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Solid polymer electrolytes are a crucial class of compounds in the next-generation solid-state lithium batteries featured by high safety and extraordinary energy density. This review highlights the importance of carbonyl-coordinating polymer-based solid polymer electrolytes in next-generation safe and high–energy density lithium metal batteries, unraveling their synthesis, sustainability, and electrochemical performance.
With the massive consumption of fossil fuel in vehicles nowadays, the resulted air pollution and greenhouse gases issue have now aroused the global interest on the replacement of the internal combustion engines with engine systems using renewable energy. Thus, the commercial electric vehicle market is growing fast. As the requirement for longer driving distances and higher safety in commercial electric vehicles becomes more demanding, great endeavors have been devoted to developing the next-generation solid-state lithium metal batteries using high-voltage cathode materials, e.g., high nickel (Ni) ternary active materials, LiCoO2, and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. However, the most extensively investigated solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) are based on polyether-based polymers, especially the archetypal poly(ethylene oxide), which are still suffering from low ionic conductivity (10−7 to 10−6 S/cm at room temperature), limited lithium ion transference number (<0.2), and narrow electrochemical stability window (<3.9 V), restricting this type of SPEs from realizing their full potential for the next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. As a promising class of alternative polymer hosts for SPEs, carbonyl-coordinating polymers have been extensively researched, exhibiting unique and promising electrochemical properties. Herein, the synthesis, sustainability, and electrochemical performance of carbonyl-coordinating SPEs for high-voltage solid-state lithium batteries will be reviewed.
Consumer electronics have caused an unsustainable amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Organic electronics, by means of eco-design, represent an opportunity to manufacture compostable electronic devices.
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), or e-waste, is defined as the waste of any device that uses a power source and that has reached its end of life. Disposing of WEEE at landfill sites has been identified as an inefficient solid waste processing strategy as well as a threat to human health and the environment. In the effort to mitigate the problem, practices such as (i) designing products for durability, reparability, and safe recycling, and (ii) promoting closed-loop systems based on systematic collection and reuse/refurbishment have been identified. In this perspective, we introduce a complementary route to making electronics more sustainable: organic electronics based on biodegradable materials and devices. Biodegradable organic electronics lie at the intersection of research in chemistry, materials science, device engineering, bioelectronics, microbiology, and toxicology. The design of organic electronics for standardized biodegradability will allow composting to be an end-of-life option.
The electric industry is transitioning to higher penetrations of renewables. Hundred per cent renewable penetration is no longer a pipe dream. Rather than by doubling down on existing renewable technologies, we can achieve it by cohesively focusing on the ‘needs’ and working on regulation (regulation should focus on holistic grid needs), operations (e.g., markets and balancing authority products), and innovation (e.g., newer technologies like hydrogen).
Passive daytime radiative cooling (PDRC) is an electricity-free method for cooling terrestrial entities. In PDRC, a surface has a solar reflectance of nearly 1 to avoid solar heating and a high emittance close to 1 in the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) transparent window of the atmosphere (wavelength λ = 8–13 μm) for radiating heat to the cold sky. This allows the surface to passively achieve sub-ambient cooling. PDRC requires careful tuning of optical reflectance in the wide optical spectrum, and various strategies have been proposed in the last decade, some of which are under commercialization. PDRC can be used in a variety of applications, such as building envelopes, containers, and vehicles. This perspective describes the principle and applications of various PDRC strategies and analyzes the cost, and economic and environmental consequences. Potential challenges and possible future directions are also discussed.
This review focuses on state-of-the-art research and development in the areas of flexible and stretchable inorganic solar cells, explains the principles behind the main technologies, highlights their key applications, and discusses future challenges.
Flexible and stretchable solar cells have gained a growing attention in the last decade due to their ever-expanding range of applications from foldable electronics and robotics to wearables, transportation, and buildings. In this review, we discuss the different absorber and substrate materials in addition to the techniques that have been developed to achieve conformal and elastic inorganic solar cells which show improved efficiencies and enhanced reliabilities compared with their organic counterparts. The reviewed absorber materials range from thin films, including a-Si, copper indium gallium selenide, cadmium telluride, SiGe/III–V, and inorganic perovskite to low-dimensional and bulk materials. The development techniques are generally based on either the transfer-printing of thin cells onto various flexible substrates (e.g., metal foils, polymers, and thin glass) with or without shape engineering, the direct deposition of thin films on flexible substrates, or the etch-based corrugation technique applied on originally rigid cells. The advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches are analyzed in terms of achieved efficiency, thermal and mechanical reliability, flexibility/stretchability, and economical sustainability.
For energy storage to be part of the transmission solution, storage developers need to work with transmission owners and follow the Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) transmission planning protocols.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 841 mostly treats Electric Storage Resource (ESR) as a generation asset. To date, no FERC order lays out a path for treating energy storage as a transmission asset. One of FERC-jurisdictional RTOs – Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) – has sent a “storage as a transmission-only asset” proposal to FERC, which FERC did not reject but did not approve either. This MISO filing begs the question – how to treat energy storage as a transmission project? The industry needs to understand how RTO cost allocation works for new and existing transmission projects. To appreciate cost allocation, stakeholders need to grasp the fundamentals of transmission project categories. Because to put together a business case for storage, modeling is essential. And modeling for reliability and economic projects vary. Getting into the weeds of transmission planning is what it takes to treat storage as a transmission asset.
Energy recovery from waste treatment and growing biomass is of great significance for the energy management and sustainable energy supply. It is shown that biomass and various wastes containing carbon are able to significantly contribute to the energy sector.
We describe a possible scenario for the energy development of an European country of the future. In addition to solar, wind, and hydrogen energy, priority should also be given to generating energy using small-sized gasifiers. First, it is sustainable energy since biomass and household waste are always available. Second, this approach will allow us to launch local electric power grids instead of the unified state and interstate grids, which will reduce up to three times the consumption of energy raw materials and financial resources. Third, a new design of electric motors, namely torus motors, will allow one almost halve electricity consumption and open a gateway to new technologies.
A case study of hard disk drives (HDDs) and rare-earth magnets is presented to show the use of decision support tools to identify and assess the barriers and opportunities for circular business models. Pilot demonstration projects, which showcased HDD circular recovery strategies, were useful as a low-risk opportunity for business model experimentation and to build trust among key supply chain actors.
A case study of hard disk drives and rare-earth magnets is presented to show the use of decision support tools (DSTs) to assess the complex interaction of variables that must be considered when demonstrating the viability of circular business models (CBMs). A mix of quantitative and qualitative DSTs such as life cycle assessment, techno-economic assessment, Ostrom's Framework for social-ecological systems, decision trees, and others were implemented by the iNEMI Value Recovery Project team to overcome many of the identified barriers to circular economy. The DSTs were used to guide stakeholder coordination, create and share environmental, logistical and financial data, and generate decision-making flowcharts which promote circular economic strategies. Demonstration projects were used as a low-risk opportunity for business model experimentation and to build trust among key supply chain actors. The tools highlighted by this case study could be useful for establishing or expanding CBMs for other electronic products or components, especially components containing critical materials.
A scalable battery recycling strategy to recover and regenerate solid electrolytes and cathode materials in spent all solid-state batteries, reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gases.
With the rapidly increasing ubiquity of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), sustainable battery recycling is a matter of growing urgency. The major challenge faced in LIB sustainability lies with the fact that the current LIBs are not designed for recycling, making it difficult to engineer recycling approaches that avoid breaking batteries down into their raw materials. Thus, it is prudent to explore new approaches to both fabricate and recycle next-generation batteries before they enter the market. Here, we developed a sustainable design and scalable recycling strategy for next-generation all solid-state batteries (ASSBs). We use the EverBatt model to analyze the relative energy consumption and environmental impact compared to conventional recycling methods. We demonstrate efficient separation and recovery of spent solid electrolytes and electrodes from a lithium metal ASSB and directly regenerate them into usable formats without damaging their core chemical structure. The recycled materials are then reconstituted to fabricate new batteries, achieving similar performance as pristine ASSBs, completing the cycle. This work demonstrates the first fully recycled ASSB and provides critical design consideration for future sustainable batteries.
Circular energy transformation of Turkey is essential to strengthen the national energy security. Turkey will benefit from moving towards a circular economy.
Circular economy (CE) has gained much attention due to global warming and climate change which are the most serious issues faced in the world. The United Nations has been struggling with the issues regarding sustainable development by releasing some programs and legislations, which are mostly supported by the EU. The EU's CE including both economy and energy within the scope of low-carbon world is binding for Turkey's energy transition. Among renewables, solar energy preserved the leading capacity expansion with an increase of 98 GW in 2019 in the world. Solar photovoltaic (PV) has become a mainstream energy source among renewables. Since the PV installation has been growing all around the world, several countries especially China, Germany, and the UK pay special attention to a sustainable PV waste management concept. We present the special case of Turkey within the global CE along with the current status of renewable energy in the global energy transformation. Turkey's energy outlook and the EU's targets are reviewed, and the significant role of solar energy in the CE transition process of Turkey has been revealed. We suggested adding a vision of “More Circular” to her new energy policy “More Domestic, More Renewable.”
Lack of data on available agriwaste by type of source, local variations in agricultural consumption, and the uncertain feasibility of industrial scaling, all contribute to the challenges of developing commercially viable agriwaste-to-resource building products. Materials Passports linked to Building Management Information systems are tools that can improve regional planning efforts and the coordination of sustainable supply chains focused on new product development and product stewardship.
Globally, an estimated 3.5 kg per capita of daily agricultural waste is transferred to municipal landfills. Stated differently, 7.8 billion people generate 26.25 billion kg of daily agriwaste. Numerous studies established linkages between leachates from solid waste landfills, bioaccumulation of toxic chemicals, and greenhouse gas emissions that are a leading cause of climate change. Furthermore, raw material scarcity threatens to constrain economic growth and productivity. Sustainable circular economy practices focus on increased efficiency and a decoupling of wasted natural resource consumption from economic growth. Academic and industry researchers are focused on developing circular economy solutions that increase resource efficiency while decoupling wasted natural resource consumption from economic growth. Human acceptance and adaptation of technology are ideologically, culturally, and socio-technically dependent. Waste banana peels are used as an analytical scenario of how BIM modeling can improve the production of localized, affordable, and culturally appropriate building materials. Ideological and cultural norms are a precursor for socio-technical acceptance. Building material selection is examined from the perspective of complex factors creating uncertain economic valuations, and socio-cultural variations in the definition of waste. The objective of the research is to open multidisciplinary examination of the practices and choices that determine affordably safe building materials.
A 250kW hydrogen electrolysis facility was recently installed at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority's (NELHA's) campus. This facility that will begin operation in 2020 to produce hydrogen for fuel cell buses on the island to demonstrate of the application of hydrogen to decarbonize transportation. Given the size of the electrolysis station, it has the potential to significantly increase electricity costs for the campus, which is subject to energy and peak demand charges from the local utility.
In this paper, we analyze the cost of hydrogen production at NELHA given the rate structure options available from the utility. Production costs are estimated using optimal versus constant scheduling of the facility to meet the buses’ demand. A model of the electrolysis station is used to capture changes in production efficiency over the power range in the optimization routine. The effects of combining the station and campus load versus standalone operation and increasing solar generation are also explored. The analyses surrounding this scenario show the importance of multiple factors on the potential profitability of hydrogen production in behind-the-meter applications and show trends that could have implications for other similar installations.
A perspective on the current state of battery recycling and future improved designs to promote sustainable, safe, and economically viable battery recycling strategies for sustainable energy storage.
Recent years have seen the rapid growth in lithium-ion battery (LIB) production to serve emerging markets in electric vehicles and grid storage. As large volumes of these batteries reach their end of life, the need for sustainable battery recycling and recovery of critical materials is a matter of utmost importance. Global reserves for critical LIB elements such as lithium, cobalt, and nickel will soon be outstripped by growing cumulative demands. Despite advances in conventional recycling strategies such as pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, they still face limitations in high energy consumption, high greenhouse gas emissions, as well as limited profitability. While new direct recycling methods are promising, they also face obstacles such as the lack of proper battery labeling, logistical challenges of inefficient spent battery collection, and components separation. Here, we discuss the importance of recovering critical materials, and how battery designs can be improved from the cell to module level in order to facilitate recyclability. The economic and environmental implications of various recycling approaches are analyzed, along with policy suggestions to develop a dedicated battery recycling infrastructure. We also discuss promising battery recycling strategies and how these can be applied to existing and future new battery chemistries.
The circular economy aspects of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) waste conversion into value-added products are discussed concerning different governmental policies and industrial protocol for plastic degradation.
The use of microbial enzymes such as PET hydrolase is discussed regarding PET (polyethylene terephthalate) degradation.
The primary purpose of this perspective is a critical analysis of the correlation of the current state-of-the-art rising circular economy platform enacted across the world with close looping of PET (polyethylene terephthalate)-based plastic polymer disposal and sustainable recycling and upcycling technology. The goal of the upcycling process is to get the low-cost value-added monomer than those obtained from the hydrocarbon industry from the sustainability prospect. A summary of the circular bio-economic opportunities has also been described. Next, how the PET hydrolase enzyme degrades the PET plastic is discussed. It is followed by an additional overview of the effect of the mutant enzyme for converting 90% of plastics into the terephthalate monomer. A site-directed mutagenesis procedure obtains this particular mutant enzyme. The diversity of different microbial organism for producing PET hydrolase enzyme is finally discussed with a suggested outlook of the circular economy goal from the viewpoint of plastic degradation objectives soon.
The sustainable integration of human activities into the global ecosystem is discussed, pointing out fatal anthropogenic heat as a major ecological problem and proposing global technical and economical solutions.
For human sake, we must get out of the “thermal age” and implement the “electroprotonic era” as soon as possible. Contrary to thermal power, electroprotonic is sustainable and can be produced by photoenzymatic systems, a cheap way to produce hydrogen (H2) or ammonia (NH3). We can accelerate the advent of this new era if we re-integrate external costs generated by thermal energies into their final prices. The author is leading the H2GREEN project in Belgium as an entrepreneur for more than a decade, which develops the photoenzymatic production of dihydrogen from water. The aim of the H2GREEN project is to contribute to the launch of a low-cost, renewable Hydrogen-based local economy as an energy carrier. Among the difficulties of this launch, the most important is certainly the lack of competitiveness due to the unfair competition of carbon products that externalizes their costs (CO2, oil spills, lethal pollution, armed conflicts, political oppression, foreign dependence, etc.).
Placing a large storage project at one transmission node influences the transmission flows in the model. Hence, planners need an approach that estimates future storage services and logically places storage at multiple transmission nodes.
In planning models, it is hard to forecast which service storage might provide at any given hour because storage provides a wide variety of services such as capacity benefit, peaker replacement, reduction in renewable energy curtailment, and ancillary services. But transmission planning models are required to address North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) reliability standards and criteria, with assumptions for planned additions of generation, transmission, and demand response resources. Hence, planners must assume a basic set of services for storage resources.
And this paper outlines a suggested approach to site storage resources in planning models by focusing on the generator interconnection queue for utility-scale storage and energy-intensive industries for commercial and industrial customers.
Role of MOFs in CO2 chemical conversion; Photocatalytic and electrocatalytic CO2 reduction; Role of linkers and metals in CO2 chemical conversion; and MOF composites and films in CO2 conversion.
In this review, we analyze the emerging field of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as catalysts for chemical conversion of CO2, with examples ranging from heterogeneous CO2 organic transformation to heterogeneous CO2 hydrogenation, from photocatalytic to electrocatalytic CO2 reduction. We also discuss the role of MOF composites and films in CO2 transformation. Our goal is to have an instrument useful to identify the best MOFs for CO2 conversion.
A comparison between electrochemical carbon dioxide conversion and reforestation is presented. By comparing thermodynamic and forestry data, recommendations for technology development can be made.
With the global average temperature steadily increasing due to anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, there has been increasing interest worldwide in new technologies for carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). This coincides with the decrease in cost of deployment of intermittent renewable electricity sources, specifically solar energy, necessitating development of new methods for energy storage. Carbon dioxide conversion technologies driven by photovoltaics aim to address both these needs. To adequately contribute to greenhouse gas reduction, the carbon dioxide conversion technology deployed should have a substantially higher rate of carbon dioxide removal than planting an equivalent-sized forest. Using consistent methodologies, we analyze the effectiveness of model photovoltaic-driven carbon dioxide conversion technologies that produce liquid alcohols as compared to planting an equivalent forest. This analysis serves to establish an energy use boundary for carbon dioxide conversion technology, in order to be a viable alternative as a net carbon negative technology.
Hydrogen is often touted as the fuel of the future, but hydrogen is already an important feedstock for the chemical industry. This review highlights current means for hydrogen production and use, and the importance of progressing R&D along key technologies and policies to drive a cost reduction in renewable hydrogen production and enable the transition of chemical manufacturing toward green hydrogen as a feedstock and fuel.
The chemical industry is at the core of what is considered a modern economy. It provides commodities and important materials, e.g., fertilizers, synthetic textiles, and drug precursors, supporting economies and more broadly our needs. The chemical sector is to become the major driver for oil production by 2030 as it entirely relies on sufficient oil supply. In this respect, renewable hydrogen has an important role to play beyond its use in the transport sector. Hydrogen not only has three times the energy density of natural gas and using hydrogen as a fuel could help decarbonize the entire chemical manufacturing, but also the use of green hydrogen as an essential reactant at the basis of many chemical products could facilitate the convergence toward virtuous circles. Enabling the production of green hydrogen at cost could not only enable new opportunities but also strengthen economies through a localized production and use of hydrogen. Herein, existing technologies for the production of renewable hydrogen including biomass and water electrolysis, and methods for the effective storage of hydrogen are reviewed with an emphasis on the need for mitigation strategies to enable such a transition.