Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-dnb4q Total loading time: 0.256 Render date: 2022-07-04T07:31:16.651Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

RITUAL EMULATION OF ANCIENT MAYA ELITE MORTUARY TRADITIONS DURING THE CLASSIC PERIOD (AD 250–900) AT CAHAL PECH, BELIZE

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 October 2018

Anna C. Novotny
Affiliation:
Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 79410 (anna.novotny@ttu.edu)
Jaime J. Awe
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011
Catharina E. Santasilia
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521
Kelly J. Knudson
Affiliation:
Center for Bioarchaeological Research, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287

Abstract

In this study, we employ multiple lines of evidence to elucidate the use of mortuary ritual by the ruling elite at the ancient Maya site of Cahal Pech, Belize, during the Early Classic and early Late Classic periods (AD 250–630). The interments of multiple individuals in Burial 7 of Structure B1, the central structure of an Eastern Triadic Assemblage or “E-group” style architectural complex, were in a manner not consistent with the greater Belize River Valley, the only multiple individual human burial yet encountered at Cahal Pech. The sequential interments contained a suggestive quantity of high-quality artifacts, further setting them apart from their contemporaries. Among these artifacts were a set of bone rings and a hairpin inscribed with hieroglyphs, some of the few inscriptions ever found at Cahal Pech. We analyzed regional mortuary patterns, radiogenic strontium values, and radiocarbon data to test hypotheses about who these individuals were in life, why they were treated differently in death, and to reconstruct the sequence of events of this complex mortuary deposit. We contend that the mortuary practices in Burial 7 indicate an attempt by the Cahal Pech elite to identify with cities or regions outside the Belize River Valley area.

En este estudio empleamos múltiples líneas de evidencia para elucidar el uso de rituales mortuorios por parte de la elite gobernante en el antiguo sitio Maya de Cahal Pech, Belice, durante los períodos Clásico temprano y Clásico tardío temprano (250–630 dC). Los individuos hallados en el Entierro 7 de la Estructura B1, el edificio central de un complejo tríadico o “Grupo E”, fueron sepultados de una forma que no es congruente con las costumbres funerarias del valle del Río Belice. Aún más, se trata del único entierro múltiple registrado en Cahal Pech hasta el día de hoy. Estos entierros se hicieron de manera consecutiva y presentan una cantidad de artefactos de alta calidad, distanciándolos de las costumbres mortuorias contemporáneas. Entre estos artefactos se halló un juego de anillos de hueso y un broche para cabello inscrito con glifos, el cual representa una de las pocas inscripciones encontradas en Cahal Pech. En este trabajo analizamos patrones mortuorios regionales, valores de estroncio radiogénicos y datos de radiocarbono para poner a prueba nuestra hipótesis acerca de quiénes fueron estos individuos en vida, por qué fueron tratados de manera diferente en la muerte y cuál fue la secuencia de eventos que contribuyeron a este complejo depósito mortuorio. Sugerimos que las prácticas mortuorias del Entierro 7 parecen indicar un intento por parte de la elite de Cahal Pech de identificarse con ciudades o regiones fuera del área del Valle del Río Belice.

Type
Article
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by the Society for American Archaeology 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Astor-Aguilera, Miguel 2010 The Maya World of Communicating Objects: Quadripartite Crosses, Trees, and Stones. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
Audet, Carolyn M. 2006 The Political Organization of the Belize Valley: Evidence from Baking Pot, Xunantunich, and Cahal Pech. PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville.Google Scholar
Awe, Jaime J. 1985 Archaeological Investigations at Caledonia, Belize. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario.Google Scholar
Awe, Jaime J. 1992 Dawn in the Land Between the Rivers: Formative Occupation at Cahal Pech, Belize and Its Implication for Preclassic Developments in the Maya Lowlands. PhD dissertation, Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London.Google Scholar
Awe, Jaime J. 2013 Journey on the Cahal Pech Time Machine: An Archaeological Reconstruction of the Dynastic Sequence at a Belize Valley Maya Polity. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 10:3350.Google Scholar
Awe, Jaime J. 2018 Archaeological Evidence for the Preclassic Origins of the Maya Creation Story and the Resurrection of the Maize God at Cahal Pech, Belize. In The Myths of the Popol Vuh in Cosmology and Practice, edited by Moyes, Holley, Christenson, Allen, and Sachse, Frauke. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, in press.Google Scholar
Awe, Jaime J., and Helmke, Christophe G.B. 2005 Alive and Kicking in the 3rd to 6th Centuries A.D.: Defining the Early Classic in the Belize River Valley. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 2:3952.Google Scholar
Awe, Jaime J., and Zender, Marc 2016 K’awiil Chan K’inich, Lord of K’an Hix: Royal titles and Symbols of Rulership at Cahal Pech, Belize. Mexicon 38(6):157165.Google Scholar
Awe, Jaime J., Campbell, Mark D., and Conlon, Jim 1991 Preliminary Analysis of the Spatial Configuration of the Site Core at Cahal Pech, Belize and Its Implications for Lowland Maya Social Organization. Mexicon 12(2):2530.Google Scholar
Awe, Jaime J., Weinberg, Douglas M., Guerra, Rafael, and Schwanke, Myka 2005 Archaeological Mitigation in the Upper Macal River Valley: Final Report of Investigations Conducted Between June–December 2003, January–March 2004, October–December 2004. Manuscript on file, Institute of Archaeology, NICH, Belmopan, Belize.Google Scholar
Awe, Jaime J., Hoggarth, Julie A., and Aimers, James J. 2017 Of Apples and Oranges: The Case of E-groups and Eastern Triadic Architectural Assemblages in the Belize River Valley. In Early Maya E-Groups, Solar Calendars, and the Role of Astronomy in the Rise of Lowland Maya Urbanism, edited by Freidel, David A., Chase, Arlen F., Dowd, Anne, and Murdock, Jerry F., pp. 412449. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
Balcaen, Lieve I.L., De Schrijver, Isabel, Moens, Luc, and Vanhaecke, Frank 2005 Determination of the 87Sr/86Sr Isotope Ratio in USGS Silicate References Materials by Multi-Collector ICP Mass Spectrometry. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 24:251255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, Ellen E., Sharer, Robert J., Traxler, Loa P., Sedat, David W., Carrelli, Christine W., and Grant, Lynn A. 2004 Tombs and Burials in the Early Classic Acropolis at Copan. In Understanding Early Classic Copan, edited by Bell, Ellen E., Canuto, Marcello A., and Sharer, Robert J., pp. 131157. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Bentley, R. Alexander 2006 Strontium Isotopes from the Earth to the Archaeological Skeleton: A Review. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 13(3):135187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bourdieu, Pierre 1984 Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Translated by Nice, Richard. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
Bourdieu, Pierre 1989 Social Space and Symbolic Power. Sociological Theory 7(1):1425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braswell, Geoffrey E. (editor) 2003 The Maya and Teotihuacan: Reinterpreting Early Classic Interaction. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
Bronk Ramsey, Christopher 2008 Radiocarbon Dating: Revolutions in Understanding. Archaeometry 50(2):249275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bullard, William R. Jr., and Bullard, Mary Ricketson 1965 Late Classic Finds at Baking Pot, British Honduras. Royal Ontario Museum of Art and Archaeology, Toronto, Ontario.Google Scholar
Buikstra, Jane E., and Ubelaker, Douglas 1994 Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains 44. Arkansas Archaeological Survey Research Series, Fayetteville.Google Scholar
Burton, James H. 2008 Bone Chemistry and Trace Element Analysis. In Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton, 2nd ed., edited by Anne Katzenberg, M. and Saunders, Shelley R., pp. 443460. John Wiley and Sons, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chase, Arlen F. 2004 Polities, Politics, and Social Dynamics: “Contextualizing” the Archaeology of the Belize Valley and Caracol. In The Ancient Maya of the Belize Valley, edited by Garber, James F., pp. 320334. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
Chase, Arlen F., and Chase, Diane Z. 1992 Mesoamerican Elites: Assumptions, Definitions, and Models. In Mesoamerican Elites: An Archaeological Assessment, edited by Chase, Diane Z. and Chase, Arlen F., pp. 317. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Chase, Arlen F., and Chase, Diane Z. 1996 More Than Kin and King. Ancient Mesoamerica 37(5):803810.Google Scholar
Chase, Diane Z., and Chase, Arlen F. 1996 Maya Multiples: Individuals, Entries, and Tombs in Structure A34 of Caracol, Belize. Latin American Antiquity 7:6179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chase, Diane Z., and Chase, Arlen F. 2004 Archaeological Perspectives on Classic Maya Social Organization from Caracol, Belize. Ancient Mesoamerica 15(1):139147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chase, Diane Z., and Chase, Arlen F. 2017 Caracol, Belize, and Changing Perceptions of Ancient Maya Society. Journal of Archaeological Research 25(3):185249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Comar, Cyril L. 1963 Some Over-all Aspects of Strontium-Calcium Discrimination. In The Transfer of Calcium and Strontium Across Biological Membranes, edited by Wasserman, Robert Harold, pp. 405418. Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connell, Samuel V. 2000 Were They Well Connected? An Exploration of Ancient Maya Regional Integration from the Middle-Level Perspective of Chaa Creek, Belize. PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California Los Angeles.Google Scholar
Demarest, Arthur A. 1992 Ideology in Ancient Maya Cultural Evolution: The Dynamics of Galactic Polities. In Ideology and Pre-Columbian Civilizations, edited by Demarest, Arthur A. and Conrad, Geoffrey W., pp. 135157. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
Demarest, Arthur A. 1996 Closing Comment. Current Anthropology 37(5):821.Google Scholar
Dolphin, Geoff W., and Eve, Ian S. 1963 The Metabolism of Strontium in Adult Humans. Physics in Medicine and Biology 8(2):193203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donahue, Douglas J., Linick, Timothy W., and Timothy Jull, A.J. 1990 Isotope-Ratio and Background Corrections for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Radiocarbon Measurements. Radiocarbon 32(2):135142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duday, Henri, Courtaud, Patrice, Crubezy, Eric, Sellier, Pascal, and Tillier, Anne-Marie 1990 L'anthropologie « de terrain » : reconnaissance et interprétation des gestes funéraires. In Anthropologie et Archéologie: Dialogue sur les Ensembles Funéraires, Vol. 2, edited by Crubezy, Eric, Duday, Henri, Sellier, Pascal, and Tillier, Anne-Marie, pp. 2950. Bulletin et Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, Paris.Google Scholar
Duncan, William N. 2011 Bioarchaeological Analysis of Sacrificial Victims from a Postclassic Maya Temple from Ixlu, El Petén, Guatemala. Latin American Antiquity 22:549572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eberl, Markus 2005 Muerte, entierro, y ascensión: ritos funerarios entre los antiguos Mayas. Ediciones de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida.Google Scholar
Faure, Gunter 1986 Principles of Isotope Geology. 2nd ed. John Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey.Google Scholar
Fitzsimmons, James L. 2009 Death and the Classic Maya Kings. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
Fitzsimmons, James L., Andrew Scherer, Stephen Houston, and Escobedo, Hector 2003 Guardian of the Acropolis: The Sacred Space of a Royal Burial at Piedras Negras, Guatemala. Ancient Mesoamerica 14(4):449468.Google Scholar
Fox, John W., and Cook, Garrett W. 1996 Constructing Maya Communities. Current Anthropology 37(5):811830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freiwald, Carolyn 2011 Maya Migration Networks: Reconstructing Population Movement in the Belize River Valley During the Late and Terminal Classic. PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison.Google Scholar
Freiwald, Carolyn, Yaeger, Jason, Awe, Jaime, and Piehl, Jennifer 2014 Isotopic Insights into Mortuary Treatment and Origin at Xunantunich, Belize. In The Bioarchaeology of Space and Place. Ideology, Power, and Meaning in Maya Mortuary Contexts, edited by Wroble, Gabriel D., pp. 107139, Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haviland, William A., and Moholy-Nagy, Hattula 1992 Distinguishing the High and Mighty from the Hoi Polloi at Tikal, Guatemala. In Mesoamerican Elites: An Archaeological Assessment, edited by Chase, Diane Z. and Chase, Arlen F., pp. 5060. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Healy, Paul F. 1990 Excavations at Pacbitun, Belize: Preliminary Report on the 1986 and 1987 Investigations. Journal of Field Archaeology 17(3):247262.Google Scholar
Healy, Paul F., Awe, Jaime J., and Helmuth, Herman 1998 An Ancient Maya Multiple Burial at Caledonia, Cayo District, Belize. Journal of Field Archaeology 25(3):261274.Google Scholar
Helmke, Christophe G.B., and Awe, Jaime J. 2012 Ancient Maya Territorial Organisation of Central Belize. Contributions in New World Archaeology 4:5990.Google Scholar
Helmke, Christophe G.B., and Awe, Jaime J. 2016a Sharper Than a Serpent's Tooth: A Tale of the Snake-Head Dynasty as Recounted on Xunantunich Panel 4. The PARI Journal 17(2):122.Google Scholar
Helmke, Christophe G.B., and Awe, Jaime J. 2016b Death Becomes Her: An Analysis of Panel 3, Xunantunich, Belize. The PARI Journal 16(4):114.Google Scholar
Hodell, David A., Quinn, Rhonda L., Brenner, Mark, and Kamenov, George 2004 Spatial Variation of Strontium Isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) in the Maya Region: A Tool for Tracking Ancient Human Migration. Journal of Archaeological Science 31(5):585601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Houk, Brett A. 2015 Ancient Maya Cities of the Eastern Lowlands. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Houston, Stephen, and Stuart, David 1996 Of Gods, Glyphs, and Kings: Divinity and Rulership among the Classic Maya. Antiquity 70:289312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iannone, Gyles 1996 Problems in the Study of Ancient Maya Settlement and Social Organization: Insights from the “Minor Centre” of Zubin, Cayo District, Belize. PhD dissertation, Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London.Google Scholar
Iannone, Gyles 2002 Annales History and the Ancient Maya State: Some Observations on the “Dynamic Model.” American Anthropologist 104(1):6878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iannone, Gyles 2004 Problems in the Definition and Interpretation of “Minor Centers” in Maya Archaeology and with Reference to the Upper Belize Valley. In The Ancient Maya of the Belize Valley: Half a Century of Archaeological Research, edited by Garber, James F., pp. 273286. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
Ishihara-Brito, Reiko, Can, Jorge, and Awe, Jaime J. 2013 Excavations and Conservation of Structure B1-West Face. In The Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance Project: A Report of the 2012 Field Season, edited by Hoggarth, Julie A., Ishihara-Brito, Reiko, and Awe, Jamie J., pp. 7189. Belize Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan, Belize.Google Scholar
Jackson, Sarah E. 2009 Imagining Courtly Communities: An Exploration of Classic Maya Experiences of Status and Identity through Painted Ceramic Vessels. Ancient Mesoamerica 20(1):7185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, Sarah E. 2013 Politics of the Maya Court: Hierarchy and Change in the Late Classic Period. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.Google Scholar
Krejci, Estella, and Patrick Culbert, T. 1995 Preclassic and Classic Burials and Caches in the Maya Lowlands. In The Emergence of Lowland Maya Civilization: The Transition from Preclassic to Early Classic, edited by Grube, Nikolai, pp. 103116. Acta Mesoamericana, Vol. 8, Verlag Anton Saurwein, Mockmuhl, Germany.Google Scholar
Lambert, Joseph B., Weydert, Jane M., Williams, Sloan R., and Buikstra, Jane E. 1990 Comparison of Methods for the Removal of Diagenetic Material in Buried Bone. Journal of Archaeological Science 17(4):453468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LaPorte Molina, Juan Pedro 2003 La tradición funeraria prehispánica en la región de Petén, Guatemala: una visión desde Tikál y otras ciudades. In Antropología de la eternidad: la muerte en la cultura Maya, edited by Ruiz, Andrés C., Sosa, Mario H., and Ponce de León, María J. I., pp. 4976. Sociedad Española de Estudios Mayas y Centro de Estudios Mayas, Madrid, Spain.Google Scholar
LaPorte Molina, Juan Pedro 2005 Exploración y restauración en la plataforma este de Mundo Perdido, Tikál (Estructuras 5D-83 a 5D-89). In XVIII Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, 2004, edited by Arroyo, Bárbara, LaPorte, Juan Pedro, and Mejía, Héctor, pp. 149. Museo Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Guatemala.Google Scholar
Law, Ian A., and Hedges, Robert E.M. 1989 A Semi-Automated Bone Pretreatment System and the Pretreatment of Older and Contaminated Samples. Radiocarbon 31(3):247253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LeCount, Lisa J., and Yaeger, Jason 2010 Provincial Politics and Current Models of the Maya State. In Classical Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterland, edited by LeCount, Lisa J. and Yaeger, Jason, pp. 2045. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
McAnany, Patricia A. 2013 Living with the Ancestors: Kinship and Kingship in Ancient Maya Society. 2nd ed. University of Texas Press, Austin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marcus, George E. 1992 The Concern with Elites in Archaeological Reconstructions: Mesoamerican Materials. In Mesoamerican Elites: An Archaeological Assessment, edited by Chase, Diane Z. and Chase, Arlen F., pp. 6578. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Marcus, Joyce 1993 Ancient Maya Political Organization. In Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eighth Century A.D., edited by Sabloff, Jeremy A. and Henderson, John S., pp. 111183. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Marcus, Joyce 1998 The Peaks and Valleys of Ancient States: An Extension of the Dynamic Model. In Archaic States, edited by Feinman, Gary M. and Marcus, Joyce, pp. 5994. School for American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
Martin, Simon, and Grube, Nikolai 2008 Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens. 2nd ed. Thames and Hudson, New York.Google Scholar
Martin, Simon, and García, Erik Velásquez 2016 Politites and Places: Tracing the Toponyms of the Snake Dynasty. The PARI Journal 17(2):2333.Google Scholar
Mastrangelo, Paola, De Luca, Stefano, and Sanchez-Mejorada, Gabriela 2011 Sex Assessment from Carpals Bones: Discriminant Function Analysis in a Contemporary Mexican Sample. Forensic Science International 209(1–3):196.e1196.e15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, Patricia Theresa 2006 The Royal Burials of Buenavista del Cayo and Cahal Pech: Same Lineage, Different Palaces? Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, San Diego State University, San Diego.Google Scholar
Novotny, Anna C. 2012a Osteological Analysis of Burials B1-1, B1-2, and B1-3 from Tomb 1, Structure B-1, Cahal Pech. In The Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance Project: A Report of the 2011 Field Season, edited by Hoggarth, Julie A., Guerra, Rafael A., and Awe, Jaime J., pp. 5971. Institute of Archaeology, Belmopan, Belize.Google Scholar
Novotny, Anna C. 2012b The Chan Community: A Bioarchaeological Perspective. In Chan: An Ancient Maya Farming Community, edited by Robin, Cynthia, pp. 231252. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
Novotny, Anna C. 2015 Creating Community: Ancient Maya Mortuary Practice at Mid-Level Sites in the Belize River Valley, Belize. PhD dissertation, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe.Google Scholar
Pereira, Gregory 2013 Ash, Dirt, and Rock: Burial Practices at Rio Bec. Ancient Mesoamerica 24(2):449468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prager, Christian, and Braswell, Geoff 2016 Maya Politics and Ritual: An Important New Hieroglyphic Text on a Carved Jade from Belize. Ancient Mesoamerica 27(2):267278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, T. Douglas, Blitz, Jennifer, Burton, James H., and Ezzo, Joseph A. 1992 Diagenesis in Prehistoric Bone: Problems and Solutions. Journal of Archaeological Science 19(5):513529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, T. Douglas, Burton, James H., and Bentley, Robert A. 2002 The Characterization of Biologically Available Strontium Isotope Ratios for the Study of Prehistoric Migration. Archaeometry 44(1):117135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, T. Douglas, Burton, James H., Fullagar, Paul D., Wright, Lori E., Buikstra, Jane E., and Tiesler, Vera 2008 Strontium Isotopes and the Study of Human Mobility in Ancient Mesoamerica. Latin American Antiquity 19:167180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruz Lhuillier, Alberto 1968 Costumbres funerarias de los antiguos Mayas. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Santasilia, Catharina E. 2013a Investigations of a Late Classic Elite Burial at the Summit of Structure B1 at the Site of Cahal Pech, Belize. Master's thesis, Faculty of Humanities, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
Santasilia, Catharina E. 2013b The Discovery of a Protoclassic Maya Tomb: Excavations at the Summit of Structure B1 at Cahal Pech. In The Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance Project: A Report of the 2012 Field Season, edited by Hoggarth, Julie A., Ishihara-Brito, Reiko, and Awe, Jaime J., pp. 90113. Belize Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan, Belize.Google Scholar
Scherer, Andrew K. 2015 Mortuary Landscapes of the Classic Maya: Rituals of Body and Soul. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
Scherer, Andrew K., Golden, Charles, Arroyave, Ana Lucía, and Robles, Griselda Pérez 2014 Danse Macabre: Death, Community, and Kingdom at El Kinel, Guatemala. In The Bioarchaeology of Space and Place, edited by Wrobel, Gabriel D., pp. 193224. Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwake, Sonja 2008 The Social Implications of Ritual Behavior in the Maya Lowlands: A Perspective from Minanha, Belize. PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California San Diego, San Diego.Google Scholar
Sharer, Robert J., and Golden, Charles W. 2004 Kingship and Polity: Conceptualizing the Maya Body Politic. In Continuities and Changes in Maya Archaeology: Perspectives at the Millennium, edited by Golden, Charles W. and Borgstede, Greg, pp. 2350. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
Stanchly, Norbert, and Awe, Jaime J. 2015 Ancient Maya Use of Dog (Canis lupus familiaris): Evidence from the Upper Belize River Valley. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 12:227237.Google Scholar
Stein, Mordechai, Starinsky, Avraham, Katz, Amitai, and Schramm, Alexandra 1997 Strontium Isotopic, Chemical, and Sedimentological Evidence for the Evolution of Lake Lisan and the Dead Sea. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61(18):39753992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuart, David, and Houston, Stephen 1994 Classic Maya Place Names. Research Library and Collection, Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology no. 33. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington DC.Google Scholar
Thornton, Erin Kennedy 2011 Reconstructing Ancient Maya Animal Trade Through Strontium Isotope (86Sr/87Sr) Analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(12):32543263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tiesler, Vera 2007 Funerary or Nonfunerary? New References in Identifying Ancient Maya Sacrificial and Postsacrificial Behaviors from Human Assemblages. In New Perspectives on Human Sacrifice and Ritual Body Treatments in Ancient Maya Society, edited by Tiesler, Vera and Cucina, Andrea, pp. 1445. Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tiesler, Vera, Cucina, Andrea, Kam Manahan, T., Douglas Price, T., Ardren, Traci, and Burton, James H. 2010 A Taphonomic Approach to Late Classic Maya Mortuary Practices at Xuenkal, Yucatán, Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 35(4):365379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiss-Krejci, Estella 2001 Restless Corpse: ‘Secondary Burial’ in the Babenberg and Habsburg Dynasties. Antiquity 75:769780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiss-Krejci, Estella 2003 Victims of Human Sacrifice in Multiple Tombs of the Ancient Maya: A Critical Review. In Antropología de la eternidad: la muerte en la cultura Maya, edited by Ciudad-Ruiz, Andrés, Sosa, Mario H., and Ponce de Leon, María J. I., pp. 355381. Sociedad Española de Estudios Mayas, Madrid.Google Scholar
Welsh, William B.M. 1988 An Analysis of Classic Lowland Maya Burials. BAR International Series 409. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
Wetherington, Ronald K. 1978 The Ceramics of Kaminaljuyu. The Pennsylvania State University Press Monograph Series on Kaminaljuyu Vol. 4. College Station, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Woodfill, Brent K.S., and Andrieu, Chloe 2012 Tikal's Early Classic Domination of the Great Western Trade Route: Ceramic, Lithic, and Iconographic Evidence. Ancient Mesoamerica 23(2):189209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yaeger, Jason, and Freiwald, Carolyn 2009 Complex Ecologies: Human and Animal Responses to Ancient Landscape Change in Central Belize. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 8:8392.Google Scholar
Zender, Marc 2013 Glyphic Inscriptions of the Structure B1 Burials at Cahal Pech, 2011–2012. In The Belize Valley Reconnaissance Project: A Report of the 2013 Field Season, edited by Hoggarth, Julie A. and Awe, Jaime J., pp. 5260. Institute of Archaeology, Belmopan, Belize.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Novotny et al. supplementary material

Novotny et al. supplementary material 1

Download Novotny et al. supplementary material(File)
File 1 MB
5
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

RITUAL EMULATION OF ANCIENT MAYA ELITE MORTUARY TRADITIONS DURING THE CLASSIC PERIOD (AD 250–900) AT CAHAL PECH, BELIZE
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

RITUAL EMULATION OF ANCIENT MAYA ELITE MORTUARY TRADITIONS DURING THE CLASSIC PERIOD (AD 250–900) AT CAHAL PECH, BELIZE
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

RITUAL EMULATION OF ANCIENT MAYA ELITE MORTUARY TRADITIONS DURING THE CLASSIC PERIOD (AD 250–900) AT CAHAL PECH, BELIZE
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *