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Recapitulation and Chronological Progression in John's Apocalypse: Towards a New Perspective

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 November 2003

Keurusseläntie 5B, Fin-35800 Mänttä, Finland


Most critical scholars have adopted some form of recapitulation theory to explain the chronological relationship between the seven seals, trumpets and bowls, but John was more interested in the chronological progression within the last days than is usually acknowledged. The seventh (or sixth) seal does not describe the ‘end’, but ushers in the Day of the Lord, which culminates in the seven bowls. While John does use the technique of recapitulation, he does not do so in the key texts usually adduced in support of the theory.

Research Article
© 2003 Cambridge University Press

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This is a revised version of a paper given to the Revelation seminar of the BNTS Annual Conference in Cambridge, September 2002.