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Following in the Footsteps: Exemplarity, Ethnicity and Ethics in 1 Peter

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 June 2022

Katie Marcar*
Affiliation:
Theology Programme, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand Email: katie.marcar@otago.ac.nz

Abstract

First Peter 1.3–2.10 weaves a new familial and ethnic identity for believers through a complex series of interlocking metaphors. How does this identity influence the ethical exhortation beginning in 2.11? The current article argues that an answer is found in the Greco-Roman structures of exemplarity. First, the article identifies four explicit markers of exemplarity discourse in 1 Peter: ὑπογραμμός (2.21), the footsteps idiom (2.21), the term ἀντίτυπος (3.21) and the term τύποι (5.3). Next, it surveys how exemplarity functioned in the Greco-Roman world. Greek and Roman literature demonstrate a clear preference for domestic exempla. Similarly, as a new family and ethnic group, Christian believers require new exempla suited to their new Christian identity. In this light, 1 Peter's ethical instruction can be more deeply appreciated. Finally, this article investigates how exemplarity dynamics illuminate Jesus as exemplar par excellence in 1 Peter. First Peter depicts Jesus’ passion with language of the Isaianic suffering servant (2.22–5). Jesus’ exemplarity is given to slaves, who are implicitly held up as models for all believers. Exemplarity thus draws its strength from the past (the suffering servant, Jesus) as it challenges those in the present and future (slaves, all believers) to become like these models.

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Articles
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Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

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References

1 K. Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming).

2 J. R. Michaels, 1 Peter (WBC 49; Waco, TX: Word Books, 1988) xxxiv–xxxv, xxxvii, 115; P. J. Achtemeier, 1 Peter: A Commentary on First Peter (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996) 73, 169; J. H. Elliott, I Peter: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AYB 37B; New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000) 81, 456.

3 L. Goppelt, A Commentary on I Peter (trans. J. E. Alsup; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993; German original: Der erste Petrusbrief, ed. F. Hahn; MeyerK 12/1, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1978) 204. For a thorough treatment, see B. J. Price, ‘Παράδɛιγμα and Exemplum in Ancient Rhetorical Theory’ (PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1975). Cf. BDAG 651, 761, 1017–18; BrDAG 1349, 1545, 2166.

4 Fiore, B. and Bland, T. R., ‘Paul, Exemplification, and Imitation’, Paul in the Greco-Roman World: A Handbook, vol. i (ed. Sampley, J. P.; London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2016 2) 169–95, 169–70, 180Google Scholar.

5 Fiore and Bland, ‘Exemplification’, 349–60, 180, 182. Thus, as Osborne notes with regard to 1 Peter, even without μιμέομαι and its cognates, ‘The idea is, nonetheless, present in the letter in several passages (cf. 1,15; 3,17–18; 4,1)’ (T. P. Osborne, ‘Guide Lines for Christian Suffering: A Source-Critical and Theological Study of 1 Peter 2:21–25’, Bib 64 (1983) 381–408, at 393).

6 For more on the use of the flood narrative in 1 Peter, see Marcar, K., ‘In the Days of Noah: Urzeit/Endzeit Correspondence and the Flood Tradition in 1 Peter 3–4’, NTS 63 (2017) 550–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

7 Due to limitations of space, the terms ἀντίτυπος (3.21) and τύποι (5.3) cannot be fully investigated here. However, this article will hopefully function a trailhead for future research.

8 Langlands, R., Exemplarity Ethics in Ancient Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

9 Horrell, D. G., ‘“Race”, “Nation”, “People”: Ethnoracial Identity Construction in 1 Pet. 2:9’, Becoming Christian: Essays on 1 Peter and the Making of Christian Identity (ed. Barclay, J. M. G.; LNTS 394; London: Bloomsbury, 2013) 133–63Google Scholar.

10 Its earliest occurrence is in 2 Macc. 2.28, where it refers to an abridgement. Cf. G. Schrenk, ‘ὑπογραμμός (ὑπογράφω)’, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (ed. G. Kittel; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965) 772–3. Cf. BDAG 1036.

11 Schrenk, ‘ὑπογραμμός', 772.

12 BrDAG 2216.

13 Aeschylus, Cho. 209; E. G. Selwyn, The First Epistle of St. Peter: The Greek Text with Introduction, Notes and Essays (London: Macmillan, 1946) 179.

