Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-vl2kb Total loading time: 0.238 Render date: 2021-11-28T01:57:22.424Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Alumina fused cast refractory aging monitored by nickel crystal chemistry

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 January 2011

Laurence Galoisy
Affiliation:
Laboratoire de Minéralogie-Cristallographie, URA CNRS 09, Universités de Paris 6 et 7, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
Georges Calas
Affiliation:
Laboratoire de Minéralogie-Cristallographie, URA CNRS 09, Universités de Paris 6 et 7, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
Michel Maquet
Affiliation:
Saint Gobain Recherche, 93304 Aubervilliers Cedex, France
Get access

Abstract

Aged bricks of AZS and mixed α-β-alumina refractories have been sampled in superstructures of glass making furnaces. α- and β-alumina phases contained in these refractories have been investigated by optical absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electron probe microanalysis. On the side of the brick exposed to the tank atmosphere, β-alumina is the only phase present. The primary corundum grains are transformed into secondary β-alumina under the influence of contaminants from raw materials and oil ashes. The temperature conditions existing in the furnace preclude the formation of β” alumina. The bright blue color of β-alumina originates from the presence of tetrahedral Ni2+ in Al(2) sites, with no evidence for nickel atoms located in the ionic conduction band. By considering the chemical composition of β-alumina, spectroscopic results are consistent with a mutual interaction between divalent and monovalent species during cation diffusion. Indeed, the small divalent cations such as Ni are located in the spinel block and the larger alkali cations play a charge compensation role in the conduction band. As other divalent cations of small ionic radius, nickel hence helps to stabilize β-alumina, which maintains the refractory performance during furnace operation. The spectroscopic evidence of trace amounts of nickel (<100 ppm) in secondary corundum crystals means that this phase formed at the expense of β-alumina inside the high-alumina refractory brick. By considering the diffusion coefficients of Ni2+ in α- and β-alumina, this indicates a fast contamination of the material at an early stage of the furnace history. The formation of a permanent deep layer of primary and secondary corundum has protected the inner part of the refractory brick from further contamination.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 1991

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1.Busby, T. S., Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. XIV (11), 45 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2.Thomas, E. A., J. Can. Ceram. Soc. 44 (1), 37 (1975).Google Scholar
3.Farrington, G. C. and Dunn, B., Solid State Ionics 7 (2), 267 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4.Huggett, L. G., Trans. Br. Ceram. Soc. 80 (1), 11 (1981).Google Scholar
5.Cervelle, B. D. and Maquet, M., Clay Mineral. 17 (2), 377 (1982); A. Manceau and G. Calas, Am. Mineral. 70 (3), 549 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6.Manceau, A., Decarreau, A., and Calas, G., Clay Mineral. 20 (2), 367 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7.Wendlandt, W. W. M. and Hecht, H. G., Reflectance Spectroscopy (Interscience Publishers, 1966).Google Scholar
8.Calas, G., Rev. Mineral. 18, 513 (1988).Google Scholar
9.Galoisy, L. and Calas, G., submitted.Google Scholar
10.McClure, D. S., J. Chem. Phys. 36 (4), 2757 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11.Sakurai, T., Ishigame, M., and Arashi, H., J. Chem. Phys. 50 (8), 3241 (1969); O. Schmitz-Dumont, A. Lulé, and D. Reinen, Ber.Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 69 (1), 76 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12.Galoisy, L. and Calas, G., Am. Mineral, (submitted).Google Scholar
13.Akridge, J. R. and Kennedy, J. H., J. Solid State Chem. 25 (1), 169 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14.Mao, H. K. and Bell, P. M., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 39 (3), 865 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15.Stevens, R. and Binner, J. G. P., J. Mater. Sci. 19 (3), 695 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16.Burns, R. G., Mineralogical Applications of Crystal Field Theory (Cambridge University Press, 1970).Google Scholar
17.Brown, I. D., Acta Cryst. B 44 (3), 545 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18.Barrie, J. D., Dunn, B., Stafsudd, O. M., and Farrington, G. C., Solid State Ionics 1819, 677 (1986).Google Scholar
19.Pappalardo, R., Wood, D. L., and Linares, R. C., J. Chem. Phys. 35 (6), 2041 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20.White, D. R., Chen, S., Harrison, H. R., and Sato, H., Solid State Ionics 910, 255 (1983).Google Scholar
21.Peters, C. R., Bettman, M., Moore, J. W., and Glick, M. D., Acta Cryst. B 27, 1826 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22.Dernier, P. D. and Remeika, J. P., J. Solid State Chem. 17 (2), 245 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23.Roth, W. L., Trans. Am. Cryst. Assoc. 11, 51 (1975).Google Scholar
24.White, D. R., Chen, S., Sankararaman, M., and Sato, H., Solid State Ionics 18–19, 608 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25.DeVries, R. C. and Roth, W. L., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52, 364 (1969).Google Scholar
26.Freer, R., J. Mater. Sci. 15 (4), 803 (1980); J. T. Kummer, Prog. Solid State Chem. 7 (1), 141 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Alumina fused cast refractory aging monitored by nickel crystal chemistry
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Alumina fused cast refractory aging monitored by nickel crystal chemistry
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Alumina fused cast refractory aging monitored by nickel crystal chemistry
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *