Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-sjtt6 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-23T10:04:08.278Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Cambrian Hyolitha from northeast Canada: reappraisal of the hyolith orders Camerothecida and Diplothecida

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 July 2015

John M. Malinky*
University of Maryland, European Division, APO New York 09102


The hyolith orders Camerothecida Syssoiev and Diplothecida Syssoiev are here incorporated into the order Hyolithida Matthew. Morphologic features used to distinguish Camerothecida and Diplothecida are interpretive reconstructions of features presumed to have been present but not actually preserved on any existing specimens. The few morphologic features retained by those fossils are consistent with assignment to the Hyolithida. Poor preservation of the types of Hyolithes (Camerotheca) gracilis Matthew and Diplotheca hyattiana Matthew, which formed the basis for those two orders, as well as those of Hyolithes (Camerotheca) micmac Matthew in Walcott, Hyolithes acadica Hartt in Walcott, and Hyolithes matthewi Sinclair, renders generic assignment of these species uncertain. Hyolithes matthewi Sinclair is assigned to Tulenicornus Val'kov with question, and Hyolithes danianum Matthew in Walcott is here transferred to Nitoricornus Syssoiev.

Research Article
Copyright © The Paleontological Society 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Alcock, F. J. 1938. Geology of Saint John region, New Brunswick. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 216, 65 p.Google Scholar
Babcock, L. E., and Robison, R. A. 1988. Taxonomy and paleobiology of some Middle Cambrian Scenella (Cnidaria) and hyolithids (Mollusca) from western North America. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, 121, 22 p.Google Scholar
Barrande, J. 1867. Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme. Volume 3, Classe des Mollusques, Ordre des Pteropodes. Prague, 179 p.Google Scholar
Billings, E. 1872. On some new species of Palaeozoic fossils. Canadian Naturalist, new ser. 6:213222.Google Scholar
Cobbold, E. S., and Pocock, R. W. 1934. The Cambrian area of Rushton (Shropshire). Royal Society of London Philosophical Transactions, series B, 223:305409.Google Scholar
Currie, K. L. 1984. A reconsideration of some geological relations near Saint John, New Brunswick. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 84-1A, p. 193210.Google Scholar
Dzik, J. 1978. Larval development of hyolithids. Lethaia, 11:293299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eichwald, E. 1840. Ueber das silurische Schichtensystem in Ehstland. Zeitschrift fur Natur- und Heilkunde. St. Petersburg, vols. 1 and 2, 210 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, D. W. 1962. Small conoidal shells of uncertain affinity, p. W98W143. In Moore, R. C. (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. W, Miscellanea. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.Google Scholar
Ford, S. W. 1872. Descriptions of some new species of Primordial fossils. American Journal of Science, ser. 3, 3:419422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayes, A. O., and Howell, B. F. 1937. Geology of Saint John, New Brunswick. Geological Society of America Special Paper 5, 146 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holm, G. 1893. Sveriges kambrisk—siluriska Hyolithidae och Conulariidae. Sveriges geologiska Undersorning, C112, Stockholm, 172 p.Google Scholar
Lyashenko, G. P. 1957. Coniconchia, a new class of extinct molluscs. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Doklady, 117:10491052.Google Scholar
Lyashenko, G. P. 1958. Silurian tentaculitids from Podolia and the Baltic. Paleontologicheskiy Sbornik, Moskva, 220 p.Google Scholar
Malinky, J. M. 1988. Early Paleozoic Hyolitha from North America; reexamination of Walcott's and Resser's type specimens. Journal of Paleontology, 62:218233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malinky, J. M. 1989. New early Paleozoic Hyolithida and Orthothecida (Hyolitha) from North America. Journal of Paleontology, 63:302319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malinky, J. M. 1990. Early and Middle Cambrian Hyolitha (Mollusca) from northeastern China. Journal of Paleontology, 64:228240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malinky, J. M., Linsley, R. M., and Yochelson, E. L. 1987. Taxonomic revision of Hyolitha from the middle Paleozoic of North America. Journal of Paleontology, 61:11731186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mambetov, A. M. 1975. The first finds of hyolithids from the Lower Cambrian of the Talas Alatau. Paleontological Journal, 9:552555.Google Scholar
Marek, L. 1963. New knowledge on the morphology of Hyolithes. Sbornik Geologickych Ved, Paleontologie, 1:5372.Google Scholar
Marek, L. 1966. New hyolithid genera from the Ordovician of Bohemia. Casopis Naradniho Muzea, 135:8992.Google Scholar
Marek, L. 1967. The class Hyolitha in the Caradoc of Bohemia. Sbornik Geologickych Ved, Paleontologie, 9:51112.Google Scholar
Marek, L. 1976. On the ontogeny in Hyolithida. Casopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 21:277283.Google Scholar
Marek, L., and Galle, A. 1976. The tabulate coral Hyostragulum an epizoan with bearing on hyolithid ecology and systematics. Lethaia, 9:5164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marek, L., and Yochelson, E. L. 1964. Paleozoic mollusk: Hyolithes. Science, 146:16741675.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marek, L., and Yochelson, E. L. 1976. Aspects of the biology of Hyolitha (Mollusca). Lethaia, 9:6582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1865. On some Azoic and Paleozoic rocks of southern New Brunswick. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 21:422434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1885a. Notice of a new genus of Pteropods from the Saint John Group (Cambrian). American Journal of Science, ser. 3, 25:293294.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1885b. A new genus of Cambrian pteropods. The Canadian Record of Science (The Canadian Naturalist), 1:149152.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1886. Illustrations of the fauna of the St. John group, part 3. Royal Society of Canada Transactions, ser. 4, 3:2984.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1894. Illustrations of the fauna of the St. John group, part 7. Royal Society of Canada Transactions, 11:85129.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1895. The Protolenus fauna. Transactions of the New York Academy of Science, 14:101153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1899a. Fragments of the Cambrian faunas of Newfoundland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 5:6795.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1899b. Preliminary notice of the Etcheminian fauna of Newfoundland. Bulletin of the Natural History Society of New Brunswick, 4:189197.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1899c. Upper Cambrian fauna of Mount Stephen, British Columbia—the trilobites and worms. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 5:3966.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1901a. Acrothyra and Hyolithes—a comparison. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 7:93107.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1901b. Hyolithes gracilis and related forms from the lower Cambrian of the St. John group. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 7:109111.Google Scholar
Novak, O. 1886. Zur Kenntniss der fauna der Etage F-fl. In der palaeozischen Schichtengruppe Bohmens. Königlische bohmens Sitzungsberichten der bohmens Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 27 p.Google Scholar
Orlov, Y. A. 1967. Class Coniconchia, p. 290308. In Mollusca Cephalopoda II. Ammonoida (Ceratitida and Ammonitida), Endocochlia and Coniconchia. Fundamentals of Paleontology, Vol. 6.Google Scholar
Pojeta, J. 1987. Class Polyplacophora, p. 293296. In Boardman, R. S., Cheetham, A. H., and Rowell, A. J. (eds.), Fossil Invertebrates. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Palo Alto, California.Google Scholar
Reed, F. R. C. 1910. The Cambrian fossils of Spiti. Palaeontologica Indica. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, ser. 15, 7(1), 70 p.Google Scholar
Runnegar, B. 1980. Hyolitha: status of the phylum. Lethaia, 13:2125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Runnegar, B., Pojeta, J., Morris, N. J., Taylor, J. D., Taylor, M. E., and McClung, G. 1975. Biology of the Hyolitha. Lethaia, 8:181191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Runnegar, B., Pojeta, J., Taylor, M. E., and Collins, D. 1979. New species of the Cambrian and Ordovician chitons Matthevia and Chelodes from Wisconsin and Queensland: evidence for the early history of polyplacophoran mollusks. Journal of Paleontology, 53:13741394.Google Scholar
Saito, K. 1936. Older Cambrian Brachiopoda, Gasteropoda, etc. from northwestern Korea. Tokyo Imperial University Faculty of Science Journal, sec. 2, 4:345367.Google Scholar
Sinclair, G. W. 1946. Notes on the nomenclature of Hyolithes. Journal of Paleontology, 20:7285.Google Scholar
Syssoiev, V. A. 1957. On the morphology, systematics, status and taxonomy of the Hyolithoidea. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Doklady, 116:304307.Google Scholar
Syssoiev, V. A. 1958. The superorder Hyolithoidea. Fundamentals of Paleontology. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 2:184190.Google Scholar
Syssoiev, V. A. 1959a. The systematics of the Hyolithoidea. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Doklady, 125:397400.Google Scholar
Syssoiev, V. A. 1959b. The ecology of the Hyolithoidea. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Doklady, 127:892895.Google Scholar
Syssoiev, V. A. 1962. Hyolithids from the Cambrian of the northern slope of the Aldan Shield. Akademiya Nauk SSSR (Nauka Publishing House, Moscow), 63 p.Google Scholar
Syssoiev, V. A. 1968. Stratigraphy and hyolithids from the Lower Cambrian of the Siberian Platform. Yakutsk, 67 p.Google Scholar
Syssoiev, V. A. 1972. Biostratigraphy and orthothecomorph hyoliths from the lower Cambrian of the Siberian Platform. Akademiya Nauk SSSR (Nauka Publishing House, Moscow), 152 p.Google Scholar
Syssoiev, V. A. 1973. Hyolithids from the Lenian Stage of the northern slope of the Aldan syncline, p. 5768. In Problems of Paleontology and Biostratigraphy of Siberia and the Far East. Nauka Publishers, Novosibirsk.Google Scholar
Syssoiev, V. A. 1984. The morphology and systematic position of the hyoliths. Paleontological Journal, 2:314.Google Scholar
Val'kov, A. 1970. Hyolithida of the Menevian Stage of the Middle Cambrian of the northeast of the Siberian Platform, p. 7190. In Val'kov, A. (ed.), Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Proterozoic and Cambrian of the eastern Siberian Platform. Nauka Publishers, Yakutsk.Google Scholar
Val'kov, A. 1975. Biostratigraphy and hyolithids of the Cambrian of the northeast of the Siberian Platform. Akademiya Nauk, S.S.S.R., 139 p.Google Scholar
Walcott, C. D. 1884. On the Cambrian faunas of North America. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 10, 55 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walcott, C. D. 1911a. Cambrian paleontology and geology, part 2, no. 5. Middle Cambrian annelids. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 57(5):109144.Google Scholar
Walcott, C. D. 1911b. Cambrian faunas of China, p. 69108. In Cambrian Geology and Paleontology. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 57(4).Google Scholar
Yochelson, E. L. 1961. Notes on the class Coniconchia. Journal of Paleontology, 35:162167.Google Scholar
Yochelson, E. L. 1966. Mattheva, a proposed new class of extinct molluscs. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 523B, B1B11.Google Scholar
Yochelson, E. L. 1978. An alternative approach to the interpretation of the phylogeny of ancient molluscs. Malacologia, 17:165191.Google Scholar
Zazvorka, V. 1928. Revision of the Hyolithi from dǝ. Palaeontologica Bohemiae, 13, 22 p.Google Scholar