14 For some examples of ὑπογραμμός used of Christ, see 1 Clem. 16.17; 33.8; Polycarp, Phil. 8.2; Clement of Alexandria, Paed. 1.9.84.2. For the term being used of Paul, see 1 Clem. 5.7. On ὑπογραμμός as synonymous with τύπος, see Origen, Hom. Luc. 19.118. Cf. Schrenk, ‘ὑπογραμμός', 773. Cf. Osborne, ‘Guide Lines’, 392. Polycarp, Phil. 10.1 may be relevant, but is preserved only in Latin.

15 Elliott, I Peter, 65.

16 For example, see 1 Clem. 16; Polycarp, Phil. 8. See further Roux, E. Le, Ethics in 1 Peter: The imitatio Christi and the Ethics of Suffering in 1 Peter and the Gospel of Mark: A Comparative Study (Euguen, OR: Pickwick, 2018) 167Google Scholar.

17 On 1 Clem., see Petitfils, J., Mos Christianorum: The Roman Discourse of Exemplarity and the Jewish and Christian Language of Leadership (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016) 150–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

18 Holmes, M. W., The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations (Baker Academic, 2007) 68–9Google Scholar.

19 The phrase κατ’ ἴχνος ἐπακολουθέω, or its variants, occurs in Philo (Fug. 130; Virt. 64), Chariton (Callirhoe 5.2.1), Plotinus (Enn. 6.7.7) and, in Christian sources, Gregory of Nyssa (Homilies on the Song of Songs 2.67; 15.454), Eusebius (Comm. Ps. 184) and Gregory of Nazianzus (Or. Bas. 15) and Athanasius (Sermo major de fide, Fr. 68). The phrase κατ’ ἴχνος ἀκολουθέω, or its variants, occurs in Plutarch, (Mor. 310 E), Lucian (Hermot. 73), Sostratus (Fragmenta, fr. 4; cf. Stobaeus, Anthologus Anthologium 4.20b.70), Themistius (Or. 5, Ὑπατικὸς ɛἰς τὸν αὐτοκράτορα Ἰοβιανόν, 63d, 68c; Πɛνταɛτηρικός, 104a, 105b) and, in Christian sources, Athanasius (Epistulae ad Castorem, PG 28.888) and Epiphanius (Homilia in Christi resurrectionem 9).

20 τὸ δὲ συγγɛνὲς ἐμβέβακɛν ἴχνɛσιν πατρὸς ἐπ. (Pindar, Pyth. 10.12).

21 Plato, Resp. 8 553a.

22 Trans. F. H. Colson and G. H. Whitaker, LCL.

23 Stumpff, ‘ἴχνος’, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. iii (ed. G. Kittel; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965) 402–6, at 403.

24 See Ignatius, Eph. 12.2; Mart. Pol. 22.1. Elliott, I Peter, 527. Cf. Le Roux, Ethics in 1 Peter, 167–8.

25 Langlands, Exemplary Ethics, 95.

26 Baroin notes that the idiom has several manifestations, such as ‘instare vestigiis, per vestigia vadere, vestigiis ingredi, or else vestigial sequi, or persequi. One also finds sequor on its own and the compound consequor, which means both “to come after” and “to equal”’ (C. Baroin, ‘Remembering One's Ancestors, Following in their Footsteps, Being like them: The Role and Forms of Family Memory in the Building of Identity’, Children, Memory, and Family Identity in Roman Culture (ed. V. Dasen and T. Späth; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) 19–48, at 32).

27 Baroin, ‘Ancestors’, 32–3.

28 Baroin, ‘Ancestors’, 33.

29 Baroin, ‘Ancestors’, 37–8.

30 Juvenal, Sat. 14.35. Cf. Baroin, ‘Ancestors’, 37.

31 Juvenal, Sat. 14.50–8.

32 Marrou, H. I., A History of Education in Antiquity (trans. Lamb, G.; London: Sheed & Ward, 1956) 1012Google Scholar; Skidmore, C., Practical Ethics for Roman Gentlemen: The Work of Valerius Maximus (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1996) 3CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

33 Isocrates and other Greeks used historical examples. See Skidmore, Practical Ethics, 7–12.

34 Fiore notes, ‘Imitation, entailing the copying or repetition of some quality or aspect of a model, is one component of the broader process of exemplification’ (Fiore and Bland, ‘Exemplification’, 169). Langlands identifies a schema of admiration and wonder, comparison and aemulatio; these are followed by further stages of modelling, cognition and discernment (Langlands, Exemplary Ethics, 86–8).

35 For more on the heavy Greek influence on Roman education, see Marrou, Education in Antiquity, 242–54. Also Skidmore, Practical Ethics, 13–14. For more on these Roman exemplars, see M. B. Roller, Models from the Past in Roman Culture: A World of Exempla (Cambridge: Cambridge Universtiy Press, 2018) 32–133.

36 Roller, Models from the Past, 4–5.

37 Roller, Models from the Past, 5.

38 Roller notes that there are more than thirty narratives and references to Horatius as well as one surviving monument (Roller, Models from the Past, 32; cf. 32–65).

39 Roller, Models from the Past, 6.

40 James Petitfils has demonstrated that early Christians used Roman exemplarity discourse to model culturally distinct values such as love (ἀγάπη) and especially humility (ταπɛινοϕροσύνη) (Petitfils, Mos Christianorum, 141–249).

41 Roller, Models from the Past, 6.

42 Roller, Models from the Past, 7.

43 Roller, Models from the Past, 8.

44 For a survey of the use of historical exemplars in various genres in Cicero, see van der Blom, H., Cicero's Role Models: The Political Strategy of a Newcommer (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) 128–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

45 Roller, Models from the Past, 9–10; Petitfils, Mos Christianorum, 32–45. On exempla and the complexity of oral tradition, see Langlands, Exemplary Ethics, 166–205.

46 Achtemeier, 1 Peter, 63–4; Elliott, I Peter, 131–4; Michaels, 1 Peter, lxiii.

47 Petitfils, Mos Christianorum, 141–249.

48 For a nuanced discussion of how ideology is compatible with ambiguity and participatory engagement, see Langlands, Exemplary Ethics, 67–85.

49 Roller, Models from the Past, 54–5; Baroin, ‘Ancestors’; van der Blom, Role Models, 87–103.

50 For an overview, see O. Doonan, ‘Family Values: Ancestral Representation and Social Reproduction in Roman Houses’, Interpretatio rerum: Archaeological Essays on Objects and Meaning by Students of R. Ross Holloway (ed. S. S. Lukesh; Providence, RI: Center for Old World Archaeology and Art, Brown University, 1999) 73–85; Baroin, ‘Ancestors’, 19–48.

51 Roller, Models from the Past, 54–5.

52 Baroin, ‘Ancestors’, 19–20, 27–9, 31–2.

53 Baroin, ‘Ancestors’, 19–20, 37–47; S. Treggiari, ‘Ancestral Virtues and Vices: Cicero on Nature, Nurture and Presentation’, Myth, History and Culture in Republican Rome: Studies in Honour of T. P. Wiseman (ed. D. Braund and C. Gill; Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2003) 139–64, 152–5.

54 On domestica exempla in non-elite families, see Treggiari, ‘Ancestral Virtues’, 148–49, 163.

55 Baroin, ‘Ancestors’, 25–6; Treggiari, ‘Ancestral Virtues’, 153–5.

56 Baroin, ‘Ancestors’, 30.

57 Treggiari, ‘Ancestral Virtues’, 139–64; van der Blom, Role Models, 100–2.

58 Cf. Treggiari, ‘Ancestral Virtues’, 152; van der Blom, Role Models, 101–2.

59 Treggiari, ‘Ancestral Virtues’, 142–8. On the metaphor of weight, see Baroin, ‘Ancestors’, 25–6.

60 Cf. Treggiari, ‘Ancestral Virtues’, 147; van der Blom, Role Models, 94.

61 Treggiari, ‘Ancestral Virtues’, 139–64; van der Blom, Role Models, 1–2.

62 Van der Blom, Role Models, 2.

63 Van der Blom, Role Models, 152.

64 M. Hengel, Crucifixion (London: SCM, 1977) 52; D. W. Chapman and E. J. Schnabel, The Trial and Crucifixion of Jesus: Texts and Commentary (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2015) 571–2.

65 Trans. E. Segal, Plautus: Four Comedies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).

66 E. Segal, Plautus: Four Comedies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996) 225. Also, M. Hammond et al., eds., Plautus: Miles Gloriosus (2nd rev. edn; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979) 111.

67 Achtemeier, 1 Peter, 127; Elliott, I Peter, 370–1; Michaels, 1 Peter, 64–5.

68 K. Demoen, ‘A Paradigm for the Analysis of Paradigms: The Rhetorical Exemplum in Ancient and Imperial Greek Theory’, Rhetorica 15 (1997) 125–58, esp. 140–11; Roller, Models from the Past, 54–5, esp. n. 53; van der Blom, Role Models, 128–44, 152–8; Petitfils, Mos Christianorum, 24, 152–3.

69 De rhetorica ad Alexandrum 32. Trans. E. S. Forster, The Works of Aristotle, vol. xi (Oxford: Clarendon, 1946) 1439a.

70 De rhetorica ad Alexandrum 32.

71 Demoen, ‘Paradigm’, 140. Also Sopater: ɛἰ μἐν οὖν ἀμϕοτέρων ɛὐποροῦμɛν τῶν ὑποδɛιγμάτων, χρησόμɛθα τοῖς ἐπιχωρίοις πρὸ τῶν ξɛνικῶν, ɛἰ δὲ μὴ τοῖς ἐμπίπτουσιν (Scholia ad Hermogenis librum πɛρὶ στάσɛων, Rhetores Graeci iv, p. 731, ll. 12–13).

72 Greek text and translation from M. R. Dilts and G. A. Kennedy, Two Greek Rhetorical Treatises from the Roman Empire: Introduction, Text, and Translation of The Arts of Rhetoric attributed to Anonymous Seguerianus and to Apsines of Gadara (Leiden: Brill, 1997) 168–9.

73 See n. 44 above.

74 Skidmore, Practical Ethics, xv. Also Demoen, ‘Paradigm’, 141.

75 Valerius includes some foreign examples for teaching purposes. See Skidmore, Practical Ethics, 89–91.

76 Cf. Skidmore, Practical Ethics, 89–91.

77 Demoen, ‘Paradigm’, 141. For Cicero, see Tusc. 1.116.

78 Cf. Skidmore, Practical Ethics, 23–4.

79 Skidmore, Practical Ethics, 24.

80 Cf. van der Blom, Role Models, 140.

81 Van der Blom, Role Models, 139–44.

82 Van der Blom, Role Models, 143–4.

83 Cicero, Mur. 66; Sest. 143. For more on these texts, see van der Blom, Role Models, 13–14, 152–8. On the bias in sources, see also Roller, Models from the Past, 9–10.

84 Van der Blom, Role Models, 13–14.

85 Van der Blom, Role Models, 13–15; Skidmore, Practical Ethics, 61, 64–8, 71–2.

86 Verr. 2.4.81. Van der Blom, Role Models, 153–4.

87 Verr. 2.4.81.

88 Verr. 2.5.172. Van der Blom, Role Models, 155–156. Similarly, in Phil. 4.13, Cicero claims that virtue is the inheritance of all Roman people. Cf. Treggiari, ‘Ancestral Virtues’, 144.

89 The novelty of concept is unclear: see van der Blom, Role Models, 155–6. Also Treggiari, ‘Ancestral Virtues’, 144.

90 Van der Blom, Role Models, 152–8.

91 M. Pasco-Pranger, ‘Finding Examples at Home: Cato, Curius Dentatus, and the Origins of Roman Literary Exemplarity’, Classical Antiquity 34 (2015) 296–321, at 312.

92 Van der Blom, Role Models, 158.

93 Van der Blom writes, ‘Cicero taps into the discourse of the nobiles and their claim to the magistracies based on ancestral merit and turns it into a general claim to magistracies which can be argued even by homines novi. In this way, he tries to legitimize his place in the political elite in spite of his novitas’ (Role Models, 157).

94 The literature on these topics is vast. For studies which specifically use the language of exemplarity, see H. Najman, ‘Reconsidering Jubilees: Prophecy and Exemplarity’, Enoch and the Mosaic Torah: The Evidence of Jubilees (ed. G. Boccaccini and G. Ibba; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2009) 229–43; A. Y. Reed, ‘The Construction and Subversion of Patriarchal Perfection: Abraham and Exemplarity in Philo, Josephus, and the Testament of Abraham’, Journal for the Study of Judaism 40 (2009) 185–212; H. Najman and T. Reinhard, ‘Exemplarity and its Discontents: Hellenistic Jewish Wisdom Texts and Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry’, JSJ 50 (2019) 460–96. See also chapter 4, ‘Moses as an exemplum of Native Leadership in Philo's De vita Moses and Josephus’ Antiquities 2–4’, in Petitfils, Mos Christianorum, 87–140.

95 S. A. Adams and Z. Domoney-Lyttle, ‘Introduction: Abraham in Jewish and Christian Authors’, Abraham in Jewish and Early Christian Literature (ed. S. A. Adams and Z. Domoney-Lyttle; London: T&T Clark, 2019) 1–8, at 2.

96 Reed, ‘Patriarchal Perfection’; Najman, ‘Reconsidering Jubilees’, 229–43; Najman and Reinhard, ‘Exemplarity and its Discontents’, 460–96.

97 Reed, ‘Patriarchal Perfection’, 188.

98 Reed, ‘Patriarchal Perfection’, 194.

99 Reed, ‘Patriarchal Perfection’, 195.

100 Petitfils, Mos Christianorum, 152–3.

101 See Petitfils, Mos Christianorum, 153. Cf. 1 Clem. 30.7.

102 Fiore and Bland, ‘Exemplification’, 183.

103 On the links between suffering and ethics in 1 Peter and Mark, see Le Roux, Ethics in 1 Peter, esp. 255–61, on Mark 8.34–8.

104 D. G. Horrell, ‘Jesus Remembered in 1 Peter? Early Jesus Traditions, Isaiah 53, and 1 Peter 2.221–25’, James, 1 & 2 Peter, and Early Jesus Traditions (London: Bloomsbury, 2014) 123–50, at 133.

105 Horrell, ‘Jesus Remembered’, 133.

106 On humility (ταπɛινοϕροσύνη) as a uniquely Christian virtue, see Petitfils, Mos Christianorum, 174–98.

107 For studies on household codes and 1 Peter, see D. L. Balch, Let Wives Be Submissive: The Domestic Code in 1 Peter (Chico, CA: Scholars, 1981); J. H. Elliott, A Home for the Homeless: A Sociological Exegesis of 1 Peter, its Situation and Strategy (London: SCM, 1981); J. W. Aageson, ‘1 Peter 2.11–3.7: Slaves, Wives and the Complexities of Interpretation’, A Feminist Companion to the Catholic Epistles and Hebrew (London: T&T Clark, 2004) 34–49; W. Carter, ‘Going All the Way? Honoring the Emperor and Sacrificing Wives and Slaves in 1 Peter 2.13–3.6’, A Feminist Companion to the Catholic Epistles and Hebrews, 14–33; C. C. Kroeger, ‘Toward a Pastoral Understanding of 1 Peter 3.1–6 and Related Texts’, A Feminist Companion to the Catholic Epistles and Hebrews, 82–8; M. Misset-van de Weg, ‘Sarah Imagery in 1 Peter’, A Feminist Companion to the Catholic Epistles and Hebrews, 50–62; J. G. Bird, Abuse, Power and Fearful Obedience: Reconsidering 1 Peter's Commands to Wives (London: T&T Clark, 2011); Horrell, ‘Between Conformity and Resistance: Beyond the Balch-Elliott Debate towards a Postcolonial Reading of 1 Peter’, Becoming Christian: Essays on 1 Peter and the Making of Christian Identity (LNTS 394; London: Bloomsbury, 2013) 211–38.

108 E. Best, 1 Peter (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982) 117. For a possible Jewish precedent to addressing slaves, see D. L. Balch, ‘Household Codes’, Greco-Roman Literature and the New Testament: Selected Forms and Genres (ed. D. E. Aune; Atlanta: Scholars, 1988) 25–50, 46. Cf. Achtemeier, 1 Peter, 190.

109 Achtemeier, 1 Peter, 199 n. 149; Elliott, I Peter, 513; Le Roux, Ethics in 1 Peter, 180.

110 J. H. Elliott, ‘Backward and Forward ‘in his Steps’: Following Jesus from Rome to Raymond and Beyond. The Tradition, Redaction, and Reception of 1 Peter 2:18–25’, Discipleship in the New Testament (ed. F. F. Sergovia: Fortress, 1985) 184–209, 187; Elliott, I Peter, 513–14; R. Feldmeier, The First Letter of Peter: A Commentary on the Greek Text (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2008) 156.

111 Achtemeier, 1 Peter, 190–1.

112 Elliott, ‘In his Steps’, 188; H. Moxnes, ‘The Beaten Body of Christ: Reading and Empowering Slave Bodies in 1 Peter’, Religion & Theology 21 (2014) 125–41, at 130.

113 Though 1 Peter does not describe Jesus as believers’ ancestor, his status as an exemplar for them is increased when seen in light of Roman conventions.

114 Van der Blom, Role Models, 13.

115 J. de Waal Dryden, Theology and Ethics in 1 Peter: Paraentic Strategies for Christian Character Formation (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006) 172 (emphasis original).

116 De Waal Dryden, Theology and Ethics, 172; Osborne, ‘Guide Lines’, 393.

117 Osborne, ‘Guide Lines’, 393.

118 Elliott, I Peter, 506–10, 516; Achtemeier, 1 Peter, 182; de Waal Dryden, Theology and Ethics, 175.

119 For discussion of this issue, see J. B. Webster, ‘Christology, Imitability and Ethics’, SJT 39 (1986) 309–26; idem, ‘The Imitation of Christ’, TynBul 27 (1986) 95–120.

120 For a detailed overview, see de Waal Dryden, Theology and Ethics, 172–91.

121 De Waal Dryden, Theology and Ethics, 174–91.

122 Michaels, 1 Peter, 136.

123 Osborne, ‘Guide Lines’, 391.

124 For example, see Osborne, ‘Guide Lines’, 381–408; Horrell, ‘Jesus Remembered’, 123–50; Elliott, ‘In his Steps’, 184–209; O. Hofius, ‘The Fourth Servant Song in the New Testament Letters’, The Suffering Servant: Isaiah 53 in Jewish and Christian Sources (ed. B. Janowski and S. Peter; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004) 163–88; de Waal Dryden, Theology and Ethics, 163–91; B. Sargent, Written to Serve: The Use of Scripture in 1 Peter (London: Bloomsbury, 2015) 125–31; P. T. Egan, Ecclesiology and the Scriptural Narrative of 1 Peter (Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2016) 131–52; Le Roux, Ethics in 1 Peter, 93–103, 161–84.

125 Roller, Models from the Past, 8.

126 Roller, Models from the Past, 8.

127 Elliott, I Peter, 514, 523; Achtemeier, 1 Peter, 192, 194; Michaels, 1 Peter, 135; Le Roux, Ethics in 1 Peter, 99, 103, 180, 183.

128 Elliott, I Peter, 523; Le Roux, Ethics in 1 Peter, 99, 183; Achtemeier, 1 Peter, 194.

129 Michaels, 1 Peter, 135; Elliott, I Peter, 514; Achtemeier, 1 Peter, 192, 194; Le Roux, Ethics in 1 Peter, 103, 183.

130 Liebengood argues for the influence of Zechariah on the pastoral language in verse 25 (K. D. Liebengood, The Eschatology of 1 Peter: Considering the Influence of Zechariah 9–14 (SNTSMS 157; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014) 79–104).

131 Achtemeier, 1 Peter, 193. Also Horrell, ‘Jesus Remembered’, 141–4.

132 Elliott, I Peter, 529.

133 Osborne, ‘Guide Lines’, 394; Le Roux, Ethics in 1 Peter, 181–2.

134 Marcar, ‘Days of Noah’, 562.

135 On the possible influence of Isa 53.7 on verse 22, see Osborne, ‘Guide Lines’, 395; Michaels, 1 Peter, 145; Egan, Ecclesiology and the Scriptural Narrative of 1 Peter, 135.

136 Michaels, 1 Peter, 145.

137 Osborne, ‘Guide Lines’, 396.

138 Moxnes, ‘Body of Christ’, 137–8. Also Le Roux, Ethics in 1 Peter, 178–179.

139 Elliott, I Peter, 532.

140 Elliott, I Peter, 533–4; Horrell, ‘Jesus Remembered’, 139; Osborne, ‘Guide Lines’, 399–400.

141 Osborne, ‘Guide Lines’, 399–400.

142 Moxnes, ‘Body of Christ’, 130–1.

143 Osborne, ‘Guide Lines’, 405–6; Horrell, ‘Jesus Remembered’, 139; Michaels, 1 Peter, 149; Elliott, I Peter, 536; Le Roux, Ethics in 1 Peter, 173.

144 Hengel, Crucifixion, 51–63; Osborne, ‘Guide Lines’, 400.

145 Hengel, Crucifixion, 57–9.

146 Hengel, Crucifixion, 61.

147 Hengel, Crucifixion, 61.

148 D. Tombs, ‘Crucifixion, State Terror, and Sexual Abuse’, Union Seminary Quarterly Review 53 (1999) 89–109, esp. 100–107. More recently, see J. R. Reaves et al., eds., When Did We See You Naked? Jesus as a Victim of Sexual Abuse (London: SCM, 2021).

149 Tombs, ‘Crucifixion’, 92–6; Elliott, I Peter, 534.

150 Moxnes, ‘Body of Christ’, 131–3.

151 Moxnes, ‘Body of Christ’, 133.

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