Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-mzfmx Total loading time: 0.202 Render date: 2022-08-14T07:23:57.102Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Experimental analysis and thermodynamic calculations of an additively manufactured functionally graded material of V to Invar 36

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 May 2018

Lourdes D. Bobbio
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Brandon Bocklund
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Richard Otis
Affiliation:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
John Paul Borgonia
Affiliation:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
Robert Peter Dillon
Affiliation:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
Andrew A. Shapiro
Affiliation:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
Bryan McEnerney
Affiliation:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
Zi-Kui Liu
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Allison M. Beese*
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
*
a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: amb961@psu.edu
Get access

Abstract

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) in which the elemental composition intentionally varies with position can be fabricated using directed energy deposition additive manufacturing (AM). This work examines an FGM that is linearly graded from V to Invar 36 (64 wt% Fe, 36 wt% Ni). This FGM cracked during fabrication, indicating the formation of detrimental phases. The microstructure, composition, phases, and microhardness of the gradient zone were analyzed experimentally. The phase composition as a function of chemistry was predicted through thermodynamic calculations. It was determined that a significant amount of the intermetallic σ-FeV phase formed within the gradient zone. When the σ phase constituted the majority phase, catastrophic cracking occurred. The approach presented illustrates the suitability of using equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for the prediction of phase formation in FGMs made by AM despite the nonequilibrium conditions in AM, providing a route for the computationally informed design of FGMs.

Type
Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Domack, M.S. and Baughman, J.M.: Development of nickel–titanium graded composition components. Rapid Prototyp. J. 11, 41 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suryakumar, S. and Somashekara, M.A.: Manufacture of functionally gradient materials using weld-deposition. In Proceedings of the 1st International Joint Symposium on Joining and Welding, Fujii, H., ed. (Woodheard Publishing Ltd., Osaka, Japan, 2013); pp. 939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shen, C., Pan, Z., Cuiuri, D., Roberts, J., and Li, H.: Fabrication of Fe-FeAl functionally graded material using the wire-arc additive manufacturing process. Metall. Mater. Trans. B 47, 763 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nemat-Alla, M.M.: Powder metallurgical fabrication and microstructural investigations of aluminum/steel functionally graded material. Mater. Sci. Appl. 2, 1708 (2011).Google Scholar
Hofmann, D.C., Roberts, S., Otis, R., Kolodziejska, J., Dillon, R.P., Suh, J., Shapiro, A.A., Liu, Z-K., and Borgonia, J-P.: Developing gradient metal alloys through radial deposition additive manufacturing. Sci. Rep. 4, 5357 (2014).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carroll, B.E., Otis, R., Borgonia, J-P., Suh, E., Dillon, P., Shapiro, A., Hofmann, D.C., Liu, Z-K., and Beese, A.M.: Functionally graded alloy of 304L stainless steel and inconel 625 fabricated by directed energy deposition: Characterization and thermodynamic modeling. Acta Mater. 108, 46 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bobbio, L.D., Otis, R.A., Borgonia, J.P., Dillon, R.P., Shapiro, A.A., Liu, Z-K., and Beese, A.M.: Additive manufacturing of a functionally graded material from Ti–6Al–4V to invar: Experimental characterization and thermodynamic calculations. Acta Mater. 127, 133 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koptseva, N.V., Golubchik, E.M., Yu, Y., Chukin, D.M., and Medvedeva, E.M.: Formation of the physicomechanical properties in high strength invar alloys. Steel Translat. 44, 317 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ASM Aerospace Specification Metals, Inc., 2015.Google Scholar
Roy, R., Agrawal, D.K., and McKinstry, H.A.: Very low thermal expansion coefficient materials. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 19, 59 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomashchuk, I., Grevey, D., and Sallamand, P.: Dissimilar laser welding of AISI 316L stainless steel to Ti–6Al–4V alloy via pure vanadium interlayer. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 622, 37 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, B.E., Palmer, T.A., and Beese, A.M.: Anisotropic tensile behavior of Ti–6Al–4V components fabricated with directed energy deposition additive manufacturing. Acta Mater. 87, 309 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vander Voort, G.F.: Metallography, Principles and Practice (ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 1984).Google Scholar
Kaufman, L. and Bernstein, H.: Computer Calculation of Phase Diagram (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1970).Google Scholar
Saunders, N. and Miodownik, A.P.: CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams): A Comprehensive Guide (Pergamon, Oxford, New York, 1998).Google Scholar
Lukas, H.L., Fries, S.G., and Sundman, B.: Computational Thermodynamics: The CALPHAD Method (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Z.K.: First-principles calculations and CALPHAD modeling of thermodynamics. J. Phase Equilibria Diffusion 30, 517 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Z.K. and Wang, Y.: Computational Thermodynamics of Materials (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hofmann, D.C., Kolodziejska, J., Roberts, S., Otis, R., Dillon, R.P., Suh, J-O., Liu, Z-K., and Borgonia, J-P.: Compositionally graded metals: A new frontier of additive manufacturing. J. Mater. Res. 29, 1899 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bobbio, L.D., Bocklund, B., Otis, R., Borgonia, J.P., Dillon, R.P., Shapiro, A.A., McEnerney, B., Liu, Z-K., and Beese, A.M.: Characterization of a functionally graded material of Ti–6Al–4V to 304L stainless steel with an intermediate V section. J. Alloys Compd. 742, 1031 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhao, C.C., Yang, S.Y., Lu, Y., Guo, Y.H., Wang, C.P., and Liu, X.J.: Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation of the phase equilibria in the Fe–Ni–V system. Calphad Comput. Coupling Phase Diagrams Thermochem. 46, 80 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andersson, J.O., Helander, T., Höglund, L., Shi, P., and Sundman, B.: Thermo-Calc & DICTRA, computational tools for materials science. Calphad Comput. Coupling Phase Diagrams Thermochem 26, 273 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, J.F.: The V (vanadium) system. Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 2, 40 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, J.R., ed.: ASM Specialty Handbook: Nickel, Cobalt, and Their Alloys (ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 2000); pp. 92101.Google Scholar
Turchi, P.E.A., Kaufman, L., and Liu, Z-K.: Modeling of Ni–Cr–Mo based alloys: Part II—Kinetics. Calphad Comput. Coupling Phase Diagrams Thermochem. 31, 237 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ustinovshikov, Y., Pushkarev, B., and Sapegina, I.: Phase transformations in alloys of the Fe–V system. J. Alloys Compd. 398, 133 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hsieh, C. and Wu, W.: Overview of intermetallic sigma (σ) phase precipitation in stainless steels. ISRN Metall. 4, 1 (2012).Google Scholar
Seki, J.I., Hagiwara, M., and Suzuki, T.: Metastable order-disorder transition and sigma phase formation in Fe–V binary alloys. J. Mater. Sci. 14, 2404 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Samsonov, G.V., ed.: Handbook of the Physicochemical Properties of the Elements (Springer, New York, 1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoelzer, D.T., West, M.K., Zinkle, S.J., and Rowcliffe, A.F.: Solute interactions in pure vanadium and V–4Cr–4Ti alloy. J. Nucl. Mater. 283–287, 616 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Satou, M., Abe, K., and Kayano, H.: High-temperature deformation of modified V–Ti–Cr–Si type alloys. J. Nucl. Mater. 179, 757 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Experimental analysis and thermodynamic calculations of an additively manufactured functionally graded material of V to Invar 36
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Experimental analysis and thermodynamic calculations of an additively manufactured functionally graded material of V to Invar 36
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Experimental analysis and thermodynamic calculations of an additively manufactured functionally graded material of V to Invar 36
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *