Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55b6f6c457-b6fb2 Total loading time: 0.582 Render date: 2021-09-26T02:07:46.259Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Coffee and beverages are the major contributors to polyphenol consumption from food and beverages in Japanese middle-aged women

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 October 2014

Yoichi Fukushima*
Affiliation:
Nestlé Japan Ltd, NYK Tennoz Bldg., 2-2-20 Higashi-Shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0002, Japan
Takeshi Tashiro
Affiliation:
Nestlé Japan Ltd, NYK Tennoz Bldg., 2-2-20 Higashi-Shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0002, Japan
Akiko Kumagai
Affiliation:
Nestlé Japan Ltd, NYK Tennoz Bldg., 2-2-20 Higashi-Shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0002, Japan
Hiroyuki Ohyanagi
Affiliation:
Nestlé Japan Ltd, NYK Tennoz Bldg., 2-2-20 Higashi-Shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0002, Japan
Takumi Horiuchi
Affiliation:
Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corp., 2-4-6 Shiba-daimon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0012, Japan
Kazuhiro Takizawa
Affiliation:
Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corp., 2-4-6 Shiba-daimon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0012, Japan
Norie Sugihara
Affiliation:
Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Ohtsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan
Yoshimi Kishimoto
Affiliation:
Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Ohtsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan
Chie Taguchi
Affiliation:
Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Ohtsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan
Mariko Tani
Affiliation:
Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Ohtsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan
Kazuo Kondo
Affiliation:
Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Ohtsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan
*
* Corresponding author: Dr Yoichi Fukushima, fax +41 21 785 8308, email yoichi.fukushima@jp.nestle.com

Abstract

Food and beverages rich in polyphenols have been shown to reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases. The present study estimated polyphenol levels and consumption from food and beverages in Japanese women. Randomly recruited housewives living in the area around Tokyo (n 109; aged 21–56 years; Group 1) recorded all beverages and foods they ingested for 7 d, and the total polyphenol (TP) consumption was estimated based on the TP content of each item measured with a modified Folin–Ciocalteu method. For Group 1, TP was consumed at 841 (sd 403) mg/d (range 113–1759 mg/d), and beverages were a larger source of TP (79 %) than food (21 %). The largest single source of TP was coffee at 47 %, followed by green tea, black tea, chocolate, beer and soya sauce, at 16, 5·7, 3·3, 3·2 and 3·1 %, respectively. In terms of food groups, cereals/noodles, vegetables, fruits, beans and seeds, and seasonings (except for soya sauce) contributed 5·0, 4·0, 1·4, 1·8 and 2·4 %, respectively. Another group of housewives who consumed at least one cup of coffee per d were separately recruited (n 100; Group 2) in the same area. Their consumption of TP was higher at 1187 (sd 371) mg/d (range 440–2435 mg/d) than Group 1 (P < 0·001), and the difference mostly came from the coffee consumption. We conclude that not food but beverages, especially coffee, may be the major contributor to TP consumption in Japanese women.

Type
Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BY
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/>.
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s) 2014

Polyphenols, which exist ubiquitously in plants for protection against UV light and reactive oxygen species( Reference Rice-Evans, Miller and Paganga 1 Reference Dixon and Paiva 3 ) and also sometimes provide colours, are varied molecules containing over 8000 species, including flavonoids (for example, catechins in tea and cocoa, isoflavones in beans, quercetin in onions and anthocyanins in fruit) and non-flavonoids (for example, chlorogenic acids in coffee)( Reference Erdman, Balentine and Arab 4 ). Polyphenols are consumed by humans as a major part of non-nutrient food components. Total polyphenol (TP) content and antioxidative capacity are positively correlated (R 0·7–0·9)( Reference Fukushima, Ohie and Yonekawa 5 , Reference Takebayashi, Oki and Watanabe 6 ), suggesting that dietary polyphenols are important and provide a large amount of antioxidants in the daily food intake. Polyphenols are foreign materials for humans and are metabolised and/or conjugated immediately after absorption and are excreted within 1 d. Some polyphenols, such as those from tea and coffee, are highly bioavailable; about 30 % are absorbed in the circulation in humans and their continuous consumption improves biomarkers for oxidative stress in humans( Reference Williamson, Dionisi and Renouf 7 , Reference Hoelzl, Knasmüller and Wagner 8 ).

Coffee provides the highest proportion of antioxidants in the diet of the populations of some European countries, including Italy, Finland, France and Spain( Reference Pulido, Hernández-García and Saura-Calixto 9 Reference Pérez-Jiménez, Fezeu and Touvier 12 ) and is one of the beverages that has been most widely studied in epidemiological studies with respect to its health benefits. Meta-analysis of cohort studies has shown that adequate consumption of coffee may be beneficial to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes( Reference Huxley, Lee and Barzi 13 , Reference Jiang, Zhang and Jiang 14 ), total cancers( Reference Yu, Bao and Zou 15 ) and some specific cancers, including liver( Reference Sang, Chang and Li 16 ) and endometrial cancers( Reference Tian, Wang and Hong 17 ), heart failure( Reference Mostofsky, Rice and Levitan 18 ), stroke( Reference Larsson and Orsini 19 ), Alzheimer's disease( Reference Barranco Quintana, Allam and Serrano Del Castillo 20 ) and Parkinson's disease( Reference Hernán, Takkouche and Caamaño-Isorna 21 ), resulting in reducing the risk of total mortality( Reference Malerba, Turati and Galeone 22 ). Coffee polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, are an important source of antioxidants( Reference Clifford 23 Reference Svilaas, Sakhi and Andersen 25 ) in our daily life, and a high consumption of antioxidants from coffee may contribute to reducing mortality and morbidity risks. Coffee also has anti-inflammatory properties( Reference Kempf, Herder and Erlund 26 , Reference Yamashita, Yatsuya and Muramatsu 27 ) and is protective against oxidative damage( Reference Hoelzl, Knasmüller and Wagner 8 ). Tea, which is rich in catechins, is also an important source of polyphenols and reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes( Reference Huxley, Lee and Barzi 13 , Reference Liu, Zhou and Wang 28 ), some cancers( Reference Kang, Rha and Oh 29 , Reference Wang, Gao and Fang 30 ), stroke( Reference Arab, Liu and Elashoff 31 ) and CVD( Reference Zheng, Xu and Li 32 ). Not only coffee and tea, but also beverages, such as red wine, and foods, such as chocolate, fruit and vegetables, could be candidates as sources of polyphenols in the diet. Black chocolate and high-flavonoid cocoa have been shown to have beneficial effects on CVD( Reference Hooper, Kay and Abdelhamid 33 ) and stroke( Reference Larsson, Virtamo and Wolk 34 ). Soya products containing isoflavones may reduce the risk of prostate cancer and breast cancer( Reference Yan and Spitznagel 35 , Reference Xie, Chen and Qin 36 ). Total flavonoids may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes( Reference Liu, Zhan and Liu 37 ) and CVD( Reference Wang, Ouyang and Liu 38 ). Most of these epidemiological studies have shown an association between disease risks and consumption of the food itself, and it is not fully known how much polyphenols and/or antioxidants exert a beneficial impact.

The life expectancy of Japanese was the highest for women at 86·4 years, and is fifth for men at 79·9 years in 2013, and the Japanese diet may contribute to their healthy life. Several studies have reported on the consumption of TP in European and American countries( Reference Ovaskainen, Törrönen and Koponen 10 , Reference Pérez-Jiménez, Fezeu and Touvier 12 , Reference Saura-Calixto, Serrano and Goñi 39 , Reference Zujko, Witkowska and Waśkiewicz 40 ); however, information about polyphenol consumption by Japanese is limited. In our previous study( Reference Fukushima, Ohie and Yonekawa 5 ), we evaluated TP consumption from non-alcoholic beverages; however, information on food and alcoholic beverages was lacking, and there are no reports on polyphenol consumption from all food and beverages in the Japanese population. Adverse effects of polyphenol consumption from food and beverages in daily life are not known at present, and information is lacking about how high polyphenol consumption can be achieved in individuals. The present study aimed to estimate TP consumption among Japanese middle-aged females and to describe the contribution of specific food and beverage sources and their individual differences, in order to provide further information about polyphenol consumption and to understand their potential contribution for health benefits and their safety.

Materials and methods

Total polyphenol assays

TP content in food and beverages was measured using a modified Folin–Ciocalteu method( Reference George, Brat and Alter 41 ) described in a previous report( Reference Fukushima, Ohie and Yonekawa 5 ). Briefly, food and beverage samples were purchased in Japan. The fresh edible portions of foods were chopped and homogenised in an extraction solution, 70 % ethanol and 0·9 % NaCl (7:3, v/v), for 1 min and were sonicated for 10 min at 4°C, and then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min to obtain extracts. Beverages were extracted by acetone–water solution (7:3, v/v). The filtered and diluted solvent extract (SE) solutions were applied on an Oasis HLB cartridge (Waters Japan), which absorbed polyphenols, and a washing extract (WE) eluted solution was obtained. Folin–Ciocalteu reagent was added to each SE and WE solution and was incubated for 15 min at 50°C with sodium carbonate solution, after which specific absorbance at 760 nm was measured. The TP level was determined by subtracting the value of the WE solution, which contains interfering water-soluble components such as reducing sugars and ascorbic acid, from the value of the SE solution. Chlorogenic acid and catechin (Sigma-Aldrich Japan KK) were used as standards for coffee and other food and beverages, respectively. A total of seventy-seven food and beverage items were selected based on information of trade volume in the Japanese market and TP contents from literature( 42 Reference Katsube, Tabata and Ohta 45 ) and their TP levels were measured.

Survey for food and beverage consumption

The survey was conducted in 2010. Housewives living in the area around Tokyo were randomly recruited and included 109 subjects aged 21–56 years (Group 1). Another group of housewives, who consumed at least one cup of coffee per d, were separately recruited in the same manner (n 100; Group 2). The profiles of all subjects are shown in Table 1. Subjects recorded all beverages and food materials consumed and the cooking menus used for 7 d. Consumption of foods and energy intake was calculated with nutrition-calculating software EXCEL EIYO-KUN (version 5·0; Kenpakusha), which provides portion sizes and weights of food materials for cooking menus( Reference Takahashi, Yoshiura and Kaimoto 46 ). TP consumption was estimated from the food and beverage consumption data and TP contents.

Table 1. Profile of subjects in the study

(Mean values and standard deviations)

All beverage items were recorded and are fully covered with TP content information. A total of eighty-two vegetable and thirty-six fruit items were recorded as consumed by all subjects in 7 d, and the weight-based coverage of consumption of vegetable and fruit items with information of TP contents was 94 % (thirty-one vegetables) and 95 % (eleven fruits). For the confectionery products, 42 % consumption weight came from chocolate and wheat-based cookies, which were used for calculation of TP consumption. Other confectionery products, such as rice cookies, sugar drops and other snacks, were recorded but excluded from the calculation because their variety was too large to estimate the TP contents and the expected amounts of TP were low.

Statistical analysis

The results are presented as mean values and standard deviations. Data analysis was carried out with IBM® SPSS® Statistics 19 (SPSS Japan Inc.) using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. A difference between means is considered significant at P < 0·05.

Results

TP levels were measured with a modified Folin–Ciocalteu method for seventy-seven food and beverage items, including thirty-one vegetables and potatoes, eleven fruits, eight cereals and noodles, five beans and seeds, five seasonings, two confectionery items, and twelve non-alcoholic and three alcoholic beverages (Table 2). The consumption of TP from foods and beverages by subjects is shown in Table 3. Consumption of TP by the subjects of Group 1, who were randomly recruited from the population living in the area around Tokyo (n 109; aged 38·3 (sd 7·5) years) was 841 (sd 403) mg/d. The between-subject variation in TP consumption were large and ranged from 113 to 1759 mg/d, where 15-fold differences were observed in subjects from Group 1. Beverages were a larger source of TP (79 %) than food (21 %) (Table 4). The largest source of TP was coffee at 47 % (0–86 %) followed by green tea at 16 % (0–66 %), then by black tea, chocolate, beer and soya sauce at 5·7 (0–50), 3·3 (0–28), 3·2 (0–53) and 3·1 (0·6–21) %, respectively. In food categories, cereals and noodles, vegetables, fruits, beans and seeds, and seasonings (except for soya sauce) contributed 5·0, 4·0, 1·4, 1·8 and 2·4 %, respectively. Total soya-based products, including soya milk and seasonings, contributed 5·9 % and total wheat-based products, including bread, pasta and udon noodles, contributed 3·7 %.

Table 2. Total polyphenols (TP; mg/100 g)* in foods and beverages (Mean values and standard deviations)

* Calculated from TP contents from wheat.

† TP contents of noodles are reported as mg/100 g wet weight except for pasta.

‡ Calculated from TP contents assuming that 12 % cacao mass is used for chocolate in Japan according to national statistics in 2011 (http://www.chocolate-cocoa.com/statistics).

Table 3. Polyphenol consumption from food and beverages in general housewives (Group 1) and those consuming coffee every day (Group 2) (Mean values and standard deviations)

*Wet base.

†Dry base.

Table 4. Proportion and ranking of polyphenol consumption in general housewives (n 109)

B, beverage; S, seasoning; C, cereal; V, vegetable; O, other food; F, fruit.

We independently recruited another group of housewives who consumed at least one cup of coffee per d and allocated them to Group 2 (n 100; aged 39·3 (sd 5·6) years); their energy consumption was not different from that of the Group 1 subjects (Table 1). Consumption of TP was higher, at 1187 (sd 371) mg/d (range 440–2435 mg/d), in Group 2 than in Group 1 (P < 0·001) (Table 3). The contribution of TP from coffee reached 68 % in Group 2. TP consumption from green tea was slightly higher in Group 1 (138 (sd 170) mg/d) than in Group 2 (84 (sd 130) mg/d) (P = 0·020); however, the other food and beverage items for the two groups were not significantly different in polyphenol consumption.

Personal consumption data from the two groups in this survey showed that seven items, including coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea, beer, red wine and chocolate, reached a maximum individual daily consumption of more than 200 mg/d in Group 1, which was at 1200, 608, 326, 272 mg/d, 285, 296 and 187 mg/d, respectively. Red wine and beer was consumed by fewer of the subjects but largely contributed to TP consumption in some subjects, accounting for up to 32 and 53 % of individual total TP consumption, respectively (Table 4 and Fig. 1). Three items, including tomato/vegetable juice, miso (fermented soya bean paste) and prunes, reached maximum individual daily consumption at 100–200 mg/d. Oolong tea, tomato/vegetable juice and soya milk also contributed to TP consumption in some subjects, accounting for up to 36, 20 and 43 % of TP consumption, respectively. Dried prunes were consumed by four subjects in Group 2, and its impact was high on TP consumption, reaching 102 mg/d (12·5 %) in one subject. In individuals, the largest source of TP was coffee in seventy-nine subjects (72 % of all subjects) in Group 1, followed by green tea (11 %), black tea (6 %), beer (3 %), red wine (2 %) and oolong tea (2 %). In Group 2, coffee was the largest source of TP in 99 % subjects, followed by green tea at 1 %.

Fig. 1. Personal consumption of total polyphenols (TP) from various foods and beverages by general housewives recruited without any limitation on coffee consumption (Group 1) and by housewives that consumed more than one cup of coffee per d (Group 2).

Discussion

This is the first study to show consumption of TP from both food and beverages in Japanese subjects. We selected housewives as subjects because recording all food materials with a cooking menu is a complicated task requiring experience of every-day cooking in order to maintain accuracy. The proportion of each beverage intake in subjects of the present study was similar to that found in our previous report( Reference Fukushima, Ohie and Yonekawa 5 ). Fruit and vegetable consumption was also close to the market statistics in Japan( 42 ), and food and beverage consumption in the two groups of the present study was mostly the same except for their coffee and green tea consumption. This implies that the assumption of TP consumption in the present study is not biased, even if the number of subjects and their representation are limited. TP consumption from the entire diet in the female Japanese subjects shown in the present study was 841 mg/d, and beverages were a four times larger source than foods. TP consumption from beverages, 664 mg/d, was slightly lower in the present study population compared with a previous study that reported 853 mg/d in Japanese men and women( Reference Fukushima, Ohie and Yonekawa 5 ).

Coffee was the largest source of polyphenol consumption, accounting for 49 % from all foods and beverages and 59 % from beverages in the subjects, which corresponds to our previous study showing that coffee is the largest source of TP in beverages at 50 %. Green tea was the second largest source of polyphenols at 16 %, whose proportion was slightly lower than that found in our previous study. There were no food items, except for coffee and green tea, that contributed an average of more than 10 % of TP consumption. In food categories, cereals/noodles, vegetables and seasonings made slightly higher contributions to TP at about 5 % of all TP consumption. Fruits had one-quarter less impact than the others. Chocolate and soya sauce were two major sources of polyphenols from food items, contributing 3 % of polyphenol consumption, which was twice as high as onions, which was the largest source from vegetables. In Group 2, where coffee consumption was at least one cup per d, 68 % of TP consumption came from coffee, and coffee significantly raised the overall TP consumption by 350 mg/d more in this group. The total consumption weight of foods and beverages was not different in the two groups, which suggests that the contribution of coffee to TP is large and that other sources did not compensate for the increase in TP by coffee. Subjects in Group 2, with higher coffee consumption, showed a slightly higher consumption of bread, yogurt and bananas, which are prone to be consumed at Western-style breakfasts in Japan. Their diets were lower in buckwheat noodles, radishes, Chinese cabbage, araceous and fish, which are mainly used for Japanese dishes, implying that coffee consumption may be associated with food choices. However, the differences in these amounts are not large and there are no differences in the total consumption of foods from each category.

Individual differences in TP consumption were large and we observed that subjects with the highest polyphenol consumption had a 15-fold higher consumption than the subjects with the lowest polyphenol consumption. Food and beverages whose personal TP consumption was at least 100 mg/d other than coffee and green tea were red wine, oolong tea, black tea, tomato/vegetable juice, beer, prunes, miso (fermented soya bean paste) and chocolate, which contributed a large amount of polyphenol consumption in some individuals. The major source of polyphenols was different in some individuals. Although coffee was the largest source of polyphenols in 72 % of the subjects, green tea, black tea, beer, red wine and oolong tea were also the largest source in some subjects. Most subjects (99 %) consumed coffee as the largest source of polyphenols among the subjects from Group 2 who consumed at least one cup of coffee per d.

TP consumption from both food and beverages described in currently available literature is summarised in Table 5 ( Reference Ovaskainen, Törrönen and Koponen 10 , Reference Pérez-Jiménez, Fezeu and Touvier 12 , Reference Saura-Calixto, Serrano and Goñi 39 , Reference Zujko, Witkowska and Waśkiewicz 40 ). These reports estimated that the daily TP consumption from foods and beverages was 800–1200 mg, which is a similar level to what we show in the present study. These studies show that beverages are a large source of polyphenols, and that coffee contributes the highest amount of polyphenol, about 50 % of TP. Tea is the second largest contributor; however, its contribution is rather lower than in Japanese. On the contrary, contributions from fruits, vegetables and cereals, which are followed by coffee and tea, are higher in European subjects than in Japanese subjects. The estimated polyphenol consumption from fruits and vegetables is also higher in the USA than in the present study( Reference Vinson, Su and Zubik 43 , Reference Vinson, Hao and Su 47 ), where the contribution of apples and potatoes is high, which is similar in France( Reference Brat, Georgé and Bellamy 48 ). Edible parts of fruits and vegetables are limited in Japan, where the peels of apples and potatoes, which are rich in polyphenols, are normally removed completely before consumption in Japan, which may cause the low content of polyphenols in the present study for these fruits and vegetables. The major cereal in Japan is white rice, which contains lower polyphenol levels than wheat products, and consumption of whole-grain cereal is also limited. Soya products are a typical contributor of polyphenol consumption in the Japanese diet, and soya-based seasonings, such as soya sauce and miso paste, which all Japanese generally use in their every-day diet, contributed to raise the polyphenol consumption equally in all Japanese. Recently, a database for polyphenols and/or flavonoids has been established in the USA, Europe and Asia( Reference Floegel, Kim and Chung 49 Reference Arai, Watanabe and Kimira 52 ), and has been used for epidemiological studies that provide important knowledge of how polyphenols contribute to human health( Reference Zamora-Ros, Rabassa and Cherubini 53 Reference Mink, Scrafford and Barraj 56 ). Polyphenol consumption in Japan and Europe is similarly high and beverages, especially coffee, are a major source; however, other types of contributing foods, especially fruits and vegetables, are different in various regions, where polyphenol contents as well as consumption differ. This implies that such a database is useful but it may require a careful integration of quantitative data, considering such regional differences.

Table 5. Estimated total polyphenol consumption in several countries*

M, male; F, female.

* Food items were pooled into seven food groups for analysis. Extractable polyphenols were expressed to compare with the other studies.

There are two major methods used to measure polyphenol contents: the Folin and HPLC methods. The French and Finnish studies listed in Table 5 used the HPLC method to estimate TP consumption in their diets. HPLC is an accurate and quantitative method for measuring polyphenol molecules when standard samples exist. However, it is difficult to sum up all polyphenols in the diet and this may cause an underestimation of TP consumption in the diet. The Folin method is an easy analytical method that is suitable for roughly estimating overall amounts of polyphenols and the risk of underestimation is low. The Spanish and Polish studies listed in Table 5 and the present study used this method. For accuracy, the Folin method requires the avoidance of interference by reducing compounds, such as vitamin C, in the food samples( Reference Vinson, Proch and Bose 57 ). In the present study, we used a modified Folin–Ciocalteu method with reverse-phase column chromatography to remove interference by reduced compounds, including vitamin C( Reference George, Brat and Alter 41 ). Coffee, cocoa and black tea, which provide a large part of the polyphenols in the diet, contain a large number of unknown phenolic compounds including polymers generated through roasting and/or fermentation processes. In the case of coffee, chlorogenic acids with nine major compounds (for example, mono- and dicaffeoyl quinic and feluoyl quinic acids) are composed of roughly one-third of the TP in roasted coffee( Reference Fukushima, Ohie and Yonekawa 5 , Reference Farah and Donangelo 58 ). Black tea polyphenol has two International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods for its quantification, and a one-third difference is observed between the HPLC and Folin methods( Reference Obuchowicz, Engelhardt and Donnelly 59 ). The choice of a chemical standard required for the Folin method may provide a slight difference in analytical results, and we used two major standards, chlorogenic acid for coffee and catechin for others, where the gradient of standard curves for commercially available polyphenol compounds, such as epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, tannic acid, naringenin, and ethyl gallate, are within 2 sd difference with catechin except for chlorogenic acid( Reference Fukushima, Ohie and Yonekawa 5 ).

In vitro antioxidant capacity is used as an indicator to show the potential health benefits of foods( Reference Floegel, Kim and Chung 49 , Reference Rautiainen, Serafini and Morgenstern 60 ). Coffee is the largest contributor of antioxidant capacity in Spain and Italy( Reference Pulido, Hernández-García and Saura-Calixto 9 , Reference Serafini and Testa 11 ) but is low in the USA and was excluded in the Swedish study( Reference Rautiainen, Serafini and Morgenstern 60 , Reference Yang, Chung and Chung 61 ), where inconsistencies may be caused by methodological differences in antioxidant capacity( Reference Fraga, Oteiza and Galleano 62 ). Each polyphenol is not equally bioavailable, which may also cause different impacts of polyphenols on health benefits. A human intervention study showed that TP in the urine is more predictive for all causes of death of the elderly than is its amount of oral consumption( Reference Zamora-Ros, Rabassa and Cherubini 53 ), suggesting that the amount of polyphenol in the circulation is more meaningful for health benefits than is oral consumption, at least to some extent. Although antioxidant capacity or bioavailability are important to understand the actual impact of polyphenols exerting health benefits, TP content and its consumption can be a good practical indicator of potential health benefit in human life. Approximately one-third of orally consumed polyphenols is transferred into the circulation and can be identified as metabolites both for coffee and green tea( Reference Renouf, Guy and Marmet 63 ). These two beverages are major sources of polyphenols, providing two-thirds of TP consumption by the subjects. We found in the present study that the amount of polyphenols consumed has large individual differences. An indication of their contents could provide significant information for potential health benefits, especially in populations with low consumption of polyphenols, who may reduce their opportunity to be healthier.

In conclusion, the present study characterised TP consumption from all foods and beverages in middle-aged female subjects in Japan. Not food but beverages, especially coffee, were the largest source of polyphenols in the subjects' daily life, and large individual differences in polyphenol consumption were observed. These results are beneficial to understand healthy diets and polyphenol consumption as a potential contributor to that. Further studies are required to show TP consumption in different sex and age groups, and the relationship between polyphenol consumption and its health benefits.

Acknowledgements

We would like to express our special thanks to MRS Advertising Research, Inc., who helped to conduct the survey for food and beverage consumption, especially on recruiting subjects and data management for food records.

K. K. and Y. F. contributed to the design of the study. T. T. and A. K. conducted the survey, H. O., T. H., K. T., N. S. and M. T. performed laboratory analyses. Y. F., Y. K., C. T. and K. K. prepared the manuscript.

There was no financial support.

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1. Rice-Evans, CA, Miller, NJ & Paganga, G (1996) Structure–antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 20, 933956.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2. Grace, SC & Logan, BA (2000) Energy dissipation and radical scavenging by the plant phenylpropanoid pathway. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355, 14991510.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3. Dixon, RA & Paiva, NL (1995) Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. Plant Cell 7, 10851097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4. Erdman, JW Jr, Balentine, D, Arab, L, et al. (2007) Flavonoids and heart health: Proceedings of the ILSI North America Flavonoids Workshop. J Nutr 137, 718S737S.Google ScholarPubMed
5. Fukushima, Y, Ohie, T, Yonekawa, Y, et al. (2009) Coffee and green tea as a large source of antioxidant polyphenols in the Japanese population. J Agric Food Chem 57, 12531259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6. Takebayashi, J, Oki, T, Watanabe, J, et al. (2013) Hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Japan and estimated average daily intake of hydrophilic antioxidants from these foods. J Food Compos Anal 29, 2531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7. Williamson, G, Dionisi, F & Renouf, M (2011) Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative evaluation of the pharmacokinetic data in humans after consumption of single doses of beverages. Mol Nutr Food Res 55, 864873.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8. Hoelzl, C, Knasmüller, S, Wagner, KH, et al. (2010) Instant coffee with high chlorogenic acid levels protects humans against oxidative damage of macromolecules. Mol Nutr Food Res 54, 17221733.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9. Pulido, R, Hernández-García, M & Saura-Calixto, F (2003) Contribution of beverages to the intake of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the Spanish diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 12751282.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10. Ovaskainen, ML, Törrönen, R, Koponen, JM, et al. (2008) Dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in Finnish adults. J Nutr 138, 562566.Google Scholar
11. Serafini, M & Testa, MF (2009) Redox ingredients for oxidative stress prevention: the unexplored potentiality of coffee. Clin Dermatol 27, 225229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12. Pérez-Jiménez, J, Fezeu, L, Touvier, M, et al. (2011) Dietary intake of 337 polyphenols in French adults. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 12201228.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13. Huxley, R, Lee, CM, Barzi, F, et al. (2009) Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption in relation to incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 169, 20532063.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14. Jiang, X, Zhang, D & Jiang, W (2014) Coffee and caffeine intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Nutr 53, 2538.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15. Yu, X, Bao, Z, Zou, J, et al. (2011) Coffee consumption and risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMC Cancer 11, 96 (epublication 15 March 2011).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16. Sang, LX, Chang, B, Li, XH, et al. (2013) Consumption of coffee associated with reduced risk of liver cancer: a meta-analysis. BMC Gastroenterol 13, 34 (epublication 25 February 2013).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
17. Tian, C, Wang, W, Hong, Z, et al. (2013) Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a dose–response analysis of observational studies. Cancer Causes Control 24, 12651268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
18. Mostofsky, E, Rice, MS, Levitan, EB, et al. (2012) Habitual coffee consumption and risk of heart failure: a dose–response meta-analysis. Circ Heart Fail 5, 401405.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19. Larsson, SC & Orsini, N (2011) Coffee consumption and risk of stroke: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol 174, 9931001.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20. Barranco Quintana, JL, Allam, MF, Serrano Del Castillo, A, et al. (2007) Alzheimer's disease and coffee: a quantitative review. Neurol Res 29, 9195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
21. Hernán, MA, Takkouche, B, Caamaño-Isorna, F, et al. (2002) A meta-analysis of coffee drinking, cigarette smoking, and the risk of Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol 52, 276284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
22. Malerba, S, Turati, F, Galeone, C, et al. (2013) A meta-analysis of prospective studies of coffee consumption and mortality for all causes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Epidemiol 28, 527539.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23. Clifford, MN (2000) Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates: nature, occurrence, dietary burden, absorption and metabolism. J Sci Food Agric 80, 10331043.3.0.CO;2-T>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24. Pellegrini, N, Serafini, M, Colombi, B, et al. (2003) Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Nutr 133, 28122819.Google ScholarPubMed
25. Svilaas, A, Sakhi, AK, Andersen, LF, et al. (2004) Intakes of antioxidants in coffee, wine, and vegetables are correlated with plasma carotenoids in humans. J Nutr 134, 562567.Google ScholarPubMed
26. Kempf, K, Herder, C, Erlund, I, et al. (2010) Effects of coffee consumption on subclinical inflammation and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 950957.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27. Yamashita, K, Yatsuya, H, Muramatsu, T, et al. (2012) Association of coffee consumption with serum adiponectin, leptin, inflammation and metabolic markers in Japanese workers: a cross-sectional study. Nutr Diabetes 2, e33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28. Liu, K, Zhou, R, Wang, B, et al. (2013) Effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 340348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
29. Kang, H, Rha, SY, Oh, KW, et al. (2010) Green tea consumption and stomach cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Epidemiol Health 32, e0 (epublication 26 April 2010).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
30. Wang, ZH, Gao, QY & Fang, JY (2012) Green tea and incidence of colorectal cancer: evidence from prospective cohort studies. Nutr Cancer 64, 11431152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
31. Arab, L, Liu, W & Elashoff, D (2009) Green and black tea consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis. Stroke 40, 17861792.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32. Zheng, XX, Xu, YL, Li, SH, et al. (2011) Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 601610.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
33. Hooper, L, Kay, C, Abdelhamid, A, et al. (2012) Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 740751.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
34. Larsson, SC, Virtamo, J & Wolk, A (2012) Chocolate consumption and risk of stroke: a prospective cohort of men and meta-analysis. Neurology 79, 12231229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35. Yan, L & Spitznagel, EL (2009) Soy consumption and prostate cancer risk in men: a revisit of a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 11551163.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
36. Xie, Q, Chen, ML, Qin, Y, et al. (2013) Isoflavone consumption and risk of breast cancer: a dose–response meta-analysis of observational studies. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 22, 118127.Google ScholarPubMed
37. Liu, YJ, Zhan, J, Liu, XL, et al. (2014) Dietary flavonoids intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Clin Nutr 33, 5963.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
38. Wang, X, Ouyang, YY, Liu, J, et al. (2014) Flavonoid intake and risk of CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Br J Nutr 111, 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
39. Saura-Calixto, F, Serrano, J, Goñi, I, et al. (2007) Intake and bioaccessibility of total polyphenols in a whole diet. Food Chem 101, 492501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
40. Zujko, ME, Witkowska, AM, Waśkiewicz, A, et al. (2012) Estimation of dietary intake and patterns of polyphenol consumption in Polish adult population. Adv Med Sci 57, 375384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
41. George, S, Brat, P, Alter, P, et al. (2005) Rapid determination of polyphenols and vitamin C in plant-derived products. J Agric Food Chem 53, 13701373.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
42. Tokyo Central Wholesale Market (2014) Market statistics information. http://www.shijou-tokei.metro.tokyo.jp/index.html Google Scholar
43. Vinson, JA, Su, X, Zubik, L, et al. (2001) Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: fruits. J Agric Food Chem 49, 53155321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
44. Scalbert, A & Williamson, G (2000) Dietary intake and bioavailability of polyphenols. J Nutr 130, 8S Suppl., 2073S2085S.Google Scholar
45. Katsube, T, Tabata, H, Ohta, Y, et al. (2004) Screening for antioxidant activity in edible plant products: comparison of low-density lipoprotein oxidation assay, DPPH radical scavenging assay, and Folin–Ciocalteu assay. J Agric Food Chem 52, 23912396.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
46. Takahashi, K, Yoshiura, Y, Kaimoto, T, et al. (2001) Validation of a food frequency questionnaire based on food groups for estimating individual nutrient intake. Jpn J Nutr 59, 221232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
47. Vinson, JA, Hao, Y, Su, X, et al. (1998) Antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 46, 36303634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
48. Brat, P, Georgé, S, Bellamy, A, et al. (2006) Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables. J Nutr 136, 23682373.Google ScholarPubMed
49. Floegel, A, Kim, DO, Chung, SJ, et al. (2010) Development and validation of an algorithm to establish a total antioxidant capacity database of the US diet. Int J Food Sci Nutr 61, 600623.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
50. Pérez-Jiménez, J, Neveu, V, Vos, F, et al. (2010) Systematic analysis of the content of 502 polyphenols in 452 foods and beverages: an application of the Phenol-Explorer database. J Agric Food Chem 58, 49594969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
51. Li, G, Zhu, Y, Zhang, Y, et al. (2013) Estimated daily flavonoid and stilbene intake from fruits, vegetables, and nuts and associations with lipid profiles in Chinese adults. J Acad Nutr Diet 113, 786794.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
52. Arai, Y, Watanabe, S, Kimira, M, et al. (2000) Dietary intakes of flavonols, flavones and isoflavones by Japanese women and the inverse correlation between quercetin intake and plasma LDL cholesterol concentration. J Nutr 130, 22432250.Google ScholarPubMed
53. Zamora-Ros, R, Rabassa, M, Cherubini, A, et al. (2013) High concentrations of a urinary biomarker of polyphenol intake are associated with decreased mortality in older adults. J Nutr 143, 14451450.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
54. Cassidy, A, Rimm, EB, O'Reilly, EJ, et al. (2012) Dietary flavonoids and risk of stroke in women. Stroke 43, 946951.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
55. Cutler, GJ, Nettleton, JA, Ross, JA, et al. (2008) Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cancer in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Int J Cancer 123, 664671.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
56. Mink, PJ, Scrafford, CG, Barraj, LM, et al. (2007) Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 895909.Google ScholarPubMed
57. Vinson, JA, Proch, J & Bose, P (2001) Determination of quantity and quality of polyphenol antioxidants in foods and beverages. Meth Enzymol 335, 103114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
58. Farah, A & Donangelo, CM (2006) Phenolic compounds in coffee. Braz J Plant Physiol 18, 2336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
59. Obuchowicz, J, Engelhardt, UH & Donnelly, K (2011) Flavanol database for green and black teas utilising ISO 14502-1 and ISO 14502-2 as analytical tools. J Food Compos Anal 24, 411417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
60. Rautiainen, S, Serafini, M, Morgenstern, R, et al. (2008) The validity and reproducibility of food-frequency questionnaire-based total antioxidant capacity estimates in Swedish women. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 12471253.Google ScholarPubMed
61. Yang, M, Chung, SJ, Chung, CE, et al. (2011) Estimation of total antioxidant capacity from diet and supplements in US adults. Br J Nutr 106, 254263.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
62. Fraga, CG, Oteiza, PI & Galleano, M (2014) In vitro measurements and interpretation of total antioxidant capacity. Biochim Biophys Acta 1840, 931934.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
63. Renouf, M, Guy, P, Marmet, C, et al. (2010) Plasma appearance and correlation between coffee and green tea metabolites in human subjects. Br J Nutr 104, 16351640.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Figure 0

Table 1. Profile of subjects in the study(Mean values and standard deviations)

Figure 1

Table 2. Total polyphenols (TP; mg/100 g)* in foods and beverages (Mean values and standard deviations)

Figure 2

Table 3. Polyphenol consumption from food and beverages in general housewives (Group 1) and those consuming coffee every day (Group 2) (Mean values and standard deviations)

Figure 3

Table 4. Proportion and ranking of polyphenol consumption in general housewives (n 109)

Figure 4

Fig. 1. Personal consumption of total polyphenols (TP) from various foods and beverages by general housewives recruited without any limitation on coffee consumption (Group 1) and by housewives that consumed more than one cup of coffee per d (Group 2).

Figure 5

Table 5. Estimated total polyphenol consumption in several countries*

You have Access
Open access
20
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Coffee and beverages are the major contributors to polyphenol consumption from food and beverages in Japanese middle-aged women
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Coffee and beverages are the major contributors to polyphenol consumption from food and beverages in Japanese middle-aged women
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Coffee and beverages are the major contributors to polyphenol consumption from food and beverages in Japanese middle-aged women
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *