Hostname: page-component-6d856f89d9-xkcpr Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-16T04:31:17.723Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Effect of Nb addition on mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Ti6Al4V alloy produced by selective laser melting

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 February 2020

Qingxuan Sui
Affiliation:
School of Mechanical, Electrical & Information Engineering, Shandong University (Weihai), Weihai 264209, People's Republic of China
Lingtao Meng
Affiliation:
School of Mechanical, Electrical & Information Engineering, Shandong University (Weihai), Weihai 264209, People's Republic of China
Shenghai Wang*
Affiliation:
School of Mechanical, Electrical & Information Engineering, Shandong University (Weihai), Weihai 264209, People's Republic of China
Peizhen Li
Affiliation:
School of Mechanical, Electrical & Information Engineering, Shandong University (Weihai), Weihai 264209, People's Republic of China
Xiaotian Yin
Affiliation:
School of Mechanical, Electrical & Information Engineering, Shandong University (Weihai), Weihai 264209, People's Republic of China
Li Wang*
Affiliation:
School of Mechanical, Electrical & Information Engineering, Shandong University (Weihai), Weihai 264209, People's Republic of China
*
a)Address all correspondence to these authors. e-mail: shenghaiw@163.com
Get access

Abstract

In this research, a novel titanium metallic composite, Ti6Al4V powder mixed with 5 at.% Nb powder, was fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). The effect of Nb addition on their phase transformation, microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior were studied. Interestingly, the novel alloy shows a combination of superior plastic deformation (εp= 18.9 ± 1.8%) and high compressive strength (σc= 1593 ± 38 MPa), which is 60.2 and 3.2% higher than that of the SLM-processed Ti6Al4V alloy under optimum printing parameters, respectively. However, the yield strength of Ti6Al4V + 5Nb (973 ± 45 MPa) is lower than that of the Ti6Al4V alloy (1066 ± 12 MPa). The solidification mechanism changes from planar to cellular mode with Nb addition. The ultrafine microstructure β grains are observed, which show a columnar shape and cellular shape. More importantly, the volume fraction of the β phase is significantly increased from 3.7% to 20.4% because of the Nb addition. In addition, the Ti6Al4V + 5Nb alloy possesses better corrosion resistance than the Ti6Al4V alloy. The research highlights that the addition of Nb powder in Ti6Al4V processed by SLM can improve the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the material.

Keywords

Type
Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abe, F., Osakada, K., Shiomi, M., Uematsu, K., and Matsumoto, M.: The manufacturing of hard tools from metallic powders by selective laser melting. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 111, 210 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Song, B., Dong, S., Zhang, B., Liao, H., and Coddet, C.: Effects of processing parameters on microstructure and mechanical property of selective laser melted Ti6Al4V. Mater. Des. 35, 120 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thijs, L., Verhaeghe, F., Craeghs, T., Humbeeck, J.V., and Kruth, J.: A study of the microstructural evolution during selective laser melting of Ti–6Al–4V. Acta Mater. 58, 3303 (2010).10.1016/j.actamat.2010.02.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vrancken, B., Thijs, L., Kruth, J.P., and Van Humbeeck, J.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel β titanium metallic composite by selective laser melting. Acta Mater. 68, 150 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jägle, E.A., Choi, P., Van Humbeeck, J., and Raabe, D.: Precipitation and austenite reversion behavior of a maraging steel produced by selective laser melting. J. Mater. Res. 29, 2072 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ren, B., Lu, D., Zhou, R., Li, Z., and Guan, J.: Preparation and mechanical properties of selective laser melted H13 steel. J. Mater. Res. 34, 1415 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ma, C., Gu, D., Lin, K., and Chen, W.: Thermal behavior and formation mechanism of a typical micro-scale node-structure during selective laser melting of Ti-based porous structure. J. Mater. Res. 32, 1506 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Song, J., Zhang, L., Wu, W., He, B., Ni, X., Xu, J., Zhu, G., Yang, Q., Wang, T., and Lu, L.: Understanding processing parameters affecting residual stress in selective laser melting of Inconel 718 through numerical modeling. J. Mater. Res. 34, 1395 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shifeng, W., Shuai, L., Qingsong, W., Yan, C., Sheng, Z., and Yusheng, S.: Effect of molten pool boundaries on the mechanical properties of selective laser melting parts. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 214, 2660 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banerjee, R., Bhattacharyya, D., Collins, P.C., Viswanathan, G.B., and Fraser, H.L.: Precipitation of grain boundary α in a laser deposited compositionally graded Ti–8Al–xV alloy—An orientation microscopy study. Acta Mater. 52, 377 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sing, S.L., An, J., Yeong, W.Y., and Wiria, F.E.: Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A review on processes, materials and designs. J. Orthop. Res. 34, 369 (2016).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Das, S., Wohlert, M., Beaman, J.J., and Bourell, D.L.: Processing of titanium net shapes by SLS/HIP. Mater. Des. 20, 115 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murr, L.E., Quinones, S.A., Gaytan, S.M., Lopez, M.I., Rodela, A., Martinez, E.Y., Hernandez, D.H., Martinez, E., Medina, F., and Wicker, R.B.: Microstructure and mechanical behavior of Ti–6Al–4V produced by rapid-layer manufacturing, for biomedical applications. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 2, 20 (2009).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vilaro, T., Colin, C., and Bartout, J.D.: As-fabricated and heat-treated microstructures of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy processed by selective laser melting. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 42, 3190 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vrancken, B., Thijs, L., Kruth, J., and Van Humbeeck, J.: Heat treatment of Ti6Al4V produced by selective laser melting: Microstructure and mechanical properties. J. Alloys Compd. 541, 177 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Attar, H., Prashanth, K.G., Chaubey, A.K., Calin, M., Zhang, L.C., Scudino, S., and Eckert, J.: Comparison of wear properties of commercially pure titanium prepared by selective laser melting and casting processes. Mater. Lett. 142, 38 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kasperovich, G. and Hausmann, J.: Improvement of fatigue resistance and ductility of TiAl6V4 processed by selective laser melting. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 220, 202 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gu, D., Hagedorn, Y., Meiners, W., Wissenbach, K., and Poprawe, R.: Selective Laser Melting of in-situ TiC/Ti5Si3 composites with novel reinforcement architecture and elevated performance. Surf. Coat. Technol. 205, 3285 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gu, D. and Meiners, W.: Microstructure characteristics and formation mechanisms of in situ WC cemented carbide based hardmetals prepared by Selective Laser Melting. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 527, 7585 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gu, D., Meng, G., Li, C., Meiners, W., and Poprawe, R.: Selective laser melting of TiC/Ti bulk nanocomposites: Influence of nanoscale reinforcement. Scr. Mater. 67, 185 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, B., Chen, J., and Coddet, C.: Microstructure and transformation behavior of in situ shape memory alloys by selective laser melting Ti–Ni mixed powder. J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 29, 863 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, Q., Han, C., Choma, T., Wei, Q., Yan, C., Song, B., and Shi, Y.: Effect of Nb content on microstructure, property and in vitro apatite-forming capability of Ti–Nb alloys fabricated via selective laser melting. Mater. Des. 126, 268 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fischer, M., Joguet, D., Robin, G., Peltier, L., and Laheurte, P.: In situ elaboration of a binary Ti–26Nb alloy by selective laser melting of elemental titanium and niobium mixed powders. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 62, 852 (2016).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Attar, H., Bönisch, M., Calin, M., Zhang, L.C., Zhuravleva, K., Funk, A., Scudino, S., Yang, C., and Eckert, J.: Comparative study of microstructures and mechanical properties of in situ Ti–TiB composites produced by selective laser melting, powder metallurgy, and casting technologies. J. Mater. Res. 29, 1941 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, R., Shi, Y., Liu, J., Xie, Z., and Wang, Z.: Selective laser melting W–10 wt% Cu composite powders. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48, 597 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kruth, J.P., Levy, G., Klocke, F., and Childs, T.H.C.: Consolidation phenomena in laser and powder-bed based layered manufacturing. CIRP Ann. 56, 730 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Y.J., Li, X.P., Zhang, L.C., and Sercombe, T.B.: Processing and properties of topologically optimised biomedical Ti–24Nb–4Zr–8Sn scaffolds manufactured by selective laser melting. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 642, 268 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Di, W., Yongqiang, Y., Xubin, S., and Yonghua, C.: Study on energy input and its influences on single-track, multi-track, and multi-layer in SLM. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 58, 1189 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kruth, J.P., Froyen, L., Van Vaerenbergh, J., Mercelis, P., Rombouts, M., and Lauwers, B.: Selective laser melting of iron-based powder. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 149, 616 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mumtaz, K.A., Erasenthiran, P., and Hopkinson, N.: High density selective laser melting of Waspaloy®. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 195, 77 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Attallah, M.M., Zabeen, S., Cernik, R.J., and Preuss, M.: Comparative determination of the α/β phase fraction in α + β-titanium alloys using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Mater. Charact. 60, 1248 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bish, D.L. and Howard, S.A.: Quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld method. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 21, 86 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
He, J., Li, D., Jiang, W., Ke, L., Qin, G., Ye, Y., Qin, Q., and Qiu, D.: The martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V prepared via selective laser melting. Materials 12, 321 (2019).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Banumathy, S., Prasad, K.S., Mandal, R.K., and Singh, A.K.: Effect of thermomechanical processing on evolution of various phases in Ti–Nb alloys. Bull. Mater. Sci. 7, 1421 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, C.M., Ju, C.P., and Chern Lin, J.H.: Structure–property relationship of cast Ti–Nb alloys. J. Oral Rehabil. 29, 314 (2002).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gong, X., Lydon, J., Cooper, K., and Chou, K.: Beam speed effects on Ti–6Al–4V microstructures in electron beam additive manufacturing. J. Mater. Res. 29, 1951 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonelli, M., Tse, Y.Y., and Tuck, C.: On the texture formation of selective laser melted Ti–6Al–4V. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 45, 2863 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chlebus, E., Kuźnicka, B., Kurzynowski, T., and Dybała, B.: Microstructure and mechanical behaviour of Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy produced by selective laser melting. Mater. Charact. 62, 488 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rafi, H.K., Starr, T.L., and Stucker, B.E.: A comparison of the tensile, fatigue, and fracture behavior of Ti–6Al–4V and 15-5 PH stainless steel parts made by selective laser melting. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 69, 1299 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, L. and Attar, H.: Selective laser melting of titanium alloys and titanium matrix composites for biomedical applications: A review. Adv. Eng. Mater. 18, 463 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonelli, M., Tse, Y.Y., and Tuck, C.: The formation of α + β microstructure in as-fabricated selective laser melting of Ti–6Al–4V. J. Mater. Res. 29, 2028 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wei, Q., Li, S., Han, C., Li, W., Cheng, L., Hao, L., and Shi, Y.: Selective laser melting of stainless-steel/nano-hydroxyapatite composites for medical applications: Microstructure, element distribution, crack, and mechanical properties. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 222, 444 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niinomi, M.: Recent metallic materials for biomedical applications. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 33, 477 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gäumann, M., Bezencon, C., Canalis, P., and Kurz, W.: Single-crystal laser deposition of superalloys: Processing–microstructure maps. Acta Mater. 49, 1051 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, P. and Ramulu, M.: Fatigue performance evaluation of selective laser melted Ti–6Al–4V. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 598, 327 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cain, V., Thijs, L., Van Humbeeck, J., Van Hooreweder, B., and Knutsen, R.: Crack propagation and fracture toughness of Ti6Al4V alloy produced by selective laser melting. Addit. Manuf. 5, 68 (2015).Google Scholar
Qiu, C., Adkins, N.J.E., and Attallah, M.M.: Microstructure and tensile properties of selectively laser-melted and of HIPed laser-melted Ti–6Al–4V. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 578, 230 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonelli, M., Tse, Y.Y., and Tuck, C.: Effect of the build orientation on the mechanical properties and fracture modes of SLM Ti–6Al–4V. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 616, 1 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gong, H., Rafi, K., Gu, H., Janaki Ram, G.D., Starr, T., and Stucker, B.: Influence of defects on mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V components produced by selective laser melting and electron beam melting. Mater. Des. 86, 545 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sing, S.L., Yeong, W.Y., and Wiria, F.E.: Selective laser melting of titanium alloy with 50 wt% tantalum: Microstructure and mechanical properties. J. Alloys Compd. 660, 461 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, M. and Lai, P.: The positive effect of hot isostatic pressing on improving the anisotropies of bending and impact properties in selective laser melted Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 658, 429 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barreda, J.L., SantamarmHa, F., Azpiroz, X., Irisarri, A.M., and Varona, J.M.: Electron beam welded high thickness Ti6Al4V plates using filler metal of similar and different composition to the base plate. Vacuum 62, 143 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atapour, M., Pilchak, A.L., Frankel, G.S., and Williams, J.C.: Corrosion behavior of β titanium alloys for biomedical applications. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 31, 885 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atapour, M., Pilchak, A.L., Shamanian, M., and Fathi, M.H.: Corrosion behavior of Ti–8Al–1Mo–1V alloy compared to Ti–6Al–4V. Mater. Des. 32, 1692 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dai, N., Zhang, L., Zhang, J., Zhang, X., Ni, Q., Chen, Y., Wu, M., and Yang, C.: Distinction in corrosion resistance of selective laser melted Ti–6Al–4V alloy on different planes. Corros. Sci. 111, 703 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dai, N., Zhang, J., Chen, Y., and Zhang, L.: Heat treatment degrading the corrosion resistance of selective laser melted Ti–6Al–4V alloy. J. Electrochem. Soc. 164, C428 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dai, N., Zhang, L., Zhang, J., Chen, Q., and Wu, M.: Corrosion behavior of selective laser melted Ti–6Al–4V alloy in NaCl solution. Corros. Sci. 102, 484 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, J. and Tsai, W.: In situ corrosion monitoring of Ti–6Al–4V alloy in H2SO4/HCl mixed solution using electrochemical AFM. Electrochim. Acta 56, 1746 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: Image

Sui Supplementary Material

Supplementary Material Figure

Download Sui Supplementary Material(Image)
Image 6.1 MB