Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-tn8tq Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-20T13:50:00.853Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Deciduous dentition and dental eruption sequence in Interatheriinae (Notoungulata, Interatheriidae): implications in the systematics of the group

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 March 2021

Mercedes Fernández
Laboratorio de Paleontología de Vertebrados, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Nacional de Luján, Ruta 5 y Avenida Constitución, 6700, Luján, Buenos Aires, Argentina , División Paleontología de Vertebrados, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia,” Avenida Ángel Gallardo 470, C1405DJR, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina , CONICET. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
Juan C. Fernicola
Laboratorio de Paleontología de Vertebrados, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Nacional de Luján, Ruta 5 y Avenida Constitución, 6700, Luján, Buenos Aires, Argentina , División Paleontología de Vertebrados, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia,” Avenida Ángel Gallardo 470, C1405DJR, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina , CONICET. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
Esperanza Cerdeño
CONICET. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas Paleobiología y Paleoecología, Instituto de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales; Centro Científico Tecnológico-CONICET-Mendoza. Avenida Ruiz Leal s/n, M5500, Mendoza, Argentina


Studies focused on deciduous dentition, ontogenetic series, and tooth eruption and replacement patterns in fossil mammals have lately increased due to the recognized taxonomic and phylogenetic weight of these aspects. A study of the deciduous and permanent dentition of Interatherium and Protypotherium (Interatheriinae) is presented, based mainly on unpublished materials. Deciduous cheek teeth are brachydont and placed covering the apex of the respective permanent tooth; in addition, some morphological and metrical differences are observed along the crown height. Five dental ontogenetic stages are distinguished among the juvenile specimens on the basis of the degree of wear, the replacement of the deciduous premolars, and the eruption of the molars. The crown height and the wear degree of different Interatheriinae taxa show: (1) eruption pattern of molars in an anterior–posterior direction (M/m1 to M/m3); (2) pattern of replacement of deciduous premolars and eruption of permanent premolars in a posterior–anterior direction (dP/dp4 to dP/dp2 and P/p4 to P/p2); and (3) eruption of M/m3 before the replacement of dP/dp4. Results allow evaluating the diagnostic dental characteristics used to describe some interatheriines, as well as reinterpreting some taxonomic assumptions: the holotype of Protypotherium diversidens Ameghino, 1891 is recognized as a juvenile of another species of the genus, and the species is not validated, considering it as Protypotherium sp.; the holotype of Eudiastatus lingulatus Ameghino, 1891 falls in the variability of Protypotherium, becoming P. lingulatus new combination, tentatively maintaining the species and implying the synonymy between Eudiastatus and Protypotherium; and the holotype of Eopachyrucos ranchoverdensis Reguero, Ubilla, and Perea, 2003 is reinterpreted as bearing deciduous premolars.

Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Paleontological Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Ameghino, F., 1885, Nuevos restos de mamíferos fósiles oligocenos, recogidos por el profesor Pedro Scalabrini y pertenecientes al Museo Provincial de la Ciudad del Paraná: Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Córdoba, v. 8, p. 5207.Google Scholar
Ameghino, F., 1887a, Observaciones generales sobre el orden de mamíferos extinguidos sub-americanos llamados Toxodontes (Toxodontia) y sinopsis de los géneros y especies hasta ahora conocidos: Anales del Museo de La Plata, v. 6, 1027 p.Google Scholar
Ameghino, F., 1887b, Enumeración sistemática de las especies de mamíferos fósiles coleccionados por Carlos Ameghino en los terrenos eocenos de Patagonia austral y depositados en el Museo La Plata: Boletín del Museo La Plata, v. 1, p. 126.Google Scholar
Ameghino, F., 1889, Contribución al conocimiento de los mamíferos fósiles de la República Argentina. Actas de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias, v. 6: Buenos Aires, Coni, 1028 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ameghino, F., 1891a, Nuevos restos de mamíferos fósiles descubiertos por Carlos Ameghino en el Eoceno inferior de la Patagonia austral. Especies nuevas, adiciones y correcciones: Revista Argentina de Historia Natural, v. 1, p. 289328.Google Scholar
Ameghino, F., 1891b, Los monos fósiles del Eoceno de la República Argentina: Revista Argentina de Historia Natural, v. 1, p. 393395.Google Scholar
Ameghino, F., 1891c, Caracteres diagnósticos de cincuenta especies nuevas de mamíferos fósiles argentinos: Revista Argentina de Historia Natural, v. 1, p. 129167.Google Scholar
Ameghino, F., 1897, Mammifères crétacés de l'Argentine (Deuxième contribution à la connaissance de la faune mammalogique des couches à Pyrotherium): Boletín del Instituto Geográfico Argentino, v. 18, p. 406521.Google Scholar
Ameghino, F., 1899, Sinopsis Geológico-Paleontológica de la Argentina. Supplemento La Plata: La Plata, Argentina, Imprenta La Libertad, 13 p.Google Scholar
Ameghino, F., 1901, Notices préliminaires sur les ongulés nouveaux des terrains crétacés de Patagonie: Boletín Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Córdoba, v. 16, p. 348426.Google Scholar
Ameghino, F., 1902, Première contribution à la conaissance de la faune mammalogique des couches à Colpodon: Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Córdoba, v. 17, p. 71141.Google Scholar
Ameghino, F., 1904, Nuevas especies de mamíferos, cretáceos y terciarios de la República Argentina: Anales de la Sociedad Científica Argentina, v. 56, p. 162175, 327–341, v. 58, p. 35–42, 56–71, 182–192, 225–291.Google Scholar
Asher, R.J., and Lehmann, T., 2008, Dental eruption in afrotherian mammals: BMC Biology, v. 6, n. 14. ScholarPubMed
Asher, R.J., and Olbricht, G., 2009, Dental ontogeny in Macroscelides proboscideus (Afrotheria) and Erinaceus europaeus (Lipotyphla): Journal of Mammalian Evolution, v. 16, p. 99115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergqvist, L.P., 2010, Deciduous premolars of Paleocene litopterns of São José de Itaboraí Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: Journal of Paleontology, v. 84, p. 858867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Billet, G., and Martin, T., 2011, No evidence for an afrotherian-like delayed dental eruption in South American notoungulates: Naturwissenschaften, v. 98, p. 509517.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Billet, G., de Muizon, C., and Mamaní Quispe, B., 2008, Late Oligocene mesotheriids (Mammalia, Notoungulata) from Salla and Lacayani (Bolivia): implications for basal mesotheriid phylogeny and distribution: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 152, p. 153200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Billet, G., Patterson, B., and De Muizon, C., 2009, Craniodental anatomy of late Oligocene archaeohyracids (Notoungulata, Mammalia) from Bolivia and Argentina and new phylogenetic hypotheses: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 155, p. 458509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bond, M., 1986, Los ungulados fósiles de Argentina: evolución y paleoambientes, in Simposio “Evolución de los Vertebrados Cenozoicos”: IV Congreso Argentino de Paleontología y Bioestratigrafía, Mendoza, Argentina, Actas 2, p. 187190.Google Scholar
Buckley, M., 2015, Ancient collagen reveals evolutionary history of the endemic South American ‘ungulates’: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, v. 282, n. 20142671. Scholar
Candela, A.M., Cassini, G.H., and Nasif, N.L., 2013, Fractal dimension and cheek teeth crown complexity in the giant rodent Eumegamys paranensis: Lethaia, v. 46, p. 369377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cassini, G.H., Vizcaíno, S.F., and Bargo, M.S., 2012a, Body mass estimation in Early Miocene native South American ungulates: a predictive equation based on 3D landmarks: Journal of Zoology, v. 287, p. 5364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cassini, G.H., Cerdeño, E., Villafañe, A.L., and Muñoz, N.A., 2012b, Paleobiology of Santacrucian native ungulates (Meridiungulata: Astrapotheria, Litopterna, and Notoungulata), in Vizcaíno, S.F., Kay, R.F., and Bargo, M.S., eds., Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 243286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cassini, G.H., Del Pino, S.H., Munoz, N.A., Acosta, M.W.G., Fernández, M., Bargo, M.S., and Vizcaíno, S. F., 2017, Teeth complexity, hypsodonty and body mass in Santacrucian (Early Miocene) notoungulates (Mammalia): Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, v. 106, p. 303313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cerdeño, E., and Montalvo, C.I., 2001, Los Mesotheriinae (Mesotheriidae, Notoungulata) del Mioceno superior de La Pampa, Argentina: Revista Española de Paleontología, v. 16, p. 6375.Google Scholar
Cerdeño, E., and Schmidt, G.I., 2013, Milk molars or extra premolars in Mesotheriinae (Mesotheriidae, Notoungulata): new insights into an old controversy: Geobios, v. 46, p. 195202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cerdeño, E., and Vera, B., 2015, A new Leontiniidae (Notoungulata) from the late Oligocene beds of Mendoza Province, Argentina: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, v. 13, p. 943962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cerdeño, E., Chiesa, J., and Ojeda, G., 2008, Presence of Oxyodontherium (Macraucheniidae, Litopterna) in the Río Quinto Formation, San Luis (Argentina): Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 25, p. 217226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cerdeño, E., Montalvo, C.I., and Sostillo, R., 2017, Deciduous dentition and eruption pattern in Paedotherium (Pachyrukhinae, Hegetotheriidae, Notoungulata) from late Miocene of La Pampa Province, Argentina: Historical Biology, v. 29, p. 359375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Croft, D.A., 1999, Placentals: endemic South American ungulates, in Singer, R., ed., The Encyclopedia of Paleontology: Chicago, Fitzroy-Dearborn, p. 890906.Google Scholar
Croft, D.A., 2016, Horned Armadillos and Rafting Monkeys: The Fascinating Fossil Mammals of South America: Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 320 p.Google Scholar
Croft, D.A., and Anaya, F., 2020, A new typothere notoungulate (Mammalia: Interatheriidae), from the Miocene Nazareno Formation of southern Bolivia: Ameghiniana, v. 57, p. 189208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Croft, D.A., and Anderson, L.C., 2008, Locomotion in the extinct notoungulate Protypotherium: Palaeontologia Electronica, 11.1.1A, 20 p. Scholar
Croft, D.A., Anaya, F., Auerbach, D., Garzione, C., and MacFadden, B.J., 2009, New data on Miocene Neotropical provinciality from Cerdas, Bolivia: Journal of Mammalian Evolution, v. 16, p. 175198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cuitiño, J.I., Fernicola, J.C., Raigemborn, M.S., and Krapovickas, V., 2019, Stratigraphy and depositional environments of the Santa Cruz Formation (early–middle Miocene) along the Río Santa Cruz, southern Patagonia, Argentina: Publicación Electrónica de la Asociación Paleontológica Argentina, v. 19, p. 1433.Google Scholar
Deraco, M.V., and García-López, D.A., 2011, Description of an ontogenetic series in Coquenia bondi Deraco, Powell, and López, 2008 (Leontiniidae): IV Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontología de Vertebrados, San Juan: Ameghiniana, v. 48, p. 162163.Google Scholar
Deraco, M.V., Powell, J.E., and López, G., 2008, Primer leontínido (Mammalia, Notoungulata) de la Formación Lumbrera (Subgrupo Santa Bárbara, Grupo Salta-Paleógeno) del noroeste argentino: Ameghiniana, v. 45, p. 8391.Google Scholar
Elissamburu, A., 2012, Estimación de la masa corporal en géneros del Orden Notoungulata: Estudios Geológicos, v. 68, p. 91111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Famoso, N.A., Feranec, R.S., and Davis, E.B., 2013, Occlusal enamel complexity and its implications for lophodonty, hypsodony, body mass and diet in extinct and extant ungulates: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 387, p. 211216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Famoso, N.A., Davis, E.B., Feranec, R.S., Hopkins, S.S.B., and Price, S.A., 2016, Are hypsodonty and occlusal enamel complexity evolutionarily correlated in ungulates?: Journal of Mammalian Evolution, v. 23, p. 4347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández, M., 2020, Sistemática y Filogenia de los Interatheriinae (Notoungulata, Typotheria, Interatheriidae): Implicancias bioestratigráficas en la Formación Santa Cruz (Mioceno Temprano-Medio) de la Provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina [Ph.D. dissertation]: Buenos Aires, Universidad Nacional de Luján, 1317 p.Google Scholar
Fernández, M., and Muñoz, N.A., 2019, Notoungulata and Astrapotheria (Mammalia, Meridiungulata) of the Santa Cruz Formation (early–middle Miocene) along the Río Santa Cruz, Argentine Patagonia: Publicación Electrónica de la Asociación Paleontológica Argentina, v. 19, p. 138169.Google Scholar
Fernández, M., Fernicola, J.C., Cerdeño, E., and Reguero, M.A., 2018, Identification of type materials of the species of Protypotherium Ameghino, 1885 and Patriarchus Ameghino, 1889 (Notoungulata: Interatheriidae) erected by Florentino Ameghino: Zootaxa, v. 4387, p. 473498.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fernández, M., Fernicola, J.C., and Cerdeño, E., 2019a, On the type materials of the genera Interatherium Ameghino, 1887 and Icochilus Ameghino, 1889 (Interatheriidae, Notoungulata, Mammalia) from early Miocene of the Santa Cruz Province, Argentina: Zootaxa, v. 4543, p. 195220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández, M., Fernicola, J.C., and Cerdeño, E., 2019b, The genus Patriarchus Ameghino, 1889 (Mammalia, Notoungulata, Typotheria), from the Santa Cruz Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 39, e1613416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fortelius, M., 1985, Ungulate cheek teeth: developmental, functional, and evolutionary interrelations: Acta Zoologica Fennica, v. 180, p. 176.Google Scholar
Gomes Rodrigues, H., Herrel, A., and Billet, G., 2017, Ontogenetic and life history trait changes associated with convergent ecological specializations in extinct ungulate mammals: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 114, p. 10691074.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hernández Del Pino, S., Fernández, M., Cerdeño, E., and Fernicola, J.C., 2019, Anatomy and Systematics of Notohippus toxodontoides Ameghino, 1891 (Mammalia, Notoungulata), from the Miocene of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 39, e1577870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hitz, R., Reguero, M.A., Wyss, A.R., and Flynn, J.J., 2000, New Interatheriines (Interatheriidae, Notoungulata) from the Paleogene of Central Chile and Southern Argentina. Feldiana Geology, v. 42, p. 1–26.Google Scholar
Hitz, R.B., Billet, G., and Derryberry, D., 2008, New interatheres (Mammalia, Notoungulata) from the late Oligocene Salla beds of Bolivia: Journal of Paleontology, v. 82, p. 447469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holroyd, P., 2008, New data on dental eruption patterns in condylarths and afrotheres: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 28, p. 93.Google Scholar
Holroyd, P., 2009, New data on dental eruption patterns in afrotherians and paleogene mammals: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 29, p. 116.Google Scholar
Hooker, J.J., 1986, Mammals from the Bartonian (middle/late Eocene) of the Hampshire Basin, southern England: Bulletin of the British Museum, Natural History, Geology, v. 39, p. 191478.Google Scholar
ICZN, 2000, Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica (fourth edition): London, Comisión Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica, 156 p.Google Scholar
Janis, C.M., 1988, An estimation of tooth volume and hypsodonty indices in Ungulate Mammals, and the correlation of these factors with dietary preference: Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, v. 53, p. 367–87.Google Scholar
Janis, C.M., 1990, Correlation of cranial and dental variables with dietary preferences: a comparison of macropodoid and ungulate mammals, in Turner, S., and Thulborn, A., eds., Problems in Vertebrate Biology and Phylogeny—An Australian Perspective: Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, v. 28, p. 349366.Google Scholar
Janis, C.M., 1995, Correlations between craniodental morphology and feeding behavior in ungulates: reciprocal illumination between living and fossil taxa: Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 277, p. 7698.Google Scholar
Janis, C.M., and Constable, E., 1993, Can ungulate craniodental features determine digestive physiology?: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 13, p. 43.Google Scholar
Koenigswald, W.V., 2011, Diversity of hypsodont teeth in mammalian dentitions, construction and classification: Palaeontographica, Abteilung A: Palaeozoology-Stratigraphy, v. 294, p. 6494.Google Scholar
Marshall, L.G., and Cifelli, R.L., 1990, Analysis of changing diversity patterns in Cenozoic land mammal age faunas, South America: Laboratoire de Paleontologie des Vertébrés, v. 194, p. 169210.Google Scholar
Martin, L.D., 1993, Evolution, hypsodonty, and enamel structure in Plio-Pleistocene rodents, in Martin, R.A., and Barnosky, A.D., eds., Morphological Change in Quaternary Mammals of North America: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 205225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mones, A., 1982, An equivocal nomenclature: what means hypsodonty?: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 56, p. 107111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Owen, R., 1847, Notices of some fossil mammalia of South America: Reports of the British Association of Advancements in Science (Southampton), v. 16, p. 6567.Google Scholar
Owen, R., 1853, Description of some species of the extinct genus Nesodon, with remarks on the primary group (Toxodontia) of hoofed quadrupeds, to which that genus is referable: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, v. 143, p. 291310.Google Scholar
Patterson, B., and Pascual, R., 1968, The fossil mammal fauna of South America: The Quarterly Review of Biology, v. 43, p. 409451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pérez-Barbería, F.J., and Gordon, I.J., 1998, The influence of molar occlusal surface area on the voluntary intake, digestion, chewing behaviour and diet selection of red deer (Cervus elaphus): Journal of Zoology, v. 245, p. 307316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reguero, M.A., Ubilla, M., and Perea, D., 2003, A new species of Eopachyrucos (Mammalia, Notoungulata, Interatheriidae) from the late Oligocene of Uruguay: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 23, p. 445457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reguero, M.A., Candela, A.M., and Cassini, G.H., 2010, Hypsodonty and body size in rodent-like notoungulates, in Madden, R.H., Carlini, A.A., Vucetich, M.G., and Kay, R.F., eds., The Paleontology of Gran Barranca: Evolution and Environmental Change through the Middle Cenozoic of Patagonia: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 362371.Google Scholar
Scott, W.B., 1912, Toxodonta and Entelonychia of the Santa Cruz Beds: Reports Princeton University Expedition Patagonia, v. 6, p. 111300.Google Scholar
Seoane, F., and Cerdeño, E., 2014, First extra-Patagonianrecord of Asmodeus Ameghino (Notoungulata, Homalodotheriidae) in the late Oligocene of Mendoza Province, Argentina: Ameghiniana, v. 51, p. 373384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shockey, B.J., 1997, Two new notoungulates (Family Notohippidae) from the Salla Beds of Bolivia (Deseadan: late Oligocene): systematics and functional morphology: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 17, p. 584599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shockey, B.J., Flynn, J.J., Croft, D.A., Gans, P., and Wyss, A.R., 2012, New leontiniid Notoungulata (Mammalia) from Chile and Argentina: comparative anatomy, character analysis, and phylogenetic hypotheses. American Museum Novitates no. 3737, p. 1–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simpson, G.G., 1932, New or Little-Known Ungulates from the Pyrotherium and Colpodon Beds of Patagonia. American Museum Novitates no. 576: New York, American Museum of Natural History, 13 p.Google Scholar
Sinclair, W.J., 1909, Mammalia of the Santa Cruz Beds, part 1: typotheria of the Santa Cruz Beds, in Scott, W.B., ed., Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia: Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University, 110 p.Google Scholar
Slaughter, B.H., Pine, R.H., and Etoh, N., 1974, Eruption of cheek teeth in Insectivora and Carnivora: Journal of Mammalogy, v. 55, p. 115125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, B.H., 2000, ‘Schultz's Rule’ and the evolution of tooth emergence and replacement patterns in primates and ungulates, in Teaford, M.F., Smith, M.M., and Ferguson, W.J., eds., Development, Function and Evolution of Teeth: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 212227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, J.B., and Dodson, P., 2003, A proposal for a standard terminology of anatomical notation and orientation in fossil vertebrate dentitions: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 23, p. 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solounias, N., Fortelius, M., and Freeman, P., 1994, Molar wear rates in ruminants: a new approach: Annals Zoology Fennica, v. 31, p. 219227.Google Scholar
Soria, M.F., and Ferraz de Alvarenga, H.M., 1989, Nuevos restos de mamíferos de la Cuenca de Taubaté, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: Anais da Academia brasileira de Ciências, v. 61, p. 157175.Google Scholar
Souza Lobo, L., Lessa, G., Cartelle, C., and Romano, P.S., 2017, Dental eruption sequence and hypsodonty index of a Pleistocene macraucheniid from the Brazilian Intertropical Region: Journal of Paleontology, v. 91, p. 10831090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spinage, C.A., 1971, Generatodontology and horn growth of the impala (Aepyceros melampus): Journal of Zoology, v. 164, p. 209225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stirton, R.A., 1953, A new genus of Interatheres from the Miocene of Colombia: University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, v. 29, p. 265348.Google Scholar
Townsend, B., and Croft, D.A., 2008, Diets of notoungulates from the Santa Cruz Formation, Argentina: new evidence from enamel microwear: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 28, p. 217230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Townsend, B., and Croft, D.A., 2010, Middle Miocene mesotheriine diversity at Cerdas, Bolivia and a reconsideration of Plesiotypotherium minus: Palaeontologia Electronica, 13.1.1A, 36 p. Scholar
Vera, B., 2013, Sistemática, filogenia y paleoecología de los Notopithecinae (Interatheriidae, Notoungulata) del Paleógeno de Argentina [Ph.D. dissertation]: Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, University of Buenoa Aires, 374 p. [in Spanish]Google Scholar
Vera, B., 2016, Phylogenetic revision of the South American notopithecines (Mammalia: Notoungulata): Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, v. 14, p. 461480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vera, B., 2017, Patagonian Eocene Archaeopithecidae Ameghino, 1897 (Notoungulata): systematic revision, phylogeny and biostratigraphy: Journal of Paleontology, v. 91, p. 12721295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vera, B., and Cerdeño, E., 2014, Systematic revision of Antepithecus brachystephanus Ameghino, 1901, and dental eruption sequence in Eocene “notopithecines” (Notoungulata) from Patagonia: Geobios, v. 47, p. 165181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vera, B., Reguero, M.A., and González-Ruiz, L., 2017, The Interatheriinae notoungulates from the middle Miocene Collón Curá Formation in Argentina: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 62, p. 845863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Villarroel, C., 1978, Edades y correlaciónes de algunas unidades litoestratigraficas del Altiplano boliviano y estudia de algunos representantes mesotheriinos: Revista de la Academía Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia, v. 1, p. 159170.Google Scholar
Vizcaíno, S.F., Bargo, M.S., and Cassini, G.H., 2006, Dental occlusal surface area in relation to body mass, food habits and other biological features in fossil xenarthrans: Ameghiniana, v. 43, p. 1126.Google Scholar
Vizcaíno, S.F., Cassini, G.H., Fernicola, J.C., and Bargo, M.S., 2011, Evaluating habitats and feeding habits through ecomorphological features in glyptodonts (Mammalia, Xenarthra): Ameghiniana, v. 48, p. 305319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vucetich, M.G., Deschamps, C.M., Olivares, A.I., and Dozo, M.T., 2005, Capybaras, size, shape, and time: a model kit: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 50, p. 259272.Google Scholar
Vucetich, M.G., Deschamps, C.M., and Pérez, M.E., 2012, Palaeontology, evolution and systematics of capybaras, in Moreira, J.R., Barros Ferraz, K.M.P.M., Herrera, E.A., and Macdonald, D.W., eds., Capybara: Biology, Use and Conservation of a Valuable Neotropical Resource: New York, Springer, p. 3959.Google Scholar
Vucetich, M.G., Deschamps, C.M., Pérez, M.E., and Montalvo, C.I., 2014a, The taxonomic status of the Pliocene Capybaras (Rodentia) Phugatherium Ameghino and Chapalmatherium Ameghino: Ameghiniana, v. 51, p. 173183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vucetich, M.G., Deschamps, C.M., Vieytes, E.C., and Montalvo, C.I., 2014b, Late Miocene capybaras (Rodentia, Caviidae, Hydrochoerinae) of Argentina, a review: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 59, p. 517535.Google Scholar
Welker, F., et al. , 2015, Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates: Nature, v. 522, p. 8184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed