Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-mrcq8 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-02T18:16:38.029Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Preparation of highly luminescent and color tunable carbon nanodots under visible light excitation for in vitro and in vivo bio-imaging

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 November 2015

Min Zheng
Affiliation:
Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, People's Republic of China; and State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics, and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130033, People's Republic of China
Shi Liu
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022, People's Republic of China
Jing Li
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022, People's Republic of China
Zhigang Xie
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022, People's Republic of China
Dan Qu
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics, and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130033, People's Republic of China
Xiang Miao
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics, and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130033, People's Republic of China; and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China
Xiabin Jing
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022, People's Republic of China
Zaicheng Sun*
Affiliation:
Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, People's Republic of China; and State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics, and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130033, People's Republic of China
Hongyou Fan*
Affiliation:
Center for Micro-Engineered Materials, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA; and Advanced Materials Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, NM 87106, Albuquerque, USA
*
a)Address all correspondence to these authors. e-mail: sunzc@bjut.edu.cn
b)e-mail: hfan@unm.edu
Get access

Abstract

Carbon nanodots (CDs) have generated enormous excitement because of their superiority in water solubility, chemical inertness, low toxicity, ease of functionalization and resistance to photobleaching. Here we report a facile thermal pyrolysis route to prepare CDs with high quantum yield (QY) using citric acid as the carbon source and ethylene diamine derivatives (EDAs) including triethylenetetramine (TETA), tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) and polyene polyamine (PEPA) as the passivation agents. We find that the CDs prepared from EDAs, such as TETA, TEPA and PEPA, show relatively high photoluminescence (PL) QY (11.4, 10.6, and 9.8%, respectively) at λex of 465 nm. The cytotoxicity of the CDs has been investigated through in vitro and in vivo bio-imaging studies. The results indicate that these CDs possess low toxicity and good biocompatibility. The unique properties such as the high PL QY at large excitation wave length and the low toxicity of the resulting CDs make them promising fluorescent nanoprobes for applications in optical bio-imaging and biosensing.

Type
Invited Feature Papers
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Xu, X., Ray, R., Gu, Y., Ploehn, H.J., Gearheart, L., Raker, K., and Scrivens, W.A.: Electrophoretic analysis and purification of fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube fragments. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12736 (2004).Google Scholar
Cao, L., Wang, X., Meziani, M.J., Lu, F.S., Wang, H.F., Luo, P.G., Lin, Y., Harruff, B.A., Veca, L.M., Murray, D., Xie, S.Y., and Sun, Y.P.: Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 11318 (2007).Google Scholar
Yang, S.T., Cao, L., Luo, P.G., Lu, F.S., Wang, X., Wang, H.F., Meziani, M.J., Liu, Y.F., Qi, G., and Sun, Y.P.: Carbon dots for optical imaging in vivo. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 11308 (2009).Google Scholar
Zhu, A., Qu, Q., Shao, X., Kong, B., and Tian, Y.: Carbon-dot-based dual-emission nanohybrid produces a ratiometric fluorescent sensor for in vivo imaging of cellular copper ions. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 51, 7185 (2012).Google Scholar
Qu, D., Zheng, M., Li, J., Sun, Z., and Xie, Z.: Tailoring color emissions from N doped graphene quantum dots for bioimaging applications. Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e364 (2015).Google Scholar
Huang, P., Lin, J., Wang, X., Wang, Z., Zhang, C., He, M., Wang, K., Chen, F., Li, Z., Shen, G., Cui, D., and Chen, X.: Light-triggered theranostic based on photosensitizer-conjugated carbon dots for simultaneous enhanced-fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy. Adv. Mater. 24, 5104 (2014).Google Scholar
Zheng, M., Liu, S., Li, J., Qu, D., Zhao, H., Guan, X., Hu, X., Xie, Z., Jing, X., and Sun, Z.: Integrating oxaliplatin with highly luminescent carbon dots: An unprecedented theranostic agent for personalized medicine. Adv. Mater. 26, 3554 (2014).Google Scholar
Li, H., He, X., Kang, Z., Huang, H., Liu, Y., Liu, J., Lian, S., Tsang, C.H.A., Yang, X., and Lee, S.T.: Water-soluble fluorescent carbon quantum dots and photocatalyst design. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 49, 4430 (2010).Google Scholar
Cao, L., Sahu, S., Anilkumar, P., Bunker, C.E., Xu, J.A., Fernando, K.A.S., Wang, P., Guliants, E.A., Tackett, K.N., and Sun, Y.P.: Carbon nanoparticles as visible-light photocatalysts for efficient CO2 conversion and beyond. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 4754 (2011).Google Scholar
Ming, H., Ma, Z., Liu, Y., Pan, K., Yu, H., Wang, F., and Kang, Z.: Large scale electrochemical synthesis of high quality carbon nanodots and their photocatalytic property. Dalton Trans. 41, 9526 (2012).Google Scholar
Liu, J., Liu, Y., Liu, N., Han, Y., Zhang, X., Huang, H., Lifshitz, Y., Lee, S.T., Zhong, J., and Kang, Z.: Metal-free efficient photocatalyst for stable visible water splitting via a two-electron pathway. Science 347, 970974 (2015).Google Scholar
Qu, D., Sun, Z., Zheng, M., Li, J., Zhang, Y., and Zhang, G.: Three colors emission from S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots for visible light H2 production and bioimaging. Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 360 (2015).Google Scholar
Guo, X., Wang, C.F., Yu, Z.Y., Chen, L., and Chen, S.: Facile access to versatile fluorescent carbon dots toward light-emitting diodes. Chem. Commun. 48, 2692 (2012).Google Scholar
Tang, L., Ji, R., Cao, X., Lin, J., Jiang, H., Li, X., Teng, K.S., Luk, C.M., Zeng, S., Hao, J., and Lau, S.P.: Deep ultraviolet photoluminescence of water-soluble self-passivated graphene quantum dots. ACS Nano 6, 5102 (2012).Google Scholar
Zhang, X., Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., Kalytchuk, S., Kershaw, S.V., Wang, Y., Wang, P., Zhang, T., Zhao, Y., Zhang, H., Cui, T., Wang, Y., Zhao, J., Yu, W.W., and Rogach, A.L.: Color-switchable electroluminescence of carbon dot light-emitting diodes. ACS Nano 7, 11234 (2013).Google Scholar
Baker, S.N. and Baker, G.A.: Luminescent carbon nanodots: Emergent nanolights. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 49, 6726 (2010).Google Scholar
Sun, Y.P., Zhou, B., Lin, Y., Wang, W., Fernando, K.A.S., Pathak, P., Meziani, M.J., Harruff, B.A., Wang, X., Wang, H.F., Luo, P.G., Yang, H., Kose, M.E., Chen, B.L., Veca, L.M., and Xie, S.Y.: Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 7756 (2006).Google Scholar
Zhou, J., Booker, C., Li, R., Zhou, X., Sham, T.K., Sun, X., and Ding, Z.: An electrochemical avenue to blue luminescent nanocrystals from multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 744 (2007).Google Scholar
Liu, H., Ye, T., and Mao, C.: Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles derived from candle soot. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 46, 6473 (2007).Google Scholar
Zhu, H., Wang, X., Li, Y., Wang, Z., Yang, F., and Yang, X.: Microwave synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with electrochemiluminescence properties. Chem. Commun. 34, 5118 (2009).Google Scholar
Ma, Z., Ming, H., Huang, H., Liu, Y., and Kang, Z.: Large scale synthesis of carbon nanospheres and their application as electrode materials for heavy metal ions detection. New J. Chem. 36, 861 (2012).Google Scholar
Yang, Z.C., Wang, M., Yong, A.M., Wong, S.Y., Zhang, X.H., Tan, H., Chang, A.Y., Li, X., and Wang, J.: Intrinsically fluorescent carbon dots with tunable emission derived from hydrothermal treatment of glucose in the presence of monopotassium phosphate. Chem. Commun. 47, 11615 (2011).Google Scholar
Liu, S., Tian, J., Wang, L., Zhang, Y., Qin, X., Luo, Y., Asiri, A.M., Al-Youbi, A.O., and Sun, X.: Hydrothermal treatment of grass: A low-cost, green route to nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, photoluminescent polymer nanodots as an effective fluorescent sensing platform for label-free detection of Cu(II) ions. Adv. Mater. 24, 2037 (2012).Google Scholar
Zhu, S., Meng, Q., Wang, L., Zhang, J., Song, Y., Jin, H., Zhang, K., Sun, H., Wang, H., and Yang, B.: Highly photoluminescent carbon dots for multicolor patterning, sensors, and bioimaging. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52, 3953 (2013).Google Scholar
Bourlinos, A.B., Stassinopoulos, A., Anglos, D., Zboril, R., Georgakilas, V., and Giannelis, E.P.: Photoluminescent carbogenic dots. Chem. Mater. 20, 4539 (2008).Google Scholar
Wang, F., Xie, Z., Zhang, H., Liu, C.Y., and Zhang, Y.G.: Highly luminescent organosilane functionalized carbon dots. Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1027 (2011).Google Scholar
Krysmann, M.J., Kelarakis, A., Dallas, P., and Giannelis, E.P.: Formation mechanism of carbogenic nanoparticles with dual photoluminescence emission. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 747 (2012).Google Scholar
Liu, C., Zhang, P., Zhai, X., Tian, F., Li, W., Yang, J., Liu, Y., Wang, H., Wang, W., and Liu, W.: Nano-carrier for gene delivery and bioimaging based on carbon dots with PEI-passivation enhanced fluorescence. Biomaterials 33, 3604 (2012).Google Scholar
Zhai, X., Zhang, P., Liu, C., Bai, T., Li, W., Dai, L., and Liu, W.: Highly luminescent carbon nanodots by microwave-assisted pyrolysis. Chem. Commun. 48, 7955 (2012).Google Scholar
Tian, L., Ghosh, D., Chen, W., Pradhan, S., Chang, X., and Chen, S.: Nanosized carbon particles from natural gas soot. Chem. Mater. 21, 2803 (2009).Google Scholar
Zheng, M., Xie, Z., Qu, D., Li, D., Du, P., Jing, X., and Sun, Z.: On–off–on fluorescent carbon dots nanosensor for recognition of chromium (VI) and ascorbic acid based on the inner filter effect. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 13242 (2013).Google Scholar
Kwon, W. and Rhee, S.W.: Facile synthesis of graphitic carbon quantum dots with size tunability and uniformity using reverse micelles. Chem. Commun. 48, 5256 (2012).Google Scholar
Dan, Q., Zheng, M., Zhang, L., Zhao, H., Xie, Z., Jing, X., Haddad, R.E., Fan, H., and Sun, Z.: Formation mechanism and optimization of highly luminescent N-doped graphene quantum dots. Sci. Rep. 4, 5294 (2014).Google Scholar
Qu, D., Zheng, M., Du, P., Zhou, Y., Zhang, L., Li, D., Tan, H., Zhao, Z., Xie, Z., and Sun, Z.: Highly luminescent S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots with broad visible absorption bands for visible light photocatalysts. Nanoscale 5, 12272 (2013).Google Scholar
Luo, P.G., Sahu, S., Yang, S.T., Sonkar, S.K., Wang, J., Wang, H., LeCroy, G.E., Cao, L., and Sun, Y.P.: Carbon “quantum” dots for optical bioimaging. J. Mater. Chem. B 1, 2116 (2013).Google Scholar
Cao, L., Yang, S.T., Wang, X., Luo, P.G., Liu, J.H., Sahu, S., and Liu, Y., Sun, Y.P.: Competitive performance of carbon “quantum” dots in optical bioimaging. Theranostics 2, 295 (2012).Google Scholar