Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-kw98b Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-26T12:26:25.780Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Formation of nanocrystalline and amorphization phase of Fe–Dy2O3 powder mixtures induced by ball milling

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 December 2016

Jinhua Huang
College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, 361102, China
Junqiang Lu
Department of Nuclear Fuel and Material Research, Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, Shanghai 200233, China
Guang Ran*
College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, 361102, China
Nanjun Chen
College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, 361102, China
Peidong Qu
College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, 361102, China
a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:
Get access


Ball milling induced the formation of nanocrystalline and amorphization phase in Fe–25.68% Dy2O3 powder mixtures (mass fraction, %). The microstructure was investigated by using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The transformation of Dy2O3 from cubic to monoclinic crystal structure and then to the amorphization was observed during ball milling. A few Dy atoms were dissolved into Fe crystal structure, which was discussed using mechanical kinetics. After 48 h of ball milling, the homogenous mixtures of supersaturated nanocrystalline solid solution of Fe (Dy, O) and Dy2O3 amorphization were formed and the elements of Fe, Dy, and O were distributed uniformly in the ball-milled particles. During the whole ball mining process, a rapid decrease in Fe grain size was observed over the initial time period, while a constant value was presented in later stage, resulting in a final size of about 20 nm. The mechanism of the microstructural evolution of powder mixtures was analyzed and discussed.

Copyright © Materials Research Society 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Contributing Editor: Jürgen Eckert



Kim, H.S., Joung, C.Y., Lee, B.H., Kim, H.S., and Sohn, D.S.: Applicability of CeO2 as a surrogate for PuO2 in a MOX fuel development. J. Nucl. Mater. 378, 98 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franceschini, F. and Petrovic, B.: Advanced operational strategy for the IRIS reactor: Load follow through mechanical shim (MSHIM). Nucl. Eng. Des. 238, 3240 (2008).Google Scholar
Carelli, M.D., Paramonov, D.V., Miller, K., Lombardi, C.V., Ricotti, M.E., Todreas, N.E., Greenspan, E., Yamamoto, K., Nagano, A., Ninokata, H., Robertson, J., and Oriolo, F.: IRIS reactor development. In Proc. 9th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-9), Nice, France, April 8–12, 2001.Google Scholar
Onoue, M., Kawanishi, T., Carlson, W.R., and Morita, T.: Application of MSHIM core control strategy for Westinghouse AP1000 nuclear power plant. GENES4/ANP2003, Kyoto, Japan, September 15–19 (2003).Google Scholar
Drudi, K.J., Carlson, W.R., Connor, M.E., Gordon Mansfield, M., Hoorn, M.J., Lang, C.J., Parkinson, J., and Bhomer Leiah, R.O.: Advanced Gray Control Rod Assemblies. China Patent CN 101504872A (2009). Google Scholar
Lu, J.Q., Tang, C.T., Li, H., Yang, B., Li, J.W., Ding, Q.X., Zhu, L.B., and Liu, J.Z.: A Kind of Advanced Gray Control Rod and Absorber. China Patent CN 103374678 A (2013). Google Scholar
Risovany, V.D., Klochkov, E.P., and Varlashova, E.E.: Hafnium and dysprosium titanate based control rods for thermal water-cooled reactors. At. Energy 81, 764 (1996).Google Scholar
Risovany, V.D., Varlashova, E.E., and Suslov, D.N.: Dysprosium titanate as an absorber material for control rods. J. Nucl. Mater. 281, 84 (2000).Google Scholar
Kermit, W. and Theilacker, J.S.: Neutron Absorber Materials for Reactor Control (Naval Reactors Division of Reactor Development United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C., 1962).Google Scholar
Trudeau, M.L., Schulz, R., Dussault, D., and Van Neste, A.: Structural changes during high-energy ball milling of iron-based amorphous alloys: Is high-energy ball milling equivalent to a thermal process? Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 99 (1990).Google Scholar
Budylkin, N.I., Mironova, E.G., and Chernov, V.M.: Neutron-induced swelling and embrittlement of pure iron and pure nickel irradiated in the BN-350 and BOR-60 fast reactors. J. Nucl. Mater. 375, 359 (2008).Google Scholar
Baum, E.M., Ernesti, M.C., Knox, H.D., Miller, T.R., Waston, A.M., and Travis, S.D.: Nuclides and Isotopes, 7th ed. (Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, New York, 2009); pp. 66, 67.Google Scholar
Ushakov, S.V., Heleanal, K.B., Nanrotskyal, A., and Boatnera, L.A.: Thermochemistry of rare-earth orthophosphates. J. Mater. Res. 16, 2623 (2001).Google Scholar
Ferkel, H. and Hellmig, R.J.: Effect of nanopowder deagglomeration on the densities of nanocrystalline ceramic green bodies and their sintering behaviour. Nanostruct. Mater. 11, 617 (1999).Google Scholar
Suryanarayana, C. and Grant Norton, M.: X-ray Diffraction a Practical Approach (Plenum Press, New York, 1998).Google Scholar
Vives, S., Gaffet, E., and Meunier, C.: X-ray diffraction line profile analysis of iron ball milled powders. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 366, 229 (2004).Google Scholar
Zhang, L., Ukai, S., Hoshino, T., Hayashi, S., and Qu, X.H.: Y2O3 evolution and dispersion refinement in Co-base ODS alloys. Acta Mater. 57, 3671 (2009).Google Scholar
Toualbi, L., Ratti, M., André, G., Onimus, F., and de Carlan, Y.: Use of neutron and X-ray diffraction to study the precipitation mechanisms of oxides in ODS materials. J. Nucl. Mater. 417, 225 (2011).Google Scholar
Suryanarayana, C.: Mechanical alloying and milling. Prog. Mater Sci. 46, 1 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bai, Y.P., Xing, J.D., Wu, H.L., Liu, Z., Huang, Q., Ma, S.Q., and Gao, Y.M.: The mechanical alloying mechanism of various Fe2O3–Al–Fe systems. Adv. Powder Technol. 24, 373 (2013).Google Scholar
Gaffet, E., Faudot, F., and Harmelin, M.: Crystal-to-amorphous phase transition induced by mechanical alloying in the Ge–Si system. Mater. Sci. Forum 88, 375 (1992).Google Scholar
Murty, B.S., Naik, M.D., Mohan Rao, M., and Ranganathan, S.: Glass forming range in the Al–Ti system by mechanical alloying. Mater. Forum 16, 19 (1992).Google Scholar
Kimura, Y., Hidaka, H., and Takaki, S.: Work-hardening mechanism during super-heavy plastic deformation in mechanically milled iron powder. Mater. Trans. 40, 1149 (1999).Google Scholar
Timoshenkoo, S.P. and Goodier, J.N.: Theory of Elasticity, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1970); pp. 410–413.Google Scholar
Gong, Y.T. and Que, S.P.: Dynamics analysis and computer simulation of the planetary mill. J. South. Inst. Metall. 18, 101 (1997).Google Scholar
Gu, Q.C.: List in Chemistry (Jiangsu Education Publishing House, China, 1998); p. 26.Google Scholar