Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-4nnqn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-10-01T22:32:12.074Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

The Family Cancellariidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Neogene of the Bocas Del Toro Region, Panama, with the description of seven new species

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 May 2016

Bernard Landau
Departamento de Geologia e Centro de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Lisboa 1749-016, Portugal International Health Centres, Av. Infante de Henrique 7, Areias São João, Albufeira 8200, Portugal,
Richard E. Petit
806 Saint Charles Road, North Myrtle Beach, SC 29582, USA
Carlos M. Da Silva
Departamento de Geologia e Centro de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal,


Twenty four species of Cancellariidae belonging to eleven genera occurring in the Neogene Bocas del Toro assemblages, Caribbean Panama, are discussed and figured. The following seven species are described as new: Cancellaria pilula n. sp., Cancellaria isabelae n. sp., Cancellaria stri n. sp., Cancellaria axelolssoni n. sp., Massyla corpulenta n. sp., Aphera trophis n. sp., Admetula valientensis n. sp. The cancellarid genus Charcolleria Olsson, 1942 is considered a synonym of Massyla H. Adams and A. Adams, 1854. Of the 24 species present in the Bocas del Toro, 12 are known also to occur elsewhere in the tropical American Neogene. This level of endemism is high, but not as high as that reported from other Tropical American Neogene assemblages, probably due to the very central geographic location within the Gatunian Province of the Bocas assemblages.

Research Article
Copyright © The Paleontological Society 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Adams, H. and Adams, A. 1853–1858. The genera of Recent Mollusca; Arranged according to their organization. John van Voorst, London. 2 Vols. (1, 1–256, pls. 1–32 (1853); 1, 257–484, 2, 1–92, pls. 33–72 [1854]; 2, 93–284, pls. 73–96 [1855]; 2, 285–412, pls. 97–112 [1856]; 2, 413–540, pls. 113–128 [1857]; 2, 541–660, pls. 129–138 [1858].)Google Scholar
Anderson, F. M. 1929. Marine Miocene and related deposits of north Colombia. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series, 18:73213, pls. 8–23.Google Scholar
Barrios, M. M. 1960. Algunos moluscos del Terciario medio de Colombia. República de Colombia, Servicio Geológico Nacional, Boletín Geológico, 6:213306.Google Scholar
Beesley, P. L., Ross, G. J. B., and Wells, A., (eds.). 1998. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia, Vol. 5. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. Part A, i–xvi, 1–563; Part B, i–viii, 565–1234.Google Scholar
Beu, A. G. 2010. Neogene tonnoidean gastropods of tropical and South America: Contributions to the Dominican Republic and Panama Paleontology Projects and uplift of the Central American Isthmus. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 377378:1–550, figs. 1–6, pls. 1–79.Google Scholar
Böse, E. 1910. Zur jungtertiären Fauna von Tehuantepec. I. Stratigraphie, Beschreibung und Vergleich mit amerikanischen Tertiärfaunen. Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 60:215255, pls. 12–13.Google Scholar
Bouchet, P. and Rocroi, J.-P. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia, 47:1397.Google Scholar
Brocchi, G. B. 1814. Conchiologia fossile subapennina con osservazioni geologiche sugli Apennini e sul suolo adiacente. Stamperia Reale, Milano. 2 Vols., 1:1–240; 2: 241–712, pls. 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, A. P. and Pilsbry, H. A. 1911. Fauna of the Gatun Formation, Isthmus of Panama. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 63:336373, figs. 1–3, pls. 22–29.Google Scholar
Coates, A. G., Aubry, M. P., Berggren, W. A., Collins, L. S., and Kunk, M. 2003. Early Neogene history of the Central American Arc from Bocas del Toro, western Panama. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 115:271287, figs. 1–7.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coates, A. G., Mcneill, D. F., Aubry, M. P., Berggren, W. A., and Collins, L. S. 2005. An introduction to the Geology of the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science, 41:374391.Google Scholar
Collins, L. S. and Coates, A. G. 1999. Introduction. InCollins, L. S. and Coates, A. G.eds.), A paleobiotic survey of the Caribbean faunas from the Neogene of the Isthmus of Panama. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 357:513, figs. 1–13.Google Scholar
Cossmann, M. 1888. Mollusques: Gastéropodes. InRevue de Paléontologie pour l'année 1887, dirigée par M. H. Douvillé. Annuaire Géologique Universel, Revue de Géologie et Paléontologie, 4:765785.Google Scholar
Cossmann, M. 1889. Catalogue illustré des coquilles fossiles de l'Éocène des environs de Paris. Quatrième Fascicule. Annales de la Société Royale Malacologique de Belgique, 24:3381, pls. 1–12. (Also issued as a separate, p. 7–385, 12 pls.)Google Scholar
Crosse, H. 1863. Étude sur le genre cancellaire, et description d'espèces nouvelles (suite). Journal de Conchyliologie, 11:5869, pl. 2.Google Scholar
Dall, W. H. 1888. Gastropods and lamellibranchs, Vol. 2, p. 6276. InAgassiz, A. (ed.), Three cruises of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Steamer “Blake” in the Gulf of Mexico, in the Caribbean Sea, and along the Atlantic Coast of the United States, from 1877 to 1880. Houghton, Mifflin and Company, Boston and New York. Two volumes.Google Scholar
Dall, W. H. 1889. Reports on the results of dredging, under the supervision of Alexander Agassiz, in the Gulf of Mexico (1877–1878) and in the Caribbean Sea (1879–1880) by the U.S. Coast Survey Steamer “Blake,” Lieut.-Commander C. D. Sigsbee, U.S.N., and Commander J.R. Bartlett, U.S.N., commanding. XXIX. Report on the Mollusca. Part II. Gastropoda and Scaphopoda. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 18 (1034):1492, pls. 10–40.Google Scholar
Dall, W. H. 1896. Diagnoses of new species of mollusks from the west coast of America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 18:720.Google Scholar
Dall, W. H. 1908. Reports on the dredging operations off the west coast of Central America to the Galapagos, to the west coast of Mexico, and in the Gulf of California, in charge of Alexander Agassiz, carried on by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer “Albatross,” during 1891, Lieut. Commander Z. L. Tanner, U.S.N., commanding. XXXVII. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific, in charge of Alexander Agassiz, by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer “Albatross,” from October 1904, to March 1905, Lieut. Commander L.M. Garrett, U.S.N., commanding. XIV. The Mollusca and the Brachiopoda. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 43 (6):205487, pls. 1–22.Google Scholar
Deshayes, G. P. 1830. Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire naturelle des vers. Mme Veuve Agasse, Paris, 2 (1):1256.Google Scholar
Forbes, E. and Hanley, S. 1848–1853. A history of British Mollusca and their shells. van Voorst, London. 4 Vols. (Published in parts; for dates of parts see Fisher and Tomlin, 1935, Journal of Conchology, 20:150–151.)Google Scholar
Gabb, W. M. 1873. On the topography and geology of Santo Domingo. Transactions American Philosophical Society, new series, 15:49259, 2 maps.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gómez, P. L. D. and Valerio, G. C. E. 1971. Lista preliminar illustrada de los moluscos fósiles de la formación Río Banano (Mioceno), Limón, Costa Rica. Instituto Geografico Nacional (Costa Rica), Informe Semestral, Enero a Junio, 1971:4362.Google Scholar
Guppy, R. J. L. 1866. On the Tertiary Mollusca of Jamaica. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 22:281295, pls. 16–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guppy, R. J. L. and Dall, W. H. 1896. Descriptions of Tertiary fossils from the Antillean region. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 19 (1110):303331, pls. 27–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hemmen, J. 2007. Annotated and illustrated calatlogue of Recent Cancellariidae. Privately published, Weisbaden, Germany, 428 p.Google Scholar
Hinds, R. B. 1843. Description of ten new species of Cancellaria, from the collection of Sir Edward Belcher. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1843:4749.Google Scholar
Jousseaume, F. P. 1887a. Diagnoses de coquilles nouvelles de la famille des Cancellariidae (Mollusques gastéropodes). Le Naturaliste, Année 9, 2e Série Année, 1:163165.Google Scholar
Jousseaume, F. P. 1887b. La famille des Cancellariidae (Mollusques gastéropodes). Le Naturaliste, Année 9, 2e Série (Année 1), p. 155157, 192–194, 213–214, 221–223.Google Scholar
Jousseaume, F. P. 1888. La famille des Cancellariidae (Mollusques gastéropodes). Paris, 31 p. (Reprint of 1887a and 1887b above, combined into one paper; type reset in reduced size.)Google Scholar
Jung, P. 1965. Miocene Mollusca from the Paraguana Peninsula, Venezuela. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 49 (223):387652, figs. 1, 2, pls. 50–79.Google Scholar
Jung, P. 1969. Miocene and Pliocene mollusks from Trinidad. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 55 (247):289657, figs. 1–4, pls. 13–60.Google Scholar
Jung, P. and Petit, R. E. 1990. Neogene Paleontology in the northern Dominican Republic. 10. The Family Cancellariidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Bulletins of American Paleontology, 98 (334):87144, figs. 1–18, pls. 15–29.Google Scholar
Kantor, Y. I. and Harasewych, M. G. 1992. Morphology of the digestive system of Volutomitra alaskana Dall, 1902 (Gastropoda, Pectinibranchia, Volutomitridae) with notes on the possible mechanism of feeding. Ruthenica, 2:4553, figs. 1–5.Google Scholar
Keen, A. M. 1971. Sea shells of Tropical West America. Marine mollusks from Baja California to Peru. Second edition. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, xiv + 1064 p, numerous non-consecutive figs., pls. 1–22.Google Scholar
Lamarck, J. B. P. A. 1799. Prodrome d'une nouvelle classification des coquilles, comprenant une rédaction appropriée des caractères génériques, et l'établissement d'un grand nombre de genres nouveaux. Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris Mémoire, 1:6391.Google Scholar
Lamarck, J. B. P. A. 1822. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Paris, 7:1711.Google Scholar
Landau, B. M., Kronenberg, G. C., Herbert, G. S., and da Silva, C. M. 2011. The genus Strombus (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Strombidae) in the Neogene of the Bocas del Toro area, Panama, with the description of three new species. Journal of Paleontology, 85:337352, figs. 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landau, B. M. and Petit, R. E. (1996) 1997. New species of Cancellarioidea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the lower Miocene Cantaure Formation of Venezuela. Tulane Studies in Geology and Paleontology, 29:45150, pl. 1. (Separates dated 26 February 1996 instead of 26 February 1997 in error.)Google Scholar
Landau, B. M., Petit, R. E., and da Silva, C. M. 2007. The Pliocene Cancellariidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Cubagua Formation (Cerro Negro Member) from Cubagua Island, with a new species from the Miocene Cantaure Formation, Venezuela. The Veliger, 49:2743, figs. 1–48.Google Scholar
Landau, B. M. and da Silva, C. M. 2010. Early Pliocene gastropods of Cubagua, Venezuela: Taxonomy, palaeobiogeography and ecostratigraphy. Palaeontos, 19:1221, figs. 1–20, pls. 1–23.Google Scholar
Landau, B. M. and da Silva, C. M. 2011. The genus Amarophos Woodring, 1964 (Gastropoda: Buccinoidea) in the tropical American Neogene, with the description of two new species. The Veliger, in press.Google Scholar
Landau, B. M., Vermeij, G. J., and da Silva, C. M. 2008. Southern Caribbean Neogene palaeobiogeography revisited. New data from the Pliocene of Cubagua, Venezuela. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 257:445461, figs. 1, 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landau, B. M., Vermeij, G. J., and da Silva, C. M. 2009. Pacific elements in the Caribbean Neogene gastropod fauna: the source-sink model, larval development, disappearance, and faunal units. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 180:249258.Google Scholar
Linnaeus, C. 1767. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae. Editio duodecimo reformata. Stockholm, 1 (2):5331327.Google Scholar
Löbbecke, T. 1881–1887. Das genus Cancellaria. Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet von Martini und Chemnitz, 4:196, pls. 1–23. (Issued in parts: pt. 309, 1–16, pls. 1–5 [1881]; pt. 335, 17–32, pls. 6–10 [1885]; pt. 340, 33–56, pls. 11–15 [1886]; pt. 343, 57–80, pls. 16–20 [1886]; pt. 346, 81–96, pls. 21–23 [1887].)Google Scholar
Mansfield, W. C. 1925. Miocene gastropods and scaphopods from Trinidad, British West Indies. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 66 (2559):165, pls. 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansfield, W. C. 1929. Plates 16–21. InCooke, C. W. and Mossom, S. (eds.), Geology of Florida. Florida State Geological Survey, Twentieth Annual Report:31227, pls. 1–28.Google Scholar
Mansfield, W. C. 1930. Miocene gastropods and scaphopods of the Choctawhatchee Formation of Florida. Florida State Geological Survey Bulletin, 3:1185, pls. 1–21.Google Scholar
Marks, J. G. 1949. Nomenclatural units and tropical American Miocene species of the gastropod family Cancellariidae. Journal of Paleontology, 23:453464, pl. 78.Google Scholar
Maury, C. J. 1917. Santo Domingo type sections and fossils. Part 1. Mollusca. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 5 (29):165415, pls. 29–65.Google Scholar
Maury, C. J. 1925. A further contribution to the paleontology of Trinidad (Miocene horizons). Bulletins of American Paleontology, 10 (42):153402, pls. 12–54.Google Scholar
Menke, C. T. 1828. Synopsis methodica molluscorum generum omnium et specierum earum, quae in Museo Menkeano adservantur; cum synonymia critica et novarum specierum diagnosibus, auctore Carolo Theodoro Menke. M. Dre. Henrici Gelpke, Pyrmonti, xii + 91 p.Google Scholar
Mogollón, V. A. 2001. Moluscos marinos del Perú: Nuevos registros y datos sobre especies poco conocidas. Wiñay Yachay, 5:93115.Google Scholar
Morlet, L. 1888. Catalogue des coquilles fossiles recueillies dans quelques localités récemment exploitées du Bassin de Paris et description des espèces nouvelles. Journal de Conchyliologie, 36:136220, pls. 8–10.Google Scholar
Nelson, E. T. 1870. On the molluscan fauna of the later Tertiary of Peru. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Science, 2:186206, pls. 6–7. (Also issued as a separate, p. 3–23, pls. 6–7.) (A Spanish translation of this work was published in 1980 [Sobre la fauna de moluscos del Terciario Superior del Peru. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica del Peru, 66:67–81, illustr.; not seen] and the taxa were listed by the Zoological Record in 1984 as having been described in 1980.)Google Scholar
Oinomikado, T. 1939. Miocene Mollusca from the neighbourhood of Cucurrupi, Department of Choco, Colombia. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan, 46:103116, pl. 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olsson, A. A. 1922. The Miocene of northern Costa Rica. With notes on its general stratigraphic relations. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 9 (39):174482, pls. 4–35.Google Scholar
Olsson, A. A. 1932. Contributions to the Tertiary paleontology of northern Peru: Part 5, The Peruvian Miocene. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 19 (68):1272, pls. 1–24.Google Scholar
Olsson, A. A. 1942. Tertiary and Quaternary fossils from the Burica Peninsula of Panama and Costa Rica. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 27 (106):153258, pls. 14–25.Google Scholar
Olsson, A. A. 1964. Neogene mollusks from northwestern Ecuador. Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, 1256, pls. 1–38.Google Scholar
Olsson, A. A. 1967. Some Tertiary mollusks from south Florida and the Caribbean. Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York61p., 9 pls. (Reprinted 1993 in Paleontological Research Institution Special Publication No. 19.)Google Scholar
Perrilliat, M. del C. 1973. Monografia de los moluscos del Mioceno Medio de Santa Rosa, Veracruz, México. Parte II. (Gasterópodos: Mitridae a Terebridae). Paleontología Mexicana, 35:197.Google Scholar
Petit, R. E. 1967. Notes on Cancellariidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Tulane Studies in Geology, 5:217219, fig. 1.Google Scholar
Petit, R. E. 1970. Notes on Cancellariidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)—II. Tulane Studies in Geology and Paleontology, 8:8388, pl. 1.Google Scholar
Petit, R. E. 1976. Notes on Cancellariidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)—III. Tulane Studies in Geology and Paleontology, 12:3343, pls. 1–2.Google Scholar
Petit, R. E. and Harasewych, M. G. 1990. Catalogue of the Superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). The Nautilus, Supplement 1:169.Google Scholar
Petit, R. E. and Harasewych, M. G. 1998. Cancellaria (Euclia) laurettae, a new species of Cancellariidae (Mollusca: Neogastropoda) from western Panama. The Nautilus, 112:113116, figs. 1–4.Google Scholar
Petit, R. E. and Harasewych, M. G. 2005. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)—Second edition. Zootaxa, 1102:1161.Google Scholar
Petit, R. E. and Harasewych, M. G. 2011. A new Sveltia (Gastropoda: Cancellariidae) from off Guadeloupe, French West Indies. The Nautilus, 125:7274.Google Scholar
Petit de la Saussaye, S. 1844. Cancellaria cumingiana n. sp. Magasin de Zoologie, Deuxième Série, 6:1 unnumbered page, pl. 112.Google Scholar
Petuch, E. J. 1981. A relict Neogene Caenogastropod fauna from northern South America. Malacologia, 20:307347, figs. 1–130.Google Scholar
Petuch, E. J. 1982. Geographical heterochrony: Comtemporaneous [sic] coexistence of Neogene and Recent molluscan faunas in the Americas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 37:277312, figs. 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petuch, E. J. 1987. New Caribbean molluscan faunas. The Coastal Education and Research Foundation, Charlottesville, Virginia. 1154 + A1–4 p, 29 pls.Google Scholar
Petuch, E. J. 1988. Neogene history of tropical American mollusks. Biogeography and evolutionary patterns of tropical western Atlantic Mollusca. Coastal Education and Research Foundation, Charlottesville, Virginia, 217p, 23 figs., 39 pls.Google Scholar
Petuch, E. J. 1994. Atlas of Florida fossil shells (Pliocene and Pleistocene marine gastropods). Chicago Spectrum Press, 394p, 20 figs., 100 pls.Google Scholar
Petuch, E. J. 2004. Cenozoic seas. The view from eastern North America. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Louisiana. 308p, 34 figs., 98 pls.Google Scholar
Philippi, R. A. 1848. Testaceorum novorum centuria. (Continuatio.). Zeitschrift für Malakozoologie, 5 (2):1727.Google Scholar
Pilsbry, H. A. 1931. The Miocene and Recent Mollusca of Panama Bay. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 83:427440, figs. 1–5, pl. 41.Google Scholar
Pilsbry, H. A. and Johnson, C. W. 1917. New Mollusca of the Santo Domingan Oligocene. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 69:150202.Google Scholar
Pilsbry, H. A. and Olsson, A. A. 1941. A Pliocene fauna from western Ecuador. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 93:179, pls. 1–19.Google Scholar
Pitt, W. D. and Pitt, L. 1992. Naticidae (Mollusca: Mesogastropoda) from the Neogene of northwestern Ecuador. Tulane Studies in Geology and Paleontology, 25:109138.Google Scholar
Pitt, W. D. and Pitt, L. 1993. Ultra-violet light as a useful tool for identifying mollusks, with examples from the Gatun Formation, Panama. Tulane Studies in Geology and Paleontology, 26:113, pls. 1–4.Google Scholar
Ponder, W. F. 1973. The origin and evolution of Neogastropoda. Malacologia, 12:295338, figs. 1–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Ponder, W. F. and Warén, A. 1988. Classification of the Caenogastropoda and Heterostropha—A list of the family-group names and higher taxa, p. 288328. InPonder, W. F. (ed.), Prosobranch Phylogeny. Malacological Review, Supplement 4 Appendix.Google Scholar
Reeve, L. A. 1856. Monograph of the genus Cancellaria. Conchologia Iconica, 10, (unpaginated text), pls. 1–18.Google Scholar
Riccardi, A. C. 2009. “IUGS ratified ICS Recommendation on redefinition of Pleistocene and formal definition of base of Quaternary.” International Union of Geological Sciences. Scholar
Röding, P. F. 1798. Museum Boltenianum sive catalogus cimeliorum e tribus regnis naturae quae olim collegerat Joa. Fried Bolten, M.D.p.d. Pars Secunda continens conchylia sive testacea univalvia, bivalvia and multivalvia. Johan. Christi. Trappii., Hamburgi, viii + 199 p. (Reprinted 1906 by Sherborn, C.D. and Sykes, E.R.; 1986 by American Malacological Union, Inc.)Google Scholar
Rosenberg, G., Kuncio, R. S., Davis, G. M., and Harasewych, M. G. 1994. Ribosomal RNA phylogeny of selected gastropod and unionacean bivalve mollusks, p. 111121. InHarasewych, M. G. and Tillier, S. (eds.), Molecular Techniques and Molluscan Phylogeny. Proceedings of a symposium held at the 11th International Malacological Congress, Siena, 1992. The Nautilus, Supplement 2.Google Scholar
Rutsch, R. F. 1934. Die Gastropoden aus dem Neogen der Punta Gavilan in Nord-Venezuela. Abhandlungen der Schweizerischen Palaeontologischen Gesellschaft, 54–55:1169, pls. 1–9.Google Scholar
Shasky, D. R. 1961. New deep water mollusks from the Gulf of California. The Veliger, 4:1821, pl. 4, figs. 1–10.Google Scholar
Smith, M. 1940. New Recent and fossil molluscs from Florida. The Nautilus, 54:4446, pl. 2.Google Scholar
Solander, D. C. 1766. (Descriptions of species). InBrander, G., Fossilia hantoniensia collecta, et in Musaeo Britannico deposita, a Gustavo Brander. Londini. vi + 43p, 9 pls.Google Scholar
Sowerby, G. B. 1832. I. Characters and descriptions of new species of Mollusca and Conchifera collected by Mr. Cuming. Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, Part II for 1832:5061.Google Scholar
Sowerby, G. B. 1849. II. Monograph of the genus Cancellaria. Thesaurus Conchyliorum, 2:439461, pls. 92–96. (Reprinted 1985 by Luis Pisani Burnay, Lisboa.)Google Scholar
Toula, F. 1909. Eine jungtertiäre Fauna von Gatun am Panama-Kanal. Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 58:673760, pls. 25–28.Google Scholar
Tryon, G. W. 1885. Family Cancellariidae. Manual of Conchology, 7:6598, pls. 1–7.Google Scholar
Tuomey, M. and Holmes, F. S. 1855–1857. Pleiocene fossils of South Carolina. Russell and Jones, Charleston, xvi + 152p, 30 pls. (1–30, pls. 1–12 [1855]; 31–144, pls. 13–28 [1856]; 145–152, i–xvi, pls. 29–30 [1857].) (Reprinted 1974, Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, N. Y.)Google Scholar
Vermeij, G. J. and Petuch, E. J. 1986. Differential extinction in tropical American molluscs: Endemism, architecture, and the Panama land bridge. Malacologia, 27:2941.Google Scholar
Weisbord, N. E. 1929. Miocene Mollusca of northern Colombia. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 14 (54):233306, pls. 36–43.Google Scholar
Woodring, W. P. 1928. Miocene mollusks from Bowden, Jamaica. Part II, Gastropods and discussion of results. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication, 385:ivii, 1–564, figs. 1, 2, pls. 1–40.Google Scholar
Woodring, W. P. 1966. The Panama land bridge as a sea barrier. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 110:425433, figs. 1–3.Google Scholar
Woodring, W. P. 1970. Geology and paleontology of Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama. Description of the Tertiary Mollusks (Gastropods: Eulimidae, Marginellidae to Helminthoglyptidae). United States Geological Survey Professional Paper, 306-D:iii + 299452, pls. 48–66.Google Scholar
Woodring, W. P. 1974. The Miocene Caribbean Faunal Province and its subprovinces. Contributions to the geology and paleobiology of the Caribbean and adjacent areas. Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel, 84:209213, fig. 1.Google Scholar