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Experimental analysis and thermodynamic calculations of an additively manufactured functionally graded material of V to Invar 36

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 May 2018

Lourdes D. Bobbio
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Brandon Bocklund
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Richard Otis
Affiliation:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
John Paul Borgonia
Affiliation:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
Robert Peter Dillon
Affiliation:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
Andrew A. Shapiro
Affiliation:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
Bryan McEnerney
Affiliation:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
Zi-Kui Liu
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Allison M. Beese*
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
*
a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: amb961@psu.edu
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Abstract

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) in which the elemental composition intentionally varies with position can be fabricated using directed energy deposition additive manufacturing (AM). This work examines an FGM that is linearly graded from V to Invar 36 (64 wt% Fe, 36 wt% Ni). This FGM cracked during fabrication, indicating the formation of detrimental phases. The microstructure, composition, phases, and microhardness of the gradient zone were analyzed experimentally. The phase composition as a function of chemistry was predicted through thermodynamic calculations. It was determined that a significant amount of the intermetallic σ-FeV phase formed within the gradient zone. When the σ phase constituted the majority phase, catastrophic cracking occurred. The approach presented illustrates the suitability of using equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for the prediction of phase formation in FGMs made by AM despite the nonequilibrium conditions in AM, providing a route for the computationally informed design of FGMs.

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Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2018 

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References

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