Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-v5vhk Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-25T18:43:56.135Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

The Franco-Papal Crusade Negotiations of 1322–3

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 August 2013

Get access


The first two years of the reign of Charles IV, the last Capetian king of France, witnessed detailed negotiations between the French court and the papal curia on the question of organising a crusade to the East. The negotiations are striking proof that on crusading matters the papacy still looked to the French crown to take the lead, attempting to continue a tradition of Franco-papal cooperation on the crusade which was rooted in the mid-thirteenth century. In the earlier period this policy of close cooperation was expressed in the expeditions and projects of St. Louis and Charles of Anjou, the aspirations of such popes as Urban IV and Clement IV, and the exemplary crusading zeal of French nobles like Geoffrey of Sergines, Oliver of Termes and Erard of Valéry. But was Franco-papal cooperation still fruitful in the first decades of the fourteenth century? To answer this question definitively would require an exhaustive survey of the achievements of this aspect of papal crusading policy, of the obstacles facing it and of the various alternative approaches which were open to the Roman church.

Research Article
Copyright © British School at Rome 1980

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


1 For Charles IV and the crusade, see Delaville le Roulx, J., 1886, La France en Orient au xive siècle. Expéditions du Maréchal Boucicaut, Paris: 7985Google Scholar; Lot, F., 1859, ‘Projets de Croisade sous Charles le Bel et sous Philippe de Valois’, Bibliothèque de l'École des chartes (hereafter cited as B.E.C.), xx: 503–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Lot, , 1875, ‘Essai d'intervention de Charles le Bel en faveur des chrétiens d'Orient tenté avec le concours du pape Jean XXII’, B.E.C., xxxvi: 588600Google Scholar.

2 John, Pope XXII, Lettres secrètes et curiales relatives à la France, ed. Coulon, A. and Clémencet, S., 19061972, Paris: no. 1262Google Scholar.

3 Acta aragonensia, ed. Finke, H., 19081922, Leipzig-Berlin: i, no. 314Google Scholar.

4 Tabacco, G., 1953, La casa di Francia nell'azione politca di papa Giovanni XXII, Rome: 139 ffGoogle Scholar.

5 John XXII, Lettres secrètes: no. 1262.

6 Acta arag., i: no. 145.

7 Tabacco, op. cit.; 220–1.

8 de la Roncière, C. Bourel, 1893, ‘Une Escadre franco-papale (1318–1320)’, Mélanges d'Archéologie et d'histoire publiés par l'École française de Rome (hereafter cited as Mélanges), xiii: 416–18Google Scholar.

9 John XXII, Lettres secrètes, no. 1431. For Cilician Armenia, see Luttrell, A., ‘The Hospitallers' Interventions in Cilician Armenia: 1291–1375’, in Boase, T. S. R. (ed.), 1978, The Cilician Kingdom of Armenia, Edinburgh: 118 ffGoogle Scholar.

10 John XXII, Lettres secrètes: no. 1562, cols. 188–90.

11 Tabacco, La casa di Francia: 233. See also 230.

12 John XXII, Lettres secrètes: no. 1562, cols. 191–4.

13 Ibid.: no. 1262.

14 Ibid.: no. 1562, cols. 194–5.

15 Ibid.: nos. 1571–3. See also Annales ecclesiastici, ed. C. Baronio et al., 1864–87, ad ann. 1322, nos. 32–40, xxiv, Paris-Freiburg-Bar le Duc: 181–5; Pope John XXII, Lettres communes, ed. Mollat, G., 19041947, Paris: nos. 18089–92Google Scholar, 18141–9, 18174–5.

16 See Tabacco, La casa di Francia, 234, and cf. Laiou, A. E., 1972, Constantinople and the Latins. The Foreign Policy of Andronicus II 1282–1328, Cambridge (Mass.): 316–17Google Scholar.

17 John XXII, Lettres secrètes: no. 1685, cols. 257–61.

18 Ibid., cols. 261–2. See also Devic, C. and Vaissete, J., 18721892, Histoire générale de Languedoc, Toulouse, ix: 419 ffGoogle Scholar.

19 John XXII, Lettres secrètes: nos. 1683, 1685.

20 Ibid.: nos. 1684, 1710.

21 See Partner, P. D., 1972, The Lands of St Peter. The Papal State in the Middle Ages and the Early Renaissance, London: 315Google Scholar; Mollat, G., 1963, The Popes at Avignon, trans. Love, J., London: 92Google Scholar.

22 John XXII, Lettres secrètes: nos. 1683, 1685.

23 See Ibid.: nos 1693–1709, and comments by Guillemain, B., 1962, La Cour pontificale d'Avignon (1309–1376). Étude d'une société, Paris: 221–2Google Scholar.

