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Post-Apartheid South Africa and Its Neighbours: a Maritime Transport Perspective

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 November 2008


The official dismantling of apartheid, the release of Nelson Mandela after 27 years imprisonment in Febuary 1990, and especially the first multi-racial elections in April 1994 followed by the inauguration of the Government of National Unity (GNU), have marked this decade as the most fascinating in the history of South Africa.

Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1996

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1 Bowman, Larry W., ‘The Subordinate State System of Southern Africa’, in International Studies Quarterly (Guildford, Surrey), 12, 3, 09 1968, pp. 231–61.Google Scholar Since then, several studies have further explored this line of research, notably, in the 1970s, Grundy, Kenneth, Confrontation and Accommodation in Southern Africa: the limits of independence (Berkeley, CA, 1973)Google Scholar, and Shaw, Timothy M. and Heard, Kenneth A. (eds.), Cooperation and Conflict in Southern Africa: papers on a regional subsystem (Washington, DC, 1977).Google Scholar

2 For example, Arnold, Millard W., ‘Southern Africa in the Year 2000: an optimistic scenario’, in CSIS Africa Notes (Washington, DC), 122, 28 03 1991;Google ScholarAyisi, Ruth A., ‘Waiting for the Giant’, in Africa Report (New York), 37, 2, 03 1992; pp. 65–7;Google ScholarVenter, Denis, ‘Some Thoughts on South Africa and Southern Africa’, in Africa Insight (Pretoria), 24, 3, 1994, p. 158;Google Scholar and Owusu, John, ‘The South Africans are Coming! Go North Young Man!’, in African Business (London), 191, 09 1994, p. 8.Google Scholar

3 See Baynham, Simon, ‘Defence and Security Issues in a Transitional South Africa’, in International Affairs Bulletin (Pretoria), 14, 3, 1990Google Scholar, and ‘Security Strategies for a Future South Africa’, in The Journal of Modern African Studies (Cambridge), 28, 3, 1990, pp. 401–30;Google Scholar and Vale, Peter, ‘The Search for Southern Africa's Security’, in International Affairs (London), 67, 4, 1991, pp. 697708.Google Scholar

4 Including Vale, Peter, ‘A Drought Blind to the Horrors of War (… and the Challenge of Peace)’, in Die Suid-Afrika (Stellenbosch), 0809 1992, pp. 51–2 and 57;Google ScholarLeistner, Erich, ‘Migration of High-Level African Manpower to South Africa’, in Africa Insight, 23, 4, 1993, pp. 219–24;Google Scholar and Head, Judith, ‘Migrant Mine Labour from Mozambique: employment prospects and policy options in the 1990s’, in Journal of Contemporary African Studies (Grahamstown), 13, 1, 01 1995, pp. 91120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

5 For example, Stoneman, Colin and Thompson, Carol B., ‘South Africa After Apartheid: economic repercussions of a free South Africa’, in Africa Recovery (New York), Briefing Paper No. 4, 12 1991, pp. 112;Google ScholarDavis, Robert, ‘Economic Growth in a Post-Apartheid South Africa: its significance for reforms within other African countries’, in Journal of Contemporary African Studies, II, 1, 1992, p. 57;Google ScholarLeistner, Erich, ‘Post-Apartheid South Africa's Economic Ties with Neighbouring Countries’, in Development Southern Africa (Pretoria), 9, 2, 05 1992, pp. 170–2,Google Scholar and ‘South Africa's Future: powerhouse or poorhouse?’, in Africa Insight, 23, 2, 1993, pp. 8590.Google Scholar

6 Of course, several studies have discussed transportation as an important variable in the geopolitics of Southern Africa. For example: Burgess, Julian, Interdependence in Southern Africa: trade and transport links in South, Central and East Africa (London, 1976), EIU Special Report No. 32;Google ScholarLoubser, J. G. H., Transport Diplomacy with Reference to Southern Africa (Sandton, SA, 1980);Google ScholarFair, T. J. Denis, ‘The Beira, Maputo and Nacala Corridors’, in Africa Insight, 19, 19, 1989, pp. 21–4;Google ScholarKennedy, Thomas L., Southern African Transport-An Analytical Model (Pretoria, 1990);Google ScholarReichardt, Markus and Duncan, David, ‘Rail Transport and the Political Economy of Southern Africa, 1965–1980’, in Africa Insight, 20, 2, 1990, pp. 100–10;Google ScholarPirie, Gordon H., ‘Reorienting and Restructuring Transportation in Southern Africa’, in Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geographic/Netherlands Journal of Economic and Social Geography (Amsterdam), 82, 5, 1991, pp. 345–54;CrossRefGoogle ScholarEllison, Anthony P., ‘South Africa's Transport Policies’, in Journal of Transport Economics and Policy (Bath, England), 26, 3, 09 1992, pp. 313–18;Google Scholar and Valigy, Ismael and Dora, Helmut, ‘The Creation of SADCC and the Problem of Transport’, in Vieira, Sergio, Martin, William G., and Wallerstein, Immanuel (eds.), How Fast the Wind? Southern Africa, 1975–2000 (Trenton, NJ, 1992), pp. 113–63.Google Scholar

7 Pirie, Gordon H., ‘Southern African Air Transport After Apartheid’, in The Journal of Modern African Studies, 30, 2, 06 1992, p. 347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

8 Verchere, Ian, ‘South Africa Offers New Hope’, in Interavia: aerospace review (Geneva), 46, 08 1991, p. 5.Google Scholar

9 According to ‘Business Looks North at the Once-Forbidden Pastures of Africa’, in The Weekly Mail (Johannesburg), 23 02 1990, the northern dream lives on judged by a spate of recent business expansions.Google Scholar See also, Nyaktemba, Elias, ‘Watch Out, the South Africans are Coming’, in New African (London), 301, 10 1992, p. 29;Google ScholarJeune Afrique (Paris), 04 1995;Google ScholarThe New York Times, 5 06 1995;Google ScholarMisser, François, ‘Zaïre: Anglo to snap up Gecamines?’, in African Business (London), 0708 1995, pp. 34–5;Google Scholar and ‘Investing in Africa: a new scramble’, in The Economist (London), 12–18 08 1995, pp. 1719.Google Scholar

10 Lessing, Barry J., ‘The Role of Transport in the Economy of Southern Africa’, in Pegapisces (Randburg, SA), 5, 6, 07 1993, pp. 110.Google Scholar

11 Griffiths, Iuean, ‘The Quest for Independent Access to the Sea in Southern Africa’, in The Geographical Journal (London), 155, 3, 11 1989, pp. 378–91, refers to ‘150 years of conflict between the major power in the south and lesser powers landlocked behind a great concordant escarpment which overlooks a narrow coastal province’.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

12 Kennedy, op. cit. pp. 1–2.

13 Probably the best known account of South Africa's destabilisation strategies is Hanlon, Joseph, Beggar Your Neighbours: apartheid power in Southern Africa (London and Bloomington, 1986).Google Scholar See also, Johnson, Phyllis and Martin, David (eds.), Destructive Engagement: Southern Africa at war (Harare, 1986) and Apartheid Terrorism: the destabilization report (London and Bloomington, 1989);Google Scholar and Smith, Susanna, Frontline Africa: the right to a future (Oxford, 1990).Google Scholar

14 Abrahamsson, Hans, ‘Transport Structures and Dependency Relations in Southern Africa: the need for a reorientation of Nordic aid’, in Odén, Bertil and Othman, Haroub (eds.), Regional Cooperation in Southern Africa: a post-apartheid perspective (Uppsala, 1989), p. 107.Google Scholar

15 Grundy, Kenneth W., ‘Economic Patterns in the New Southern African Balance’, in Carter, Gwendolen M. and O'Meara, Patrick (eds.), Southern Africa: the continuing crisis (Bloomington and London, 1979), p. 303.Google Scholar

16 For an example of this largely fruitless debate, see Maasdorp, Gavin, ‘The Southern African Nexus: dependence or interdependence?’, in Indicator South Africa (Durban), 4, 1986, pp. 519.Google Scholar

17 Abrahamsson, loc. cit. p. 106.

18 For a fascinating short account of these developments on the global scale, see Peters, Hans J., The Maritime Transport Crisis (Washington, DC, 1993), World Bank Discussion Paper 220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

19 Abrahamsson, loc. cit. p. 108.

20 Strange, Susan, ‘The Defective State’, in Daedalus (Cambridge, MA), 124, 2, Spring 1995, p. 57.Google Scholar

21 Strange, Susan, ‘The Persistent Myth of Lost Hegemony’, in International Organization (Cambridge, MA), 41, 4, Autumn 1987, p. 547.Google Scholar

22 Strange, Susan, ‘States, Firms and Diplomacy’, in International Affairs (London), 68, 1, 01 1992, pp. 12.Google Scholar For more sophisticated development of this theory, see Stopford, John and Strange, Susan, Rival States, Rival Firms: competition for world market shares (Cambridge, 1991),CrossRefGoogle Scholar and Strange, Susan, States and Markets (London, 1994 2nd edn.).Google Scholar

23 See Mwase, Ngila, ‘The Liberalization and Deregulation of the Transport Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa’, in African Development Review (Abidjan), 5, 2, 12 1993, pp. 74–6.Google Scholar On the rôle of the World Bank in imposing these policies, see Collier, Paul, ‘From Critic to Secular God: the World Bank and Africa’, in African Affairs (London), 90, 358, 01 1991, pp. 111–17.Google Scholar

24 In late 1990, the Government of F. W. de Klerk undertook a massive privatisation programme, despite some stiff resistance from state agencies, whereby all the transport parastatals - i.e. the railways (Spoornet), some road transport (Autonet), South African Airways (SAA), and the port authority (Portnet)- were placed under Transnet as a financially autonomous management umbrella. The Government at the time claimed that the move was to ensure that each subsidiary must ‘return a satisfactory profit’, because ‘subsidies are now a thing of the past’. Critics, however, suggested that this was ‘a ploy with a public relations coating to ensure that a government elected under a new constitution will find it more difficult to implement a ‘nationalisation’ policy’. Crichton, John, ‘Portnet: a monopoly on the move’, in Containerisation International (London), 25, 2, 02 1991, p. 45.Google Scholar

25 For the impact of the state divestiture in the transport sector, see ‘SIR Economic Report: transport’, in SADCC Industrial Review, 1991–92 (Harare), pp. 33–5;Google ScholarLimpcott, G., ‘South Africa: ship to shore’, in Leadership (Johannesburg), p. 82;Google Scholar and Syndercombe, G., ‘An Agricultural Mentality’, in Armed Forces (Johannesburg), 12 1991, p. 19.Google Scholar

26 Ellison, loc. cit. pp. 313–18. See also, Bamford, Brian R., The Law of Shipping and Carriage in South Africa (Cape Town, 1983);Google ScholarJones, Thomas, The International Shipping Industry and South Africa's Seaborne Trade (Pretoria, 1987);Google Scholar and Berridge, Geoffrey, The Politics of the South African Run: European shipping and Pretoria (London and New York, 1987).Google Scholar

27 ‘Africa Trade: Cape route opens up’, in Financial Mail (Johannesburg), 4 08 1989, p. 77,Google Scholar and Peat, A., ‘Strong Links for Safmarine, Unicorn’, in South African Transport (Parkland, SA), 10 1991, p. 6.Google Scholar

28 For an account of the collapse of the maritime conferences in West and Central Africa, and of Euro-African transport relations since the 1980s, see Iheduru, Okechukwu C., The Political Economy of International Shipping in Developing Countries (Newark, DE, 1996), ch. 4.Google Scholar

29 Galbraith, Sandy, ‘South Africa: a special report’, in Fairplay International Weekly (London), 22 03 1984, p. 27.Google Scholar

30 For the rôle of indigenous and foreign shipping lines in facilitating the apartheid régime's ability to circumvent international sanctions and embargoes, see LaMourie, Matthew, ‘Safbank [Line Ltd.] Adds Capacity Despite Sanctions’, in The American Shipper (Jacksonville, FL), 30, 11, 11 1988, pp. 36–7;Google ScholarKlinghoffer, Arthur J., Oiling the Wheels of Apartheid: exposing South Africa's secret oil trade (Boulder, CO, and London, 1989); Berridge, op. cit.;Google Scholar and Crichton, John, ‘Shrugging Off Sanctions’, in Containerisation International, 25, 11, 11 1991, pp. 3841.Google Scholar

31 John Crichton, ‘Hub Abidjan’, in Ibid. June 1993, p. 71.

32 Ibid.

33 Indeed, the terms of the share purchase guaranteed that Safmarine could appoint (as it did in 1991) the chief executive officer (Graham Peirce) at the CMB-Transport headquarters in Brussels. See Hirshon, Gerald, ‘SAFMARINE: Belgian partner’, in Financial Mail, 6 09 1991, pp. 76–9.Google Scholar

34 On the rôle and effects of economic and political nationalism in the establishment of indigenous shipping companies, inter-port competition, and the demise of indigenous shipping fleets in West and Central Africa, see Iheduru, Okechukwu C., ‘Competing Nationalism, Regional Cooperation, and the Politics of International Shipping in West Africa’, in Ocean Development and International Law (Basingstoke), 24, 3, 08 1993, pp. 123–53.Google Scholar

35 See Crichton, ‘Hub Abidjan’, pp. 71–3.

36 ‘Faster Pace in East African Ports and Trades’, in Containerisation International, 04 1994, Africa Special Report, p. vi.Google Scholar

37 See Greig, M., ‘Grindrod Unicorn: International connection’, in Financial Mail, 30 04 1993, pp. 84–5.Google Scholar Also, Uchechukwu, Godwin, ‘The Changing Phases of Shipping in West Africa’, in African Maritime Economist (Lagos), 5, 8, 06 1993, p. 18.Google Scholar

38 ‘Delmas Deal has Wide Effects on SA Shipping, F'warding’, in Freight World (Cape Town), 16, 1, 01 1992, p. 10.Google Scholar

39 See Abrahamsson, Bernhard J., ‘International Shipping: developments, prospects, and policy issues’, in Borgese, Elisabeth M. and Ginsburg, Norton (eds.), Ocean Yearbook 8 (Chicago, 1989), pp. 158–75.Google Scholar

40 The leading companies in these consortia, however, appear to be doing relatively well. For instance, according to ‘Post-Apartheid Profits’, in African Business, 204, 11 1995, p. 28. Safmarine reported a 48.7 per cent rise in its operational profits to 06 1995 following a large shift in the economic fortunes of the South African economy, with imports increasing substantially by 40 per cent over the last two years.Google Scholar In addition, according to ‘Safmarine, CMBT to Join Liner Operations’, in The American Shipper, 37, 12, 12 1995, p. 13, Safmarine (51 per cent) and CMB-Transport (49 per cent) agreed to combine their north–south operations into a single venture on 1 January 1996. Together the two shipping lines will account for a turnover of more than $1,000 million and 400,000 container moves each year, and expect to deploy more than 50 ships and 70,000 containers in this trade.Google Scholar

41 See Yeats, Alexander, ‘Do African Countries Pay More for Imports? Yes’, in The World Bank Economic Review (Washington, DC), 4, 1, 01 1990, pp. 120.Google Scholar

42 See ‘Unicorn in Ivory Coast Accord’, in Freight World, 17, 6, 06 1993, p. 7,Google Scholar and Containerisation International, 06 1993, p. 17.

43 As reported in Africa Analysis (London), 6 06 1995,Google Scholar and Africa Research Bulletin: economic series (Oxford), 13 06 1995, p. 12169.Google Scholar See also, Scuder, Brian and Versi, Anver, ‘Freighting in Africa: full steam ahead’, in African Business, 204, 11 1995, pp. 27–8.Google Scholar

44 Interview with Captain Dave de Wet, Operations Manager, Unicorn Lines, 21 07 1994, Durban.

45 ‘OIC Chooses Grindrod’, in Freight World, 17, 10, 10 1993, p. 18.Google Scholar

46 ‘Faster Pace in East African Ports and Trades’, in Containerisation International, 04 1994, p. ix.Google Scholar

47 ‘Congo's National Carrier’, in Freight World, 16, 3, 03 1992, p. 22.Google Scholar

48 Captain Dave de Wet, loc. cit.

49 See ‘SA Gears Up for Maputo’, in Freight World, 16, 9, 09 1992, p. 23;Google Scholar‘Privatization of Maputo Harbour?’, in South African Shipping News and Fishing Industry Review (Cape Town), 47, 1, 02 1992, p. 5;Google Scholar and ‘Swazi Sugar to Maputo’, in Freight World, 17, 7, 07 1993, p. 26.Google Scholar

50 Africa Research Bulletin: economic series, 13 07 1995, p. 12169.Google Scholar

51 ‘Maputo Connection’, in Freight World, 16, 2, 02 1992.Google Scholar

52 The ‘Minutes of the Maputo Port Users Meeting, 9th February, 1994’, were kindly made available by André Heydenryck (General Manager, Transport Strategy, Transnet) and Simon Swanich (Manager, Operations Management Centre – Africa, Spoornet).

53 ‘Transport - Critical Factor in Mozambiques Economic Recovery’, in Railways and Seaports in Africa (Highlands North, SA), 1, 2, 0304 1992, p. 3.Google Scholar

54 Containerisation International, 11 1993, p. 27.Google Scholar

55 Africa Research Bulletin: economic series, 3 04 1995, p. 12059.Google Scholar

56 Interview with André Heyndenrych and Simon Swanich, 28 July 1994, Johannesburg.

57 ‘Minutes of Maputo Port Users Meeting, 9th Febuary, 1994’, p. 4.

58 ‘Privatization of Maputo Harbour?’, p. 5, and ‘Ports and Shipping: Mozambique’, in Africa Research Bulletin: economic series, 13 07 1995, p. 12169.Google Scholar

59 Heydenrych and Swanich, loc. cit.

60 For speculation on the future geo-political significance of Namibia's port, see Griffiths, Iuean ‘Walvis Bay: exclave no more’, in Geography (London), 79, 345, 10 1994, pp. 354–7.Google Scholar

61 ‘Dynamar Extends Into Africa’, in Freight World, 18, 4, 04 1994, p. 9.Google Scholar

62 See West, E., ‘Can Portnet be Both Umpire and Players?’ in South African Transport, 10 1991, p. 30;Google Scholar‘Portnet: prime mover in developing Southern Africa’, in Railways (Johannesburg), 01 1993, pp. 67;Google Scholar and ‘Waiting for the Rush’, in Transport Management, 04 1993, p. 30, which detail the various strategies designed by Portnet to gear itself up for bigger shipping volumes as soon as it became clear that sanctions would be lifted.Google Scholar

63 See Machua, Wilfred, ‘Beira is Set to Increase Its Challenge on the East Coast’, in African Business, 11 1990, p. 28,Google Scholar and Crichton, John, ‘Maputo: give peace a chance’, in Containerisation International, 25, 2, 02 1991, p. 51.Google Scholar

64 Portnet attributes the congestion to the more than 26 per cent increase in trade from 1994, in contrast to the planned 5 per cent. According to shipowners, however, Durban ‘is operating below accepted international standards’, not least since ‘the labour force is the problem’, and by Apirl 1995 they began making plans to levy additional delay charges which could further damage that port's competitiveness, thereby adversely affecting those land-locked countries which still rely on Durban for their import and export trades. See ‘Ports and Shipping: South Africa’, in Africa Research Bulletin: economic series, 16 04–15 05 1995, p. 12132.Google Scholar

65 For the application of the ‘wharfage’ charges in South African ports and its trade effects, see Crichton, John, ‘Portnet, South African Ports: a monopoly on the move’, in Containerisation International, 25, 2, 02 1991, pp. 4550.Google Scholar

66 For a recent study of cross-subsidisation, see van Niekerk, Henriette Christa, ‘Port Charges Restructuring in South Africa’, Ph.D. dissertation, Rand Afrikans University, Johannesburg, 1994, ch. 2.Google Scholar

67 Mason, Douglas, ‘Beira Feels Hot Breath of Competition’, in African Business, 204, 11 1995, p. 29.Google Scholar For dated but unchallenged exposures of Portnet's rate-cutting strategy, as well as the illegal activities of South African forwarding and clearing agents in the sub-region, see Stephens, Jean, Rale Cutting and the Preservation of Dependence: South Africa's response to transport initiative in SADCC (Brighton, 1985),Google Scholar and SADCC, Macro Economic Survey, 1986 (Gaborone, 1986).Google Scholar

68 See Oberholzer, Mauritz Simon G., ‘Aspects of the Development of Containerisation and Its Subsequent Introduction to the Port of Durban’, BA (Hons) thesis in Economic History, University of Natal, Durban, 1994, pp. 50–3.Google Scholar

69 For the numerous problems that contribute to the uncompetitive position of East and Southern African ports, see Lewis, Chris, ‘What the Users Say’, in African Economic Digest (London), 12, 12, 25 03 1991, pp. 89.Google Scholar

70 See Nyaktemba, , ‘Watch Out, the South Africans are Coming’, loc. cit. and ‘Investing in Africa: a new scramble’, in The Economist, 12–18 08 1995, pp. 1719.Google Scholar

71 ‘Unicorn Lines: ready for an upturn’, in Financial Mail, 17 12 1993, p. 41.Google Scholar See also, ‘Portnet Towards 2000’, in South African Shipping News and Fishing Industry Review, 46, 4, 04 1991, p. 1,Google Scholar Supplement, and ‘Portnet: vital interface between ship and shore’, in African Connexion (Sandton, SA), 8, 3, 03 1993, pp. 7981.Google Scholar

72 Freight World, 16, 7, 07 1992, p. 21.Google Scholar

73 Hanlon, Joseph, SADCC: progress, projects and prospects (London, 1985), p. 4.Google Scholar

74 Quoted in The Economist, 18–24 12 1993, p. 21.Google Scholar

75 Heydenrych and Swanich, loc. cit. 1994.

76 For an interesting treatment of this concept, see Fore, Henrietta Holsman, ‘Lean Development and the Privatization of U.S. Foreign Assistance’, in The Washington Quarterly, 17, 1, Winter 1994, pp. 183–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

77 ‘Transport: bringing in the maize’, in Financial Mail, 17 04 1992, p. 74.Google Scholar Indeed, it has been reported that South Africa's share of United Nations procurements (including arms and supplies for peacekeeping operations) rocketed from $35 million in 1993 to $70–100 million in 1994, and that the UN would like the country to win more of its contracts. ‘More UN Business Comes to SA’, in SouthScan (London), 10, 18, 12 05 1995, p. 141.Google Scholar

78 Anglin, Douglas G., ‘Southern African Responses to Eastern European Developments’, in The Journal of Modern African Studies, 28, 3, 09 1990, p. 438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

79 Stoneman and Thompson, loc. cit. p. 1.

80 See Gibb, Richard A., ‘A Common Market for Post-Apartheid Southern Africa: prospects and problems’, in South African Geographical Journal (Johannesburg), 75, 1, 1993, pp. 2835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

81 The ANC has, of course, realised the uphill battle faced in dealing with the relative autonomy of big business and the structural power it wields as a collectivity. See Pially, Vella, ‘ANC Takes Flexible Approach Toward Business Interests’, in African Business, 02 1992, pp. 1719;Google ScholarGqubule, Duma, ‘ANC Economist Spells Out Future’, in The Star (Johannesburg), 19 02 1992, p. 17;Google Scholar and ‘A Business Truce with the ANC: leaders say they need each other’, in World Press Review (New York), 41, 3, 03 1994, pp. 1415.Google Scholar

82 Owusu, ‘The South Africans are Coming’, loc. cit. p. 11.

83 ‘Shell Reject's Mandela's Call to Halt Nigerian Project’, in Business Report (Johannesburg), 30 11 1995,Google Scholar and ‘SADC Leaders Soften Nigerian Stance’, in Pretoria News, 12 12 1995.Google Scholar

84 Nyaktemba, loc. cit., who claimed that enterprises in other African countries have felt frustrated and threatened by the presence of South African investors.

85 ‘South Africa: the struggle for political equality has been won: the struggle for economic equality now begins’, in Africa Research Bulletin: economic series, 31, 4, 16 04–15 05 1994, p. 11665.Google Scholar

86 ‘South Africa: looking north of the Limpopo’, in Africa Confidential (London), 35, 15, 07 1994, p. 6.Google Scholar

87 The core countries in the proposed Indian Ocean Trade Bloc (IOTB), also known as the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative (IORI), include South Africa, India, Australia, Mauritius, Maldives, Madagascar, Mozambique, the Seychelles, the Comoros, Oman, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia. For a brief analysis of the membership, as well as the arguments for and against the IOTB, see Narayan, S. Vankat, ‘Indian Ocean Trade Block Gains Momentum’, in Africa Business, 195, 01 1995, pp. 21–2,Google Scholar and ‘Rim Could Create New Markets’, in Business Day, 30 05 1995.Google Scholar

88 ‘Indian Ocean Body Backed-But in Vague Terms’, in SouthScan, 10, 4, 27 01 1995, p. 30,Google Scholar and ‘De Klerk Calls for Indian Ocean Trade Pact’, in Reuters World Report (New York), 7 02 1995.Google Scholar

89 For a general outline of the foreign economic policy views of the South African Chamber of Business which sets out the latter's preference for SACU, the Gulf states, and South and Southeast Asia, see Leistner, Erich, South Africa's Options for Future Relations with Southern Africa and the European Community (Johannesburg, SACOB, 19 10 1992).Google Scholar Also, ‘South East Asia: gateway to prosperity’, in Global Trade (Pretoria), 1, 5, 07 1993, pp. 113.Google Scholar

90 ‘South Africa: looking north of the Limpopo’, p. 6.

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