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This work is focused on determining whether two graphene derivatives: graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) can be used alone as a component of anticancer therapy. In this paper, we present the synthesis GO and RGO, their physicochemical characterization as well as an evaluation of their cytotoxic properties on cancer (HepG2 and MCF-7) and non-malignant (clone-9 and HMF) cells. We demonstrated that both tested graphene derivatives have a high affinity to cancer cells. We showed that cytotoxic properties of GO and RGO were different depending on the type of solvent in which they were prepared. Additionally, we observed that cytotoxic properties of GO and RGO were different depending on the origin of the cells (liver and breast) and the form of graphene material (GO and RGO). We showed that GO and RGO can be potential, selectively materials which in future can found application in anticancer therapy.
Boronic ester bonds can be reversibly formed between phenylboronic acid (PBA) and triol moieties. Here, we aim at a glucose-induced shape-memory effect by implementing such bonds as temporary netpoints, which are cleavable by glucose and by minimizing the volume change upon stimulation by a porous cryogel structure. The polymer system consisted of a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) architecture, in which the triol moieties were part of the permanent network and the PBA moieties were located in the linear polymer diffused into the semi-IPN. In an alkaline medium (pH = 10), the swelling ratio was approximately 35, independent of Cglu varied between 0 and 300 mg/dL. In bending experiments, shape fixity Rf ≈ 80% and shape recovery Rr ≈ 100% from five programming/recovery cycles could be determined. Rr was a function of Cglu in the range from 0 to 300 mg/dL, which accords with the fluctuation range of Cglu in human blood. In this way, the shape-memory hydrogels could play a role in future diabetes treatment options.
Synthetic cationic polymer-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and selective antimicrobial activity of the same were demonstrated. Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-coated silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity against Acinetobacter baumannii as a function of the polymeric molecular weight (MW) of PEI. Silver nanoparticles were coated with PEI of three different MWs: Ag-NP-1 with PEI exhibiting a MW of 750,000, Ag-NP-2 with PEI exhibiting a MW of 1300, and Ag-NP-3 with PEI exhibiting a MW of 60,000. These nanoparticles showed a particle size distribution of 4–20 nm. The nanoparticles exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against A. baumannii, with the minimum inhibitory concentration of Ag-NP-1, Ag-NP-2, and Ag-NP-3 on the order of 5, 10, and 5 μg/mL, respectively, and minimum bactericidal concentration of Ag-NP-1, Ag-NP-2, and Ag-NP-3 on the order of 10, 20, and 10 μg/mL, respectively. Fluorescence imaging of Ag-NPs revealed selective transfusion of Ag-NPs across the cell membrane as a function of the polymeric MW; differential interaction of the cytoplasmic proteins during antimicrobial activity was observed.
In recent years, intracranial thrombectomy stent has been an important method to treat ischemic stroke caused by acute thrombosis. In this paper, a new intracranial thrombectomy stent with a fish scale-like structure was designed and its mechanical properties were studied by a finite element method. The porosity of all stents was more than 80%. The space occupation ratio (SOR) of the stents increased linearly with the increase of strut thickness, while the strut width had little effect on SOR. The maximum equivalent stress and strain, the directional deformation and overall radial load of the stent decreased with the increase of strut thickness, however, the strut width has little impact on these parameters. The stents with 0.2 mm strut width and the thickness of 0.15 and 0.20 mm had better radial load performance, and the stent with 0.2 mm strut width and 0.15 mm strut thickness had better contact performance with the vessel wall and displayed better flexibility. Therefore, the present study provides a theoretical basis for the design of new intracranial thrombectomy stent.
The synthesis of antibacterial biomaterial with specific functions responsive to specific bacterial growth environments is of significant importance to achieve effective sterilization and reduce the resistant bacteria. Herein, inspired by biomineralization, we develop a one-pot, threonine (Thr)-mediated biomineralization method using a CO2 bubbling procedure to green, simply and quickly prepare vaterite CaCO3 microspheres as a platform for antibacterial Sanguinarine (SAN) delivery. The loading capacity of vaterite CaCO3 microspheres for SAN drugs reached 159.8 mg/g, corresponding to the loading efficiency of 83.7%. And for the first time, a novel Sanguinarine@calcium carbonate (SAN@CaCO3) organic–inorganic hybrid antibacterial biofilm was constructed by using vaterite CaCO3 microspheres with pH-responsive and high SAN drug-loading. Importantly, the film showed bacteria-triggered, pH-responsive SAN release properties and strong bactericidal ability (96.19%) for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Meanwhile, it also had antibacterial capabilities in real environments. In 7 days, it can significantly inhibit the adhesion and growth of bacteria in the air. The biomineralized synthetic vaterite CaCO3 microspheres and the application in the construction of pH-responsive antibacterial biofilm have bright future in resisting bacterial infections and reducing the production of resistant bacteria.
In this study, we report a simple one-pot synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) modified with thermoresponsive polymers potentially applicable for nucleic acid capture. Ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) ions were coprecipitated to a dispersion of previously prepared poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-aminoethyl methacrylate) P(NIPAAm-co-AEM) for in situ synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) and concurrent surface modification of Fe3O4 with the polymer to obtain magnetic nanocomposites. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis reveals the surface modification of Fe3O4 with P(NIPAAm-co-AEM) and P(NIPAAm) as functional and control polymers, respectively. Fe3O4@P(NIPAAm-co-AEM) and Fe3O4@P(NIPAAm) nanocomposites’ surfaces contain 7.5 and 2.3 wt% of immobilized polymers, respectively. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) result indicates a high saturation of magnetization value, 75 emu/g, for Fe3O4@P(NIPAAm-co-AEM) nanocomposites. The hydrodynamic diameter of Fe3O4@P(NIPAAm-co-AEM) in water changes depending on pH and temperature. A study for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) capture ability of Fe3O4@P(NIPAAm-co-AEM) nanocomposites shows a maximum 18.5 mg/g of DNA can be adsorbed on Fe3O4@P(NIPAAm-co-AEM).
In this study, a hybrid dual drug-loaded hydroxyapatite-oxidized dextran methacrylate core–shell nanocarrier was formulated and explored for combinatorial delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and methotrexate (MTX) to bone cancer. The synthesized nanocarrier was well characterized by different techniques. In vitro drug release studies in both acidic (pH 5) and alkaline (pH 7.4) conditions showed sequential release of MTX followed by DOX in a sustained manner for 10 days. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity studies performed using drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) on fibroblast L929 cells and osteosarcoma MG63 cells (OMG63) showed that the NPs were highly biocompatible and showed concentration-dependent toxicity. Gene expression studies in OMG-63 cells exhibited the upregulation of caspase-3 and BAX which confirmed the apoptosis induced by dual drug-loaded NPs. The nanocarrier is expected to be a potential bone void filling material, as well as a platform for sequential delivery of DOX and MTX for the treatment of bone cancer.
In order to expand the family and improve the bioactivity of oral implant ceramics, the phase structures, mechanical and wetting properties of the hot-pressed yttria-zirconia/multilayer graphene oxide composite (3Y-ZrO2/GO) ceramics were investigated. GO was uniformly distributed in 3Y-ZrO2 powders, forming the C–O–Zr bond during the sintering process. In comparison to raw 3Y-ZrO2 ceramics, the flexural strength and fracture toughness improved up to 200% (1489.96 ± 35.71 MPa) in ZG3 (with 0.15 wt% GO) and 40.9% (8.95 ± 0.59 MPa m1/2) in ZG2 (with 0.1 wt% GO), respectively, while the relative density and Vickers hardness increased slightly. The toughening mechanisms included crack deflection, crack bridging, and GO put-out. Meanwhile, the composite ceramics were transformed into a more hydrophilic direction and indicated a good wetting property. In consideration of mechanical and wetting properties, the ZG3 would be a favorable alternative to the yttria-zirconia ceramic (Y-TZP) in dental implant applications. The results are expected to serve as a technical guidance for the fabrication and evaluation of dental implants.
We have synthesized graphene oxide (GO) using Hummer's method which was subsequently reduced (rGO) by hydrazine hydrate. The synthesized GO was coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) conducting polymer (CP) to obtain CP-GO which was also further reduced using hydrazine hydrate to form CP-rGO. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques were used to study the electronic and structural properties of GO, rGO, CP-GO, and CP-rGO nanocomposites for biomedical applications. The superconducting quantum interference device method was used to investigate the magnetic properties of the nanocomposites. The electrical conductivity of the CP-GO nanocomposites was found to be ~104 times higher than that of GO due to an increase in sp2 content and subsequent decrease in oxygen functional groups. In rGO, we observed an improved paramagnetic saturation magnetization of approximately 5.6 × 0−3 emu/g at 2 K. The electronic and magnetic behavior of PEDOT-PSS-coated nanocomposites, as a result, were successfully tuned for potential biological and biomedical applications.
TiO2-(B)/SnO2 nanostructured composites have been prepared by the combination of an oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion reaction method (MRM) and a hydrothermal method. Its electrochemical properties were investigated as anode materials in lithium-ion battery, and characterization was carried out by XRD, BET, Raman, FE-SEM, EDXS, and TEM. The as-prepared composites consisted of monoclinic phase TiO2-(B) nanoribbons decorated with cassiterite structure SnO2 nanoparticles. The electrochemical performance of the TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite electrode showed higher reversible capacity of 265 mAh/g than that of the pure SnO2 electrode, 79 mAh/g, after 50 cycles at 0.1 C in a voltage range of 0.01-3.0 V at room temperature. In addition, the coulombic efficiency of the TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite remains at an average greater than 90% from the 2nd to the 50th cycles. The TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite presented the best balance between the mechanical support effect provided by TiO2-(B) that also contributes to the LIB capacity and the SnO2 that provides high specific capacity.
This work is focused on the evaluation of oxygen semi-permeation and electrochemical performances under high oxygen gradient of free cobalt perovskite membrane materials; La1−xSrxFeO3−δ perovskite. For a better understanding of oxygen transport through La1−xSrxFeO3−δ perovskite membranes, the oxygen diffusion, oxygen incorporation, and desorption coefficients were determined under high oxygen gradient in relation to the temperature for La1−xSrxFeO3−δ (with x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7) by a specific method based on oxygen semi-permeation. The best electrochemical performances were obtained for La0.3Sr0.7FeO3−δ (LSF37) and La0.5Sr0.5FeO3−δ (LSF55) perovskite membranes with oxygen fluxes of 1.7 × 10−3 and 1.2 × 10−3 mol/m2 s at 900 °C, respectively. The oxygen incorporation and desorption coefficients of LSF55 were two times lower than those of LSF37 and similar to those of La0.5Sr0.5Fe0.7Ga0.3O3−δ. The values of these coefficients are discussed and compared with the data reported in the literature by isotopic exchange for the similar material compositions.
Integrating LiMn2O4(LMO) and different carbon materials to build a mixed cathode system can provide fast transport channels to improve the conduction of both electrons and ions. In this paper, our work studied in situ low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of LMO nanocomposites based on graphene oxide (GO)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hydrogel. Compared with the pure LMO nanoparticles, GO/CNTs/LMO (GCLMO) composites greatly improved electrochemical performance in specific capacity, cycle performance and rate ability. The electrochemical test results showed that the specific capacitance of GCLMO nanocomposites reached 396 F/g at the current density of 0.5 A/g, which was much higher than 221 F/g of pure LMO. Even at the current density of 10 A/g, the specific capacitance was still as high as 309 F/g. Besides, after 2000 cycles, the specific capacitance retention of the composite was 93%. Electrochemical data showed that GCLMO composite is an ideal cathode material for supercapacitors.