in such multiphase samples.