24 John XXII, Lettres secrètes: no. 1693.

26 Ibid.: no. 1702. See also nos. 1691, 1693, 1696, 1699, 1701.

27 Ibid.: no. 1696.

28 Ibid.: nos. 1693, 1702.

29 Ibid.: no. 1696.

30 Ibid.: nos. 1708–9.

31 Ibid.: no. 1701.

32 Ibid.: nos. 1691, 1698, 1700–2.

33 Ibid.: no. 1702.

34 Ibid.: no. 1703.

35 Ibid.: no. 1704.

36 Ibid.: no. 1693.

37 Ibid.: no. 1699. Cf. no. 1703.

38 Ibid.: no. 1693.

39 Ibid.: no. 1703.

40 Ibid.: nos. 1693, 1695–8, 1706.

41 Ibid.: no. 1707.

42 Ibid.: no. 1695.

43 Ibid.: no. 1693.

44 Ibid.: no. 1698.

45 Ibid.: no. 1693.

47 Ibid.: no. 1698.

48 Ibid.: nos. 1693, 1697–8, 1701–2, 1706.

49 Ibid.: no. 1698.

50 Ibid.: nos. 1696–8, 1700, 1702–3.

51 Ibid.: nos. 1705–6.

52 Ibid.:no. 1705.

53 Ibid.: no. 1704.

54 Ibid.: no. 1692.

56 Ibid.:nos. 1686–9.

56 Ibid.:no. 1687.

57 Acta arag., i: no. 325.

58 Ibid.: no. 326. See also Renouard, Y., 1934, ‘Les Papes et le conflit franco-anglais en Aquitaine de 1259 à 1337’, Mélanges, li: 288–90Google Scholar; Devic, and Vaissete, , Hist. gén. de Languedoc, ix. 418Google Scholar.

60 Tabacco, La casa di Francia: 262–3.

61 John XXII, Lettres secrètes: no. 1710.

62 For the counter-proposals made by the king and Charles of Valois, see John XXII, Lettres secrètes: no. 1848, cols. 399–402; Acta arag., i: no. 329; Petit, J., 1900, Charles de Valois (1270–1325), Paris: 395400Google Scholar.

63 John XXII, Lettres secrètes: no. 1848, col. 402.

64 Acta arag., i: no. 328.

65 John XXII, Lettres secrètes: no. 1848, cols. 402–6.

67 Ibid.: no. 1850.

68 Ibid.: no. 1894. See also no. 1895.

69 ‘Continuatio chronici Guillelmi de Nangiaco, a monacho benedictino abbatiae S. Dionysii in Francia’, in Bouquet, M. et al. (eds.), 17371904, Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, Paris xx: 639, 644Google Scholar. See also Laiou, Constantinople and the Latins: 318.

70 John XXII, Lettres secrètes: nos. 2308–9; Tabacco, La casa di Francia: 218, 237–8.

71 See, e.g., Devic, and Vaissete, , Hist. gén. de Languedoc, ix: 422Google Scholar; Henneman, J. B., 1971, Royal Taxation in Fourteenth Century France. The Development of War Financing 1322–1356, Princeton: 37Google Scholar.

72 See The War of Saint Sardos (1323–1325). Gascon Correspondence and Diplomatic Documents, ed. Chaplais, P., 1954, London, ixGoogle Scholar.

73 Henneman, Royal Taxation: 37.

74 Cf. Luttrell, A., ‘The Crusade in the Fourteenth Century’, in Hale, J., Highfield, R. and Smalley, B. (eds.), 1965, Europe in the Late Middle Ages, London: 133Google Scholar.

75 For a different view see Tabacco, La casa di Francia: 235–6 (note 4), 262–3.

76 See Henneman, Royal Taxation: 37.

77 Most notoriously in the case of Philip's action against the Templars. See Barber, M., 1978, The Trial of the Templars, CambridgeGoogle Scholar: passim.

78 See, e.g., Bouquet, et al. (eds.), Recueil, xxi: 529–31Google Scholar. For the financing of Louis IX's crusades, see Jordan, W. C., 1979, Louis IX and the Challenge of the Crusade, Princeton: 65–104, 215Google Scholar.

79 See John XXII, Lettres secrètes: no. 1848, cols. 400–1.

80 Tabacco, La casa di Francia: 1–32, is the best treatment of this issue.

81 Cf. Gay, J., 1904, Le Pape Clément VI et les affaires d'Orient (1342–1352), Paris: 163 ffGoogle Scholar.