Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-7wlv9 Total loading time: 0.566 Render date: 2022-05-20T02:24:13.453Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Prisoners as Patients: The Opioid Epidemic, Medication-Assisted Treatment, and the Eighth Amendment

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 January 2021

Extract

This article argues that correctional institutions violate the Eighth Amendment when they refuse to establish MAT programs and prevent doctors from exercising medical judgment to properly treat incarcerated people with OUD.

Type
Symposium Articles
Copyright
Copyright © American Society of Law, Medicine and Ethics 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

The Sentencing Project, “Fact Sheet: Trends in U.S. Corrections,” June 26, 2017, available at <https://www.sentencing-project.org/publications/trends-in-u-s-corrections/> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Ingraham, C., “CDC Releases Grim New Opioid Overdose Figures: ‘We’re Talking about More than an Exponential Increase,’” Washington Post, December 21, 2017, available at <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2017/12/21/cdc-releases-grim-new-opioid-overdose-figures-were-talking-about-more-than-an-exponential-increase/?utm_term=.607955741560> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Bronson, J. et al., Bureau of Justice Statistics, Drug Use, Dependence, and Abuse Among State Prisoners and Jail Inmates, 2007-2009, NCJ 250546 (June 2017).Google Scholar
See Section III. infra.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2013).Google Scholar
Williams, T., “Opioid Users Are Filling Jails. Why Don’t Jails Treat Them?” New York Times, August 4, 2017, available at <https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/04/us/heroin-addiction-jails-methadone-suboxone-treatment.html> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Addiction in Opioid Treatment Programs, Treatment Improvement Protocol Series 43 (Revised 2012).Google Scholar
Park, T.W. and Friedmann, P.D., “Medication for Addiction Treatment: An Opportunity for Prescribing Clinicians to Facilitates Remission from Alcohol and Opioid Use Disorders,” Rhode Island Medical Journal 97, no. 10 (2014): 20-24, at 22-23.Google Scholar
Williams, supra note 6; see also Friedmann, P.D. et al., “Medication-Assisted Treatment in Criminal Justice Agencies Affiliated with the Criminal Justice-Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS): Availability, Barriers & Intentions,” Substance Abuse 33 (2012): 9-18, at 12; A. Nunn et al., “Metha-done and Buprenorphine Prescribing and Referral Practices in US Prison Systems: Results from a Nationwide Survey,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 105 (2009): 83-88, at 84-85; B. Schwartzapfel, “A Better Way to Treat Addiction in Jail,” The Marshall Project, March 1, 2017, available at <https://www.themarshallproject.org/2017/03/01/a-better-way-to-treat-addiction-in-jail> (last visited April 6, 2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chandler, R.K. et al., “Treating Drug Abuse and Addiction in the Criminal Justice System: Improving Public Health and Safety,” JAMA 301 (2009): 183-190, at 185.Google Scholar
Greene, T. et al., “Postincarceration Fatal Overdoses After Implementing Medications for Addiction Treatment in a Statewide Correctional System,” JAMA Psychiatry (February 14, 2018): E1-E3, at E1, available at <https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/2671411> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
See Section IV.Google Scholar
For an excellent overview of the topic, see Lebowitz, D., “‘Proper Subjects for Medical Treatment?’ Addiction, Prison-Based Drug Treatment, and the Eighth Amendment,” DePaul Journal of Healthcare Law 14, no. 2 (2012): 271-308.Google Scholar
.S. Constitution, amendment VIII.Google Scholar
Estelle v. Gamble, 429 U.S. 97, 103 (1976).Google Scholar
Id., at 99.Google Scholar
Id., at 100.Google Scholar
Id., at 100-01.Google Scholar
Id., at 104.Google Scholar
Id., at 105.Google Scholar
Id., at 106Google Scholar
Madrid v. Gomez, 889 F. Supp. 1146, 1210 (N.D. Cal. 1995).Google Scholar
Id., at 1215.Google Scholar
Coleman v. Wilson, 912 F. Supp. 1282, 1316, 1319 (E.D. Cal. 1995).Google Scholar
Brown v. Plata, 563 U.S. 493, 500 (2011).Google Scholar
Id. at 502.Google Scholar
Plata, 563 U.S. at 511.Google Scholar
Wellman v. Faulkner, 715 F.2d 269, 272 (7th Cir. 1983) (internal citations omitted).Google Scholar
Braggs v. Dunn, 257 F. Supp. 3d 1171, 1267 (M.D. Ala. 2017).Google Scholar
Dunn v. Dunn, 219 F. Supp. 3d 1100, 1123 (M.D. Ala. 2016).Google Scholar
See e.g., Postawko v. Mo. Dep’t Corr., 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 117238, at *51 (W.D. Mo.); Lipert v. Baldwin, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 64687, at *28 (N.D. Ill.).Google Scholar
Hoffer v. Jones, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 194544, at *6 (N.D. Fla.).Google Scholar
Wilson v. Seiter, 501 U.S. 294, 300 (1991).Google Scholar
Farmer v. Brennan, 511 U.S. 825, 847 (1994).Google Scholar
Seiter, 501 U.S. at 297.Google Scholar
Farmer, 511 U.S. at 836, 839-40.Google Scholar
Id., at 842.Google Scholar
Baez v. Rogers, 522 Fed. Appx. 819, 821 (11th Cir. 2013) (citing McElligott v. Foley, 182 F.3d 1248, 1255 (11th Cir. 1999)).Google Scholar
Farmer, 511 U.S. at 844.Google Scholar
Jones v. Bradshaw, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 46829, at *26-27 (S.D. Fla.).Google Scholar
Bowring v. Godwin, 551 F.2d 44, 48 (4th Cir. 1977).Google Scholar
Tarver v. McLaughlin, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 129737, at *12 (M.D. Ga.).Google Scholar
Corley v. Wexford Health Sources, Inc., 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 122306, at *31 (S.D. Ill.).Google Scholar
Knop v. Johnson, 667 F.Supp. 512, 528 (W.D. Mich. 1987).Google Scholar
Prosser v. Nagaldinne, 927 F. Supp. 2d 708, 728 (E.D. Mo. 2013).Google Scholar
King v. Kramer, 680 F.3d 1013, 1019 (7th Cir. 2012).Google Scholar
McGiboney v. CCA Western Props., 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 27491, at *23-24 (D. Idaho).Google Scholar
Hoptowit v. Ray, 682 F.2d 1237, 1253 (9th Cir. 1982).Google Scholar
Waldrop v. Evans, 871 F.2d 1030, 1035 (11th Cir. 1989).Google Scholar
United States v. DeCologero, 821 F.2d 39, 43 (1st Cir. 1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nauroth v. Southern Health Partners, Inc., 2009 U.S. Dist. LEXIS *86467, at *33 (S.D. Ohio).Google Scholar
Butler v. City of Pontiac, 2006 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 55845, at *18 (E.D. Mich.).Google Scholar
Harris v. Thigpen, 941 F.2d 1495, 1509 (11th Cir. 1991).Google Scholar
Dunn v. Dunn, 219 F. Supp. 3d at 1130.Google Scholar
Estelle, 429 U.S. at 104.Google Scholar
Helling v. McKinney, 509 U.S. 25, 27-28 (1993).Google Scholar
McKinney v. Anderson, 924 F.2d 1500, 1505-09 (9th Cir. 1991), vacated, 502 U.S. 903 (1991).Google Scholar
Helling, 509 U.S. at 30, 33.Google Scholar
Id., at 33.Google Scholar
Id., at 36.Google Scholar
See Wakefield v. Thomas, 777 F.3d 1160 (9th Cir. 1999); Lugo v. Senkowski, 114 F. Supp. 2d 111 (N.D.N.Y. 2000).Google Scholar
Gaudreault v. Municipality of Salem, Mass., 923 F.2d 203, 208 (1st Cir. 1990) (citing Laaman v, Helgemoe, 437 F. Supp. 269, 311(D.N.H. 1977)); Monmouth Cnty. Corr. Institutional Inmates v. Lanzaro, 834 F.2d 326, 347 (3d Cir. 1987); Gutierrez v. Peters, 111 F.3d 1364, 1373 (7th Cir. 1997); Sheldon v. Pezley, 49 F.3d 1312, 1316 (8th Cir. 1995); Ramos v. Lamm, 639 F.2d 559, 575 (10th Cir. 1980); Hill v. Dekalb Reg’l Youth Det. Ctr., 40 F.3d 1176, 1187 (11th Cir. 1994).Google Scholar
Brock v. Wright, 315 F.3d 158, 162 (2d Cir. 2003) (quoting Chance v. Armstrong, 143 F.3d 698, 702 (2d Cir. 1998)). See also McGuckin v. Smith, 974 F.2d 1050, 1059-60 (9th Cir. 1992), overruled in part on other grounds by WMX Techs., Inc. v. Miller, 104 F.3d 1133, 1135 (9th Cir. 1997).Google Scholar
W.J. Rold, “Thirty Years After Estelle v. Gamble: A Legal Retrospective,” Journal of Correctional Health Care 14 (2008): 11-20, at 16.Google Scholar
Davis v. Carter, 452 F.3d 686, 689-90 (7th Cir. 2006); Demouchette v. Dart, 2015 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 18582, at *11 (N.D. Ill.); Idyle v. N.C. Dep’t of Corr. Med. Dep’t, 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 13765, at *6 (E.D.N.C.); Meiller v. Pasco County, 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 140523, at *26-27 (M.D. Fla.); Alvarado v. Westchester County, 22 F. Supp. 3d 208, 217 (S.D.N.Y. 2014); Sylvester v. City of Newark, 120 Fed. Appx. 419, 423 (3d Cir. 2005); Quatroy v. Jefferson Parish Sheriff ’s Office, 2009 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 40807, at *27-28 (E.D. L.A.); Gonzalez v. Cecil County, 221 F. Supp. 2d 611, 616 (D. Md. 2002); Butler, 2006 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 55845 at *17-18.Google Scholar
See e.g., Iacovangelo v. Corr. Med. Care, Inc., 624 Fed. Appx. 10, 13 (2d Cir. 2015); Shaver v. Brimfield Twp., 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 180571, at *41 (N.D. Ohio).Google Scholar
United States ex rel. Walker v. Fayette County, 599 F.2d 573, 576 (3d Cir. 1979).Google Scholar
Demouchette, 2015 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 18582 at *13.Google Scholar
Quatroy, 2009 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 40807 at *5.Google Scholar
Messina v. Mazzeo, 854 F. Supp. 116, 140 (E.D.N.Y. 1994).Google Scholar
Helling, 509 U.S. at 36.Google Scholar
Volkow, N.D., National Institute on Drug Abuse, Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction, NIH Pub. No. 14-5605 (revised July 2014): at 5.Google Scholar
Hasin, D.S. et al., “DSM-5 Criteria for Substance Use Disorders: Recommendations and Rationale,” American Journal of Psychiatry 170 (2013): 835-851, at 836.Google Scholar
Jessell, L. et al., “Sexual Violence in the Context of Drug Use Among Young Adult Opioid Users in New York City,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 32 (2015): 2929-2954, at 2931.Google Scholar
Brooner, R.K. et al., “Psychiatric and Substance use Comorbidity Among Treatment-Seeking Opioid Abusers,” Archives of General Psychiatry 54 (1997): 71-80, at 74.Google Scholar
Winklbaur, B. et al., “Treating Pregnant Women Dependent on Opioids is not the Same as Treating Pregnancy and Opioid Dependence: A Knowledge Synthesis for Better Treatment for Women and Neonates,” Addiction 103 (2008): 1429-1440, at 1429-30.Google Scholar
Ronan, M.V. et al., “Hospitalizations Related to Opioid Abuse/Dependence and Associated Serious Infections from 2002 to 2012,” Health Affairs 35 (2016): 832-837, at 836.Google Scholar
Teesson, et al., “Long-Term Mortality, Remission, Criminality and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Heroin Dependence: 11-year Findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study,” Addiction 110 (2015): 986-993, at 991.Google Scholar
Schuckit, M.A., “Treatment of Opioid Use Disorders,” N. Engl. J. Med. 375 (2016): 357-268, at 357.Google Scholar
Connock, M. et al., “Methadone and Buprenorphine for the Management of Opioid Dependence: A Systematic Review and Economic Evaluation,” Health Technology Assessment 11, no. 9 (2007): 1-6, at 3.Google Scholar
Moore, B.A. et al., “Primary Care Office-Based Buprenorphine Treatment: Comparison of Heroin and Prescription Opioid Dependent Patients,” Journal of General Internal Medicine 22 (2007): 527-30.Google Scholar
Weiss, R.D. et al., “Adjunctive Counseling During Brief and Extended Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment for Prescription Opioid Dependence,” Archives of General Psychiatry 68, (2011): 1238-46, at 1243.Google Scholar
See e.g., Farré, M. et al., “Retention Rate and Illicit Opioid use During Methadone Maintenance Interventions: A Meta-Analysis,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 65 (2002): 283-290, at 286.Google Scholar
See e.g., Woody, G.E. et al., “Extended vs. Short-Term Buprenorphine-Naloxone for Treatment of Opioid-Addicted Youth: A Randomized Trial,” JAMA 300 (2008): 2003-2011; D.A. Fiellin et al., “Counseling plus Buprenorphine–Naloxone Maintenance Therapy for Opioid Dependence” NEJM 355 (2006): 365-374; L.A. Marsch, “The Efficacy of Methadone Maintenance Interventions in Reducing Illicit Opiate Use, HIV Risk Behavior and Criminality: A Meta-Analysis,” Addiction 93 (1998): 515-532, at 515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raleigh, M.F., “Buprenorphine Maintenance vs. Placebo for Opioid Dependence, American Family Physician 95 (2017): 290-291, at 290.Google ScholarPubMed
Arroll, B. et al., “Efficacy and Tolerability of Tricyclic Antidepressants and SSRIs Compared With Placebo for Treatment of Depression in Primary Care: A Meta-Analysis,” Annals of Family Medicine 3 (2005): 449-456, at 449.Google Scholar
Jonas, D.E. et al., “Pharmacotherapy for Adults with Alcohol use Disorders in Outpatient Settings: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” JAMA 311 (2014): 1889-1900, at 1892.Google Scholar
Kooy, A. et al., “Long-term Effects of Metformin on Metabolism and Microvascular and Macrovascular Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,” Archives of Internal Medicine 169 (2009): 615-626, at 620; J.J. Mourad et al., “Number Needed to Treat and Reduction of Outcomes with RAAS Inhibitors,” European Heart Journal 34 (2013): 1117-1118, at 1117.Google Scholar
Lee, J.D. et al., “Opioid Treatment at Release from Jail using Extended Release Naltrexone: A Pilot Proof-of-Concept Randomized Effectiveness Trial,” Addiction 110 (2015): 1008-1014, at 1009.Google Scholar
Kunøe, N. et al, “Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Extended-Release Naltrexone Versus Daily Buprenorphine-Naloxone for Opioid Dependence in Norway (NTX-SBX)” BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology 17, no. 18 (2016): 1-10.Google Scholar
Cousins, S.J. et al., “Predictors of Continued Use of Extended-Released Naltrexone (XR-NTX) for Opioid-Dependence: An Analysis of Heroin and Non-Heroin Opioid Users in Los Angeles County,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 63 (2016): 66-71.Google Scholar
Bronson, supra note 3.Google Scholar
Westerberg, V.S. et al., “Community-Based Methadone Maintenance in a Large Detention Center is Associated with Decreases in Inmate Recidivism,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 70 (2016): 1-6, at 1.Google Scholar
Clarke, J.G. et al., “Active and Former Injection Drug Users Report of HIV Risk Behaviors During periods of Incarceration,” Substance Abuse 22 (2001): 209-216, at 213.Google Scholar
See note 9, supra.Google Scholar
Schuckit, supra note 81, at 357.Google Scholar
Noonan, M.E., Bureau of Justice Statistics, Mortality in Local Jails, 2000-2014 – Statistical Tables, NCJ 250169 (December 2016): 6; Pamela Lehman, “Jail Staff Trained to Use Narcan to Prevent Opioid Overdoses,” Morning Call, September 18, 2017, available at <http://www.mcall.com/news/breaking/mc-nws-narcan-jails-20170811-story.html> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Noonan, supra note 100, at 6.Google Scholar
Noonan, M.E., Bureau of Justice Statistics, Mortality in States Prisons, 2001-2014 – Statistical Tables, NCJ 250150 (December 2016): 5.Google Scholar
See e.g., Johnson, S., “State Officials Calls Prevalence of Drugs in Prisons, Regional Jails ‘Disgraceful,” MetroNews, March 16, 2017, available at <http://wvmetronews.com/2017/03/16/state-official-calls-prevalence-of-drugs-in-prisons-regional-jails-disgraceful> (last visited April 6, 2018); Associated Press, “California Inmates Dying of Drug Overdoses at Rate Nearly Triple the National Average,” Fox News, June 21, 2015, available at <http://www.foxnews.com/us/2015/06/21/california-inmates-die-drug-overdoses-at-rate-nearly-triple-national-average.html> (last visited April 6, 2018); J. Hernandez, “Recent Overdoses Highlight the Difficulty of Keeping Drugs out of Jail,” WHYY, Oct. 16, 2017, available at <https://whyy.org/articles/recent-south-jersey-overdoses-highlight-difficulty-keeping-drugs-jails> (last visited April 6, 2018); S. Houser, “Marion County Sheriff’s Office Warns of Increase in Drug Overdoses Inside Jail,” Fox 59, Aug. 30, 2017, available at <http://fox59.com/2017/08/30/marion-county-sheriffs-office-warns-of-increase-in-drug-overdoses-inside-jail> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018);+Associated+Press,+“California+Inmates+Dying+of+Drug+Overdoses+at+Rate+Nearly+Triple+the+National+Average,”+Fox+News,+June+21,+2015,+available+at++(last+visited+April+6,+2018);+J.+Hernandez,+“Recent+Overdoses+Highlight+the+Difficulty+of+Keeping+Drugs+out+of+Jail,”+WHYY,+Oct.+16,+2017,+available+at++(last+visited+April+6,+2018);+S.+Houser,+“Marion+County+Sheriff’s+Office+Warns+of+Increase+in+Drug+Overdoses+Inside+Jail,”+Fox+59,+Aug.+30,+2017,+available+at++(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, “Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2016 on CDC WONDER Online Database,” released December, 2017, available at <http://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Merrall, E.L.C. et al., “Meta-Analysis of Drug-Related Deaths Soon after Release from Prison,” Addiction 105 (2010): 1545-1554, at 1549.Google Scholar
Binswanger, I.A. et al., “Mortality After Prison Release: Opioid Overdose and Other Causes of Death, Risk Factors, and Time Trends from 1999-2009,” Annals of Internal Medicine 159 (2013): 592-600, at 597.Google Scholar
Rich, J.D. et al., “Methadone Continuation Versus Forced Withdrawal on Incarceration in a Combined US Prison and Jail: A Randomized, Open-Label Trial,” Lancet 386 (2015): 350-59, at 351-52, 355-56.Google Scholar
Gisev, N. et al., “Determining the Impact of Opioid Substitution Therapy upon Mortality and Recidivism among Prisoners: A 22 Year Data Linkage Study,” Technical Report no. 330 (2014): 34.Google Scholar
Marsden, J. et al., “Does Exposure to Opioid Substitution Treatment in Prison Reduce the Risk of Death after Release? A National Prospective Observational Study in England,” Addiction 112 (2017): 1408-1418, at 1415.Google Scholar
Clarke et al., supra note 97, at 216.Google Scholar
Helling, 509 U.S. at 33.Google Scholar
Plata, 563 U.S. at 509, 531-32.Google Scholar
Beckman, A.L. et al., “New Hepatitis C Drugs Are Very Costly And Unavailable to Many State Prisoners,” Health Affairs 35 (2016): 1893-1901, at 1893.; K. Stark et al., “History of Syringe Sharing in Prison, and Risk of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Injecting Drug Users in Berlin,” International Journal of Epidemiology 26 (1997): 1359-1366, at 1363.Google Scholar
Beckman et al., supra note 114, at 1893.Google Scholar
Scutti, S., “New Hepatitis C Infections Triple Due to Opioid Epidemic,” CNN, May 11, 2017, available at <http://www.cnn.com/2017/05/11/health/hepatitis-c-rates-cdc-study/index.html> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Beckman, supra note 114, at 1893.Google Scholar
Bretaña, N.A. et al., “Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus among Prisoners, Australia, 2005-2012,” Emerging Infections Diseases 21 (2015): 765-774, at 770.Google Scholar
Springer, S.A. et al., “Improved HIV and Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes for Released HIV-Infected Prisoners: The Impact of Buprenorphine Treatment,” Journal of Urban Health 87 (2010): 592-602, at 592, 598.Google Scholar
Dolan, K. et al., “People who Inject Drugs in Prison: HIV Prevalence, Transmission and Prevention,” International Journal of Drug Policy 26 (2015): 512-515, at 513.Google Scholar
Helling, 509 U.S. at 35.Google Scholar
Fullerton, et al., “Medication-Assisted Treatment With Metha-done: Assessing the Evidence,” Psychiatric Services 65 (2014): 146-157, at 153.Google Scholar
Marsch, supra note 87, at 515.Google Scholar
Gowing, L. et al., “Substitution Treatment of Injecting Opioid Users for Prevention of HIV Infection,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2 (2008): 1-52, at 15-16.Google Scholar
Dolan, K.A. et al., “Four-Year Follow-Up of Imprisoned Male Heroin Users and Methadone Treatment: Mortality, Re-Incarceration and Hepatitis C Infection,” Addiction 100 (2005): 820-28, at 824.Google Scholar
Beckman, supra note 114, at 1899.Google Scholar
Goodnough, A. and Zernike, K., “Seizing on Opioid Crisis, a Drug Maker Lobbies Hard for Its Product,” New York Times, June 11, 2017, available at <https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/11/health/vivitrol-drug-opioid-addiction.html> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, State Targeted Response to the Opioid Crisis Grants, T1-17-014, available at <https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/grants/pdf/other/ti-17-014-opioid-str-abstracts.pdf> (last visited April 6, 2018)..+(last+visited+April+6,+2018)..>Google Scholar
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, “Certification of Opioid Treatment Programs,” available at <https://www.samhsa.gov/medication-assisted-treatment/opioid-treatment-programs> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Monmouth County Correctional Institutional Inmates v. Lanzaro, 834 F.2d 326 (3d Cir. 1987).Google Scholar
Jones, H.E., “Practical Considerations for the Clinical Use of Buprenorphine,” Science and Practice Perspectives 2, no. 2 (2004): 4-20, at 9.Google Scholar
Reynaud, M. et al., “Six Deaths Linked to Concomitant use of Buprenorphine and Benzodiazepines,” Addiction 93 (1998): 1385-1392, at 1389.Google Scholar
Lavender, G., “California Prisons Aim to Keep Sex Between Inmates Safe, If Illegal,” NPR, January 21, 2015, available at <https://www.npr.org/2015/01/21/378678167/california-prisons-aim-to-keep-sex-between-inmates-safe-if-illegal> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Lebowitz, supra note 13, at 297 n.144.Google Scholar
Brown, 563 U.S. at 511.Google Scholar
Nunn et al., supra note 9, at 86.Google Scholar
Dunn v. Dunn, 219 F. Supp. 3d at 1127. See also Baez, 522 F. Appx. at 821.Google Scholar
Sain v. Wood, 512 F.3d 886, 895 (7th Cir. 2008).Google Scholar
Inmates of Allegheny County Jail v. Pierce, 612 F.2d 754, 762 (3rd Cir. 1979)Google Scholar
Hoptowit, 682 F.2d at 1253.Google Scholar
Harris, 941 F.2d at 1509.Google Scholar
Hoffer 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 194544, at *6.Google Scholar
Harris, 941 F.2d at 1509.Google Scholar
Donaher, P.A. and Welsh, C., “Managing Opioid Addiction with Buprenorphine,” American Family Physician 73 (2006): 1573-1578, at 1577.Google Scholar
Rich, J.D. et al., “Linkage with Methadone Treatment Upon Release from Incarceration,” Journal of Addictive Diseases 24 (2005): 49-59, at 56.Google Scholar
Magura, S. et al., “Buprenorphine and Methadone Maintenance in Jail and Post-Release: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 99 (2009): 222-230, at 227.Google Scholar
Id. at 228.Google Scholar
Gordon, M.S. et al., “A Randomized Controlled Trial of Prison-Initiated Buprenorphine: Prison Outcomes and Community Treatment Entry,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 142 (2014): 33-40, at 38.Google Scholar
Lin, J.T. and Matthew, P., “Cancer Pain Management in Prisons: A Survey of Primary Care Practitioners and Inmates,” Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 29 (2005): 466-473, at 471-472.Google Scholar
Freyer, F., “R.I. Prison Takes a Leap into Comprehensive Addiction Care,” The Boston Globe, August 14, 2017, available at <https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2017/08/13/prison-takes-leap-into-comprehensive-addiction-care/K3lxG2FPWsI7mmwqMOSXxN/story.html> (last visited April 6, 2018); K.F. Maurer, “Opioid Addiction and Corrections: Medication Assisted Treatment in the Connecticut Department of Correction,” April 30, 2015, available at <http://www.ct.gov/opm/lib/opm/cjppd/cjcjpac/20150430_cjpacpowerpoint_-metha-done_presentation.pdf> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018);+K.F.+Maurer,+“Opioid+Addiction+and+Corrections:+Medication+Assisted+Treatment+in+the+Connecticut+Department+of+Correction,”+April+30,+2015,+available+at++(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Farabee, D. et al., “Treatment in Criminal Justice Settings,” in el-Guebaly, N. et al., eds., Textbook of Addiction Treatment: International Perspectives (Milano: Springer-Verlag Mailand, 2015): 1129-1144, at 1134-1135.Google Scholar
Weiss et al., supra note 84, at 1244.Google Scholar
Fiellin et al., supra note 87, at 371; Schwartz, R.P. et al., “Randomized Trial of Standard Methadone Treatment Compared to Initiating Methadone without Counseling: 12-month Findings,” Addiction 107 (2012): 943-952, at 950.Google Scholar
Friedmann, P.D. and Schwartz, R.P., “Just Call it ‘Treatment,’” Addiction Science & Clinical Practice 7, no. 10 (2012): 1-3, at 2.Google Scholar
Helling, 509 U.S. at 36.Google Scholar
Rhodes v. Champan, 452 U.S. 337, 346 (1981) (quoting Trop v. Dulles, 356 U.S. 86, 101 (1958) (plurality opinion)).Google Scholar
D. Lebowitz, supra note 13, at 297-298.Google Scholar
Dunn, 219 F. Supp. 3d at 1128 n.37.Google Scholar
See Smith, D.E., “The Evolution of Addiction Medicine as a Medical Specialty,” American Medical Association Journal of Ethics 13 (2011): 900-905, at 902-903.Google Scholar
World Health Organization, “Principles of Drug Dependence Treatment,” (March 2008), available at <http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/principles_drug_dependence_treatment.pdf>(last visited April 6, 2018).(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
National Institute of Drug Abuse, Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment, Pub. No 12-4180 (revised December 2012).Google Scholar
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, supra note 7.Google Scholar
Center for Disease Control, “Treat Opioid Use Disorder”, available at <https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/prevention/treatment.html> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Combating the Opioid Abuse Epidemic: Professional and Academic Perspectives: Hearing Before the H. Comm. on Energy and Commerce, 114th Cong. (2015) (Statement of the American Medical Association).Google Scholar
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Use and Prevention, “Medication-Assisted Treatment of Adolescents With Opioid Use Disorders,” ISSN 1098-4275 (August 2016), available at <http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2016/08/18/peds.2016-1893.full.pdf> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
World Health Organization, supra note 161.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association, “Position Statement on Treatment of Substance Use Disorders in the Criminal Justice System” (December 2016).Google Scholar
Malave, E., “Note: Prison Health Care After the Affordable Care Act: Envisioning an End to the Policy of Neglect,” New York University Law Review 89 (2014): 700-738, at 730.Google Scholar
Id. at 731.Google Scholar
Volkow, et al., “Medication-Assisted Therapies – Tackling the Opioid-Overdose Epidemic,” New England Journal of Medicine 370 (2014): 2063-2066, at 2065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clemans-Cope, L. et al., “Medicaid Coverage of Effective Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder,” Urban Institute, June 2017, available at <https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/90461/2001287_medicaid_coverage_of_effective_treatment_for_opioid_use_disorder.pdf> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
Merica, D., “Trump Declares Opioid Epidemic a National Health Emergency,” CNN, October 26, 2017, available at <http://www.cnn.com/2017/10/26/politics/donald-trump-opioid-epidemic/index.html> (last visited June 4, 2018).+(last+visited+June+4,+2018).>Google Scholar
President’s Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis, Final Report, Nov 1. 2017: 32, available at <https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/images/Final_Report_Draft_11-1-2017.pdf> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
United States Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General, Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health, (November 2016).Google Scholar
National Governor’s Association, “A Compact to Fight Opioid Addiction,” (July 13, 2016), available at <https://www.nga.org/cms/news/2016/opioid-compact> (last visited April 6, 2018).+(last+visited+April+6,+2018).>Google Scholar
National Association of Drug Court Professionals, “Resolution of the Board of Directors on the Availability of Medically Asissted Treatment (M.A.T) for Addiction in Drug Courts,” available at <https://www.nadcp.org/sites/default/files/nadcp/NADCP%20Board%20Statement%20on%20MAT.pdf> (last visited April 6, 2018); See also B. Andraka-Chris-tou, “What Is ‘Treatment’ for Opioid Addiction in Problem-Solving Courts? A Study of 20 Indiana Drug and Veterans Courts,” Stanford Journal of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties 13, (2017): 189-254, at 240.+(last+visited+April+6,+2018);+See+also+B.+Andraka-Chris-tou,+“What+Is+‘Treatment’+for+Opioid+Addiction+in+Problem-Solving+Courts?+A+Study+of+20+Indiana+Drug+and+Veterans+Courts,”+Stanford+Journal+of+Civil+Rights+and+Civil+Liberties+13,+(2017):+189-254,+at+240.>Google Scholar
Lopez, G., “There’s a Highly Successful Treatment for Opioid Addiction. But Stigma is Holding it Back,” Vox, November 15, 2017, available at <https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2017/7/20/15937896/medication-assisted-treatment-methadone-buprenorphine-naltrexone> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Donnelly, G., “As Drug Overdoses Hit Record High, Trump Offers Little on Opioid Policy,” Fortune, August 8, 2017, available at <http://fortune.com/2017/08/08/record-high-drug-related-death-rate-2016/> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Vestal, C., “At Rikers Island, a Legacy of Medication-Assisted Opioid Treatment,” Stateline, May 23, 2016, available at <http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2016/05/23/at-rikers-island-a-legacy-of-medication-assisted-opioid-treatment> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Chen, H. and Menard, L., “Medication-Assisted Treatment for Inmates: Work Group Evaluation Report and Recommendations,” Report to the Vermont Legislature (November 16, 2016), available at <https://legislature.vermont.gov/assets/Legislative-Reports/DOC-MAT-Eval-report-final.pdf> (last visited April 9, 2018); Maurer, supra note 151.+(last+visited+April+9,+2018);+Maurer,+supra+note+151.>Google Scholar
Freyer, F., “State Crime Bills would Expand Inmates’ Access to Addiction Treatment,” The Boston Globe, November 20, 2017, available at <https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2017/11/20/state-crime-bills-would-expand-inmates-access-addiction-treatment/7TI2SCOz5FNEZgmrEnIl2O/story.html> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Bureau of Prisons, “Federal Prison System FY 2017 Performance Budget,” available at <https://www.justice.gov/jmd/file/821381/download> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Joseph, A., “One State Takes a Novel Approach to Opioid Addiction: Access to Treatment for all Inmates,” STAT News, August 3, 2017, available at <https://www.statnews.com/2017/08/03/opioid-treatment-prisons/> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Office of Governor Gina Raimondo, M., “Raimondo Signs Ambitious Package of Bills Aimed at Preventