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Atmospheric pressure synthesis of In2Se3, Cu2Se, and CuInSe2 without external selenization from solution precursors

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 January 2011

Jennifer A. Nekuda Malik
Affiliation:
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401; and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401
Maikel F.A.M. van Hest
Affiliation:
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401; and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401
Alexander Miedaner
Affiliation:
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401; and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401
Calvin J. Curtis
Affiliation:
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401; and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401
Jennifer E. Leisch
Affiliation:
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401; and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401
Philip A. Parilla
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401
Michael Kaufman
Affiliation:
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401
Matthew Taylor
Affiliation:
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401; and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401
B.J. Stanbery
Affiliation:
HelioVolt Corporation, Austin, Texas 78744
Ryan P. O’Hayre
Affiliation:
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401
David S. Ginley
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401
Corresponding
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Abstract

In2Se3, Cu2Se, and CuInSe2 thin films have been successfully fabricated using novel metal organic decomposition (MOD) precursors and atmospheric pressure-based deposition and processing. The phase evolution of the binary (In-Se and Cu-Se) and ternary (Cu-In-Se) MOD precursor films was examined during processing to evaluate the nature of the phase and composition changes. The In-Se binary precursor exhibits two specific phase regimes: (i) a cubic-InxSey phase at processing temperatures between 300 and 400 °C and (ii) the γ-In2Se3 phase for films annealed above 450 °C. Both phases exhibit a composition of 40 at.% indium and 60 at.% selenium. The binary Cu-Se precursor films show more diverse phase behavior, and within a narrow temperature processing range a number of Cu-Se phases, including CuSe2, CuSe, and Cu2Se, can be produced and stabilized. The ternary Cu-In-Se precursor can be used to produce relatively dense CuInSe2 films at temperatures between 300 and 500 °C. Layering the binary precursors together has provided an approach to producing CuInSe2 thin films; however, the morphology of the layered binary structure exhibits a significant degree of porosity. An alternative method of layering was explored where the Cu-Se binary was layered on top of an existing indium-gallium-selenide layer and processed. This method produced highly dense and large-grained (>3 µm) CuInSe2 thin films. This has significant potential as a manufacturable route to CIGS-based solar cells.

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Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2009

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Atmospheric pressure synthesis of In2Se3, Cu2Se, and CuInSe2 without external selenization from solution precursors
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Atmospheric pressure synthesis of In2Se3, Cu2Se, and CuInSe2 without external selenization from solution precursors
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