Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-cfpbc Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-19T16:50:28.865Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Synthesis of flower-like AgI/Bi5O7I hybrid photocatalysts with enhanced photocatalytic activity in rhodamine B degradation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 June 2018

Xiaole Jiang
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
Yueying Ma
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
Chunran Zhao
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
Yijing Chen
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
Min Cui
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
Jingxiong Yu
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
Ying Wu
College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
Yiming He*
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:
Get access


Flower-like AgI/Bi5O7I hybrid photocatalysts were fabricated via a hydrothermal method and the subsequent heating process with AgI/Bi4O5I2 as the intermediate. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectra, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and electrochemical methods were used to reveal the structure, elemental content, morphology, and charge separation capabilities of the as-prepared samples. The photocatalytic test showed that the AgI/Bi5O7I composites own much higher photoactivity than pure AgI and Bi5O7I. Based on the result of XPS analysis, the composite is believed to be the Ag/AgI/Bi5O7I system. Due to the suitable band potentials of AgI and Bi5O7I, the ternary system can form a heterojunction structure which works in a Z-scheme mechanism with Ag nanoparticles as the transfer media. The guided charge transfer in the composite prolongs the life time of charge carriers and eventually leads to the high photocatalytic activity of AgI/Bi5O7I. Additionally, the flower-like structure of the composite also contributes to the photocatalytic reaction.

Copyright © Materials Research Society 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Wen, J.Q., Li, X., Liu, W., Fang, Y.P., Xie, J., and Xu, Y.H.: Photocatalysis fundamentals and surface modification of TiO2 nanomaterials. Chin. J. Catal. 36, 2049 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wen, J.Q., Xie, J., Chen, X.B., and Li, X.: A review on g-C3N4-based photocatalysts. Appl. Surf. Sci. 391, 72 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ye, L., Su, Y., Jin, X., Xie, H., and Zhang, C.: Recent advances in BiOX (X = Cl, Br, and I) photocatalysts: Synthesis, modification, facet effects and mechanisms. Environ. Sci.: Nano 1, 90 (2014).Google Scholar
Huang, H., Xiao, K., Zhang, T.R., Dong, F., and Zhang, Y.H.: Rational design on 3D hierarchical bismuth oxyiodides via in situ self-template phase transformation and phase-junction construction for optimizing photocatalysis against diverse contaminants. Appl. Catal., B 203, 879 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ye, P., Xie, J.J., He, Y.M., Zhang, L., Wu, T.H., and Wu, Y.: Hydrolytic synthesis of flowerlike BiOCl and its photocatalytic performance under visible light. Mater. Lett. 108, 168 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, X., Ai, Z.H., Jia, F.L., and Zhang, L.Z.: Generalized one-pot synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of hierarchical BiOX (X = Cl, Br, I) nanoplate microspheres. J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 747 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang, X.F., Huang, J., Tan, Q.Y., Wang, M., Ji, G.B., Deng, S.B., and Yu, G.: Photocatalytic degradation of PCP-Na over BiOI nanosheets under simulated sunlight irradiation. Catal. Commun. 10, 1957 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhao, J.L., Lv, X.W., Wang, X.X., Yang, J., Yang, X.J., and Lu, X.B.: Fabrication of BiOX (X = Cl, Br, and I) nanosheeted films by anodization and their photocatalytic properties. Mater. Lett. 158, 40 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Su, W., Wang, J., Huang, Y., Wang, W., Wu, L., Wang, X., and Liu, P.: Synthesis and catalytic performances of a novel photocatalyst BiOF. Scripta Mater. 60, 345 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, D.F., Li, J.P., Feng, Z.H., He, L., Zhao, B., Wang, T.Y., Li, R.X., Yin, S., and Sato, T.: Solvothermal synthesis of BiOCl flower-like hierarchical structures with high photocatalytic activity. Catal. Commun. 51, 1 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, X., Yu, J.G., and Jaroniec, M.: Hierarchical photocatalysts. Chem. Soc. Rev. 45, 2603 (2016).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feng, Z., Zeng, L., Chen, Y.J., Ma, Y.Y., Zhao, C.R., Jin, R.S., Lu, Y., Wu, Y., and He, Y.M.: In-situ preparation of Z-scheme MoO3/g-C3N4 composite with high performance in photocatalytic CO2 reduction and RhB degradation. J. Mater. Res. 32, 3660 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
He, H.B., Xue, S.S., Wu, Z., Yu, C.L., Yang, K., Zhu, L.H., Zhou, W.Q., and Liu, R.Y.: Synthesis and characterization of robust Ag2S/Ag2WO4 composite microrods with enhanced photocatalytic performance. J. Mater. Res. 31, 2598 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
He, Y.M., Zhang, L.H., Fan, M.H., Wang, X.X., Walbridge, M.L., Nong, Q.Y., Wu, Y., and Zhao, L.H.: Z-scheme SnO2−x/g-C3N4 composite as an efficient photocatalyst for dye degradation and photocatalytic CO2 reduction. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 137, 175 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yan, J.T., Xu, M.Q., Chai, B., Wang, H.B., Wang, C.L., and Ren, Z.D.: In situ construction of BiOBr/Ag3PO4 composites with enhanced visible light photocatalytic performances. J. Mater. Res. 32, 1603 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ye, L., Liu, J.Y., Jiang, Z., Peng, T.Y., and Zan, L.: Facets coupling of BiOBr-g-C3N4 composite photocatalyst for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity. Appl. Catal., B 142–143, 1 (2013).Google Scholar
Gopannagari, M., Kumar, D.P., Reddy, D.A., Hong, S., Song, M.I., and Kim, T.K.: In situ preparation of few-layered WS2 nanosheets and exfoliation into bilayers on CdS nanorods for ultrafast charge Carrier migrations toward enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production. J. Catal. 351, 153 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dai, X., Xie, M.L., Meng, S.G., Fu, X.L., and Chen, S.F.: Coupled systems for selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols to aldehydes and reduction of nitrobenzene into aniline using CdS/g-C3N4 photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. Appl. Catal., B 158–159, 382 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, Q., Huang, J., Zhong, J.B., Chen, J.F., Li, J.Z., and Sun, S.Y.: Charge separation behaviors of novel AgI/BiOI heterostructures with enhanced solar-photocatalytic performance. Curr. Appl. Phys. 17, 1202 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, J., Wu, W.C., Yan, S., Chu, G., Zhao, S.L., Wang, X., and Li, C.: Enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B by TiO2 modified with Gd2O3 calcined at high temperature. Appl. Surf. Sci. 344, 249 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
He, K.L., Xie, J., Luo, X.Y., Wen, J.Q., Ma, S., Li, X., Fang, Y.P., and Zhang, X.C.: Enhanced visible light photocatalytic H2 production over Z-scheme g-C3N4 nansheets/WO3 nanorods nanocomposites loaded with Ni(OH)x cocatalysts. Chin. J. Catal. 38, 240 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, Y.J., Xiao, X., Dong, X.A., Dong, F., and Zhang, W.: Heterostructured BiOI@La(OH)3 nanorods with enhanced visible light photocatalytic NO removal. Chin. J. Catal. 38, 217 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, S.Q., Li, J., Yang, K.L., and Lin, J.: Fabrication of a β-Bi2O3/BiOI heterojunction and its efficient photocatalysis for organic dye removal. Chin. J. Catal. 36, 2119 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, S.M., Wang, W.Z., Zhang, L., Zhou, L., Yin, W.Z., and Shang, M.: Visible light-induced efficient contaminant removal by Bi5O7I. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 2005 (2009).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yang, J., Xu, L.J., Liu, C.L., and Xie, T.P.: Preparation and photocatalytic activity of porous Bi5O7I nanosheets. Appl. Surf. Sci. 319, 265 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhao, Z.H., Wang, M., Yang, T.Z., Fang, M.H., Zhang, L.N., Zhu, H.K., Tang, C., and Huang, Z.H.: In situ co-precipitation for the synthesis of an Ag/AgBr/Bi5O7I heterojunction for enhanced visible-light photocatalysis. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 424, 8 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, L., Wang, W.Z., Sun, S.M., Zhang, Z.J., Xu, J.H., and Ren, J.: Photocatalytic activity of Er3+, Yb3+ doped Bi5O7I. Catal. Commun. 26, 88 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cao, J., Li, X., Lin, H.L., Xu, B., Luo, B.Y., and Chen, S.F.: Low temperature synthesis of novel rodlike Bi5O7I with visible light photocatalytic performance. Mater. Lett. 76, 181 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Y.F., Zhu, G.Q., Gao, J.Z., Zhu, R.L., Hojamberdiev, M., Wei, X.M., and Liu, P.: Synthesis of plasmonic enhance sphere-like Ag/AgI/Bi5O7I photocatalysts with improved visible-light responsive activity under LED light irradiation. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 28, 5460 (2017).Google Scholar
Chen, F., Yang, Q., Yao, F.B., Wang, S.N., Sun, J., An, H.X., Yi, K.X., Wang, Y.L., Zhou, Y.Y., Wang, L.L., Li, X.M., Wang, D.B., and Zeng, G.M.: Visible-light photocatalytic degradation of multiple antibiotics by AgI nanoparticle-sensitized Bi5O7I microspheres: Enhanced interfacial charge transfer based on Z-scheme heterojunctions. J. Catal. 352, 160 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xiao, X., Xing, C.L., He, G.P., Zuo, X.X., Nan, J.M., and Wang, L.S.: Solvothermal synthesis of novel hierarchical Bi4O5I2 nanoflakes with highly visible light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of 4-tert-butylphenol. Appl. Catal., B 148–149, 154 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, X.Z., Jiang, X.L., Chen, Z.Q., Yu, J.X., and He, Y.M.: Preparation of Bi3O4Br/BiOCl composite via ion-etching method and its excellent photocatalytic activity. Mater. Lett. 210, 194 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cui, M., Yu, J.X., Lin, H.J., Wu, Y.W., Zhao, L.H., and He, Y.M.: In situ preparation of Z-scheme AgI/Bi5O7I hybrid and its excellent photocatalytic activity. Appl. Surf. Sci. 387, 912 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liang, C.H., Terabe, K., Tsuruoka, T., Osada, M., Hasegawa, T., and Aono, M.: AgI/Ag heterojunction nanowires: Facile electrochemical synthesis, photoluminescence, and enhanced ionic conductivity. Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1466 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, Y.G., Huang, S.Q., Ji, H.Y., Jing, L.Q., He, M.Q., Xu, H., Zhang, Q., and Li, H.M.: Facile synthesis of CNT/AgI with enhanced photocatalytic degradation and antibacterial ability. RSC Adv. 6, 6905 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Potlog, T., Duca, D., and Dobromir, M.: Temperature-dependent growth and XPS of Ag-doped ZnTe thin films deposited by close space sublimation method. Appl. Surf. Sci. 352, 33 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yan, M., Wu, Y.L., Zhu, F.F., Hua, Y.Q., and Shi, W.D.: The fabrication of a novel Ag3VO4/WO3 heterojunction with enhanced visible light efficiency in the photocatalytic degradation of TC. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 3308 (2016).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yu, J.X., Chen, Z.Q., Wang, Y., Ma, Y.Y., Feng, Z., Lin, H.J., Wu, Y., Zhao, L.H., and He, Y.M.: Synthesis of KNbO3/g-C3N4 composite and its new application in photocatalytic H2 generation under visible light irradiation. J. Mater. Sci. 53, 7453 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, H.F., Huang, B.B., Dai, Y., Qin, X.Y., and Zhang, X.Y.: One-step synthesis of the nanostructured AgI/BiOI composites with highly enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performances. Langmuir 26, 6618 (2010).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
He, Y.M., Cai, J., Li, T.T., Wu, Y., Lin, H.J., Zhao, L.H., and Luo, M.F.: Efficient degradation of RhB over GdVO4/g-C3N4 composites under visible light irradiation. Chem. Eng. J. 215–216, 721 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khoa, N.T., Kim, S.W., Thuan, D.V., Tien, H.N., Hur, S.H., Kim, E.J., and Hahn, S.H.: Fast and effective electron transport in a Au–graphene–ZnO hybrid for enhanced photocurrent and photocatalysis. RSC Adv. 5, 63964 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vadivela, S., Nirmalesh Naveenb, A., Kamalakannana, V.P., Caoc, P., and Balasubramaniana, N.: Facile large scale synthesis of Bi2S3 nano rods–graphene composite for photocatalytic photoelectrochemical and supercapacitor application. Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 635 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cui, M., Nong, Q.Y., Yu, J.X., Lin, H.J., Wu, Y., Jiang, X.L., Liu, X.Z., and He, Y.M.: Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of CdV2O6 nanorods decorated g-C3N4 composite. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 423, 240 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jin, X.X., Fan, X.Q., Tian, J.J., Cheng, R.L., Li, M.L., and Zhang, L.X.: MoS2 quantum dot decorated g-C3N4 composite photocatalyst with enhanced hydrogen evolution performance. RSC Adv. 6, 5266 (2016).Google Scholar
Yu, J.X., Chen, Z.Q., Zeng, L., Ma, Y.Y., Feng, Z., Wu, Y., Lin, H.J., Zhao, L.H., and He, Y.M.: Synthesis of carbon-doped KNbO3 photocatalyst with excellent performance for photocatalytic hydrogen production. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 179, 45 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dong, L.Z., He, Y.M., Li, T.T., Cai, J., Hu, W.D., Wang, S.S., Lin, H.J., Luo, M.F., Yi, X.D., Zhao, L.H., Weng, W.Z., and Wan, H.L.: A comparative study on the photocatalytic activities of two visible-light plasmonic photocatalysts: AgCl–SmVO4 and AgI–SmVO4 composites. Appl. Catal., A 472, 143 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tu, S.H., Lu, M.L., Xiao, X., Zheng, C.X., Zhong, H., Zuo, X.X., and Nan, J.M.: Flower-like Bi4O5I2/Bi5O7I nanocomposite: Facile hydrothermal synthesis and efficient photocatalytic degradation of propylparaben under visible-light irradiation. RSC Adv. 6, 44552 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, G.T., Wong, K.H., Zhang, X.W., Hu, C., Yu, J.C., Chan, R.C.Y., and Wong, P.K.: Degradation of acid orange 7 using magnetic AgBr under visible light: The roles of oxidizing species. Chemosphere 76, 1185 (2009).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhao, L.H., Zhang, L.H., Lin, H.J., Nong, Q.Y., Cui, M., Wu, Y., and He, Y.M.: Fabrication and characterization of hollow CdMoO4 coupled g-C3N4 heterojunction with enhanced photocatalytic activity. J. Hazard. Mater. 299, 333 (2015).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fu, S.R., He, Y.M., Wu, Q., Wu, Y., and Wu, T.H.: Visible-light responsive plasmonic Ag2O/Ag/gC3N4 nanosheets with enhanced photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B. J. Mater. Res. 31, 2252 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yu, J.X., Chen, Z.Q., Chen, Q.Q., Wang, Y., Lin, H.J., Hu, X., Zhao, L.H., and He, Y.M.: Giant enhancement of photocatalytic H2 production over KNbO3 photocatalyst obtained via carbon doping and MoS2 decoration. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 43, 4347 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, Y.J., He, Y.M., Li, T.T., Cai, J., Luo, M.F., and Zhao, L.H.: Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on CaBi6O10/Bi2O3 composites under visible light. Chem. Eng. J. 189, 473 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, D.F., Kako, T., and Ye, J.H.: Efficient photocatalytic decomposition of acetaldehyde over a solid-solution perovskite (Ag0.75Sr0.25)(Nb0.75Ti0.25)O3 under visible-light irradiation. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2724 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar