In the wake of the demolition of the Berlin Wall and the erection of the Maastricht Treaty, intense debate rages over all factors contributing to both unity and diversity in Europe. While issues circulating around markets, currency, and national sovereignty receive greater play in the media, the discussion of parallel issues of European legal unity has been more longstanding. The case can be made that Europe (with the exception of England) has long had a great degree of legal unity. The Roman civil law and the canon law of the church, with some texts of feudal law, became a common learned law, the ius commune, developed and disseminated in the universities in the Middle Ages. This written legal heritage spread from Italian schools, beginning with Bologna, and was “received” in Germany, France, Spain, and even Scotland in the course of the sixteenth century. It was displaced finally with nineteenth-century codifications of national law, which strove to enshrine the legislatively enunciated genius and uniqueness of the nation.