Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-564cf476b6-mb7zs Total loading time: 0.239 Render date: 2021-06-19T16:54:19.979Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Relationship between yield point phenomena and the nanoindentation pop-in behavior of steel

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 August 2011

Tae-Hong Ahn
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Iron and Steel Research, RIAM, Seoul National University, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744, Republic of Korea
Chang-Seok Oh
Affiliation:
Advanced Materials Research and Implementation Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831, Republic of Korea
Kyooyoung Lee
Affiliation:
Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Kwangyang, Jeonnam 545-090, Republic of Korea
Easo P. George
Affiliation:
Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831
Heung Nam Han
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Iron and Steel Research, RIAM, Seoul National University, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744, Republic of Korea
Corresponding
E-mail address:
Get access

Abstract

Pop-ins on nanoindentation load–displacement curves of a ferritic steel were correlated with yield drops on its tensile stress–strain curves. To investigate the relationship between these two phenomena, nanoindentation and tensile tests were performed on annealed specimens, prestrained specimens, and specimens aged for various times after prestraining. Clear nanoindentation pop-ins were observed on annealed specimens, which disappeared when specimens were indented right after the prestrain, but reappeared to varying degrees after strain aging. Yield drops in tensile tests showed similar disappearance and appearance, indicating that the two phenomena, at the nano- and macro-scale, respectively, are closely related and influenced by dislocation locking by solutes (Cottrell atmospheres).

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1.Gerberich, W.W., Nelson, J.C., Lilleodden, E.T., Anderson, P., and Wyrobek, J.T.: Indentation included dislocation nucleation: The initial yield point. Acta Mater. 44, 3585 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2.Corcoran, S.G., Colton, R.J., Lilleodden, E.T., and Gerberich, W.W.: Anomalous plastic deformation at surfaces: Nanoindentations of gold single crystals. Phys. Rev. B 55, R16057 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3.Bahr, D.F., Kramer, D.E., and Gerberich, W.W.: Non-linear deformation mechanisms during nanoindentation. Acta Mater. 46, 3605 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4.Kelchner, C.L., Plimpton, S.J., and Hamilton, J.C.: Dislocation nucleation and defect structure during surface indentation. Phys. Rev. B 58, 11085 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5.Tadmor, E.B., Miller, R., Phillips, R., and Ortiz, M.: Nanoindentation and incipient plasticity. J. Mater. Res. 14, 2233 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6.Gouldstone, A., Koh, H-J., Zeng, K-Y., Giannakopoulos, A.E., and Suresh, S.: Discrete and continuous deformation during nanoindentation of thin films. Acta Mater. 48, 2277 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7.Goken, M. and Kempf, M.: Pop-ins in nanoindentation-the initial yield point. Z. Metallk. 92, 1061 (2001).Google Scholar
8.Gouldstone, A., Van Vliet, K.J., and Suresh, S.: Simulation of defect nucleation in a crystal. Nature 411, 656 (2001).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9.Lilleodden, E.T., Zimmerman, J.A., Foiles, S.M., and Nix, W.D.: Atomistic simulations of elastic deformation and dislocation nucleation during nanoindentation. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 51, 901 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10.Bei, H., George, E.P., Hay, J.L., and Pharr, G.M.: Influence of indenter tip geometry on elastic deformation during nanoindentation. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 045501 (2005).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11.Ohmura, T. and Tsuzaki, K.: Plasticity initiation and subsequent deformation behavior in the vicinity of single grain boundary investigated through nanoindentation technique. J. Mater. Sci. 42, 1728 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12.Zbib, A.A. and Bahr, D.F.: Dislocation nucleation and source activation during nanoindentation yield points. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 38A, 2249 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13.Bei, H., Gao, Y.F., Shim, S., George, E.P., and Pharr, G.M.: Strength differences arising from homogeneous versus heterogeneous dislocation nucleation. Phys. Rev. B 77, 060103(R) (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14.Shim, S., Bei, H., George, E.P., and Pharr, G.M.: A different type of indentation size effect. Scr. Mater. 59, 1095 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15.Barnoush, A., Welsch, M.T., and Vehoff, H.: Correlation between dislocation density and pop-in phenomena in aluminum studied by nanoindentation and electron channeling contrast imaging. Scr. Mater. 63, 465 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16.Ahn, T-H., Oh, C-S., Kim, D.H., Oh, K.H., Bei, H., George, E.P., and Han, H.N.: Investigation of strain-induced martensitic transformation in metastable austenite using nanoindentation. Scr. Mater. 63, 540 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17.Han, S.M., Bozorg-Grayeli, T., Groves, J.R., and Nix, W.D.: Size effects on strength and plasticity of vanadium nanopillars. Scr. Mater. 63, 1153 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18.Begau, C., Hartmaier, A., George, E.P., and Pharr, G.M.: Atomistic processes of dislocation generation and plastic deformation during nanoindentation. Acta Mater. 59, 934 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19.Pharr, G.M., Oliver, W.C., and Clarke, D.R.: Hysteresis and discontinuity in the indentation load-displacement behavior of silicon. Scr. Metall. 23, 1949 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20.Pharr, G.M., Oliver, W.C., and Harding, D.S.: New evidence for a pressure-induced phase transformation during the indentation of silicon. J. Mater. Res. 6, 1129 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21.Page, T.F., Oliver, W.C., and McHargue, C.J.: The deformation behavior of ceramic crystals subjected to very low load (nano)indentations. J. Mater. Res. 7, 450 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22.Callahan, D.L., and Morris, J.C.: Extent of phase transformation in silicon hardness indentations. J. Mater. Res. 7, 1614 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23.Weppelmann, E.R., Field, J.S., and Swain, M.V.: Observation, analysis, and simulation of the hysteresis of silicon using ultra-micro-indentation with spherical indenters. J. Mater. Res. 8, 830 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24.Weppelmann, E.R., Field, J.S., and Swain, M.V.: Influence of spherical indentor radius on the indentation-induced transformation behaviour of silicon. J. Mater. Sci. 30, 2455 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25.Han, H.N., and Suh, D-W.: A model for transformation plasticity during bainite transformation of steel under external stress. Acta Mater. 51, 4907 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
26.Han, H.N., Lee, C.G., Oh, C-S., Lee, T-H., and Kim, S-J.: A model for deformation behavior and mechanically induced martensitic transformation of metastable austenitic steel. Acta Mater. 52, 5203 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
27.Jang, J-I., Lance, M.J., Wen, S., Tsui, T.Y., and Pharr, G.M.: Indentation-induced phase transformations in silicon: Influences of load, rate and indenter angle on the transformation behavior. Acta Mater. 53, 1759 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28.Han, H.N., Lee, C-G., Suh, D-W., and Kim, S-J.: A microstructure-based analysis for transformation induced plasticity and mechanically induced martensitic transformation. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 485, 224 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
29.Han, H.N., Oh, C-S., Kim, G., and Kwon, O.: Design method for TRIP-aided multiphase steel based on a microstructure-based modelling for transformation-induced plasticity and mechanically induced martensitic transformation. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 499, 462 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
30.Lee, M-G., Kim, S-J., and Han, H.N.: Crystal plasticity finite element modeling of mechanically induced martensitic transformation (MIMT) in metastable austenite. Int. J. Plast. 26, 688 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
31.Bradby, J.E., Williams, J.S., Wong-Leung, J., Swain, M.V., and Munroe, P.: Nanoindentation-induced deformation of Ge. Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2651 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
32.Misra, R.D.K., Zhang, Z., Jia, Z., Somani, M.C., and Karjalainen, L.P.: Probing deformation processes in near-defect free volume in high strength–high ductility nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) metastable austenitic stainless steels. Scr. Mater. 63, 1057 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
33.Cottrell, A.H.: Dislocations and Plastic Flow in Crystals (Oxford Univ. Press, London, England, 1953), pp. 139150.Google Scholar
34.Ahn, T-H., Um, K-K., Choi, J-K., Kim, D.H., Oh, K.H., Kim, M., and Han, H.N.: Small-scale mechanical property characterization of ferrite formed during deformation of super-cooled austenite by nanoindentation. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 523, 173 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35.Kang, J.Y., Kim, D.H., Baik, S-I., Ahn, T-H., Kim, Y-W., Han, H.N., Oh, K.H., Lee, H-C., and Han, S.H.: Phase analysis of steels by grain-averaged EBSD functions. ISIJ Int. 51, 130 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
36.Kim, Y.M., Ahn, T-H., Park, K.K., Oh, K.H., and Han, H.N.: Identification of dynamic ferrite formed during deformation of super-cooled austenite by image-based analysis of EBSD map. Met. Mater. Int. 17, 181186 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
37.ASTM: E 8–00, Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials.Google Scholar
38.Soer, W.A., Aifantis, K.E., and De Hosson, J.Th.M.: Incipient plasticity during nanoindentation at grain boundaries in body-centered cubic metals. Acta Mater. 53, 4665 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
39.Lilleodden, E.T. and Nix, W.D.: Microstructural length-scale effects in the nanoindentation behavior of thin gold films. Acta Mater. 54, 1583 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
40.Johnson, K.L.: Contact Mechanics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1985), pp. 84106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
41.Lee, D.N.: Texture and Related Phenomena (The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials, Seoul, Korea, 2006), pp. 47107.Google Scholar
42.Honeycombe, R.W.K.: Plastic Deformation of Metals, 2nd ed. (Edward Arnold, London, England, 1984), pp. 3335.Google Scholar
43.Schuh, C.A. and Lund, A.C.: Application of nucleation theory to the rate dependence of incipient plasticity during nanoindentation. J. Mater. Res. 19, 2152 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
44.Gerberich, W.W., Venkataraman, S.K., Huang, H., Harvey, S.E., and Kohlstedt, D.L.: The injection of plasticity by millinewton contacts. Acta Metall. Mater. 43, 1569 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
45.Kramer, D.E., Yoder, K.B., and Gerberich, W.W.: Physics of condensed matter, structure, defects and mechanical properties. Philos. Mag. A 81, 2033 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
46.Oliver, W.C. and Pharr, G.M.: Improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments. J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
47.Lee, Y-H., Yu, H-Y., Baek, U-B., and Nahm, S-H.: Analysis of residual stress through a recovery factor of remnant indents formed on artificially stressed metallic glass surfaces. Kor. J. Met. Mater. 48, 203 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Relationship between yield point phenomena and the nanoindentation pop-in behavior of steel
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Relationship between yield point phenomena and the nanoindentation pop-in behavior of steel
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Relationship between yield point phenomena and the nanoindentation pop-in behavior of steel
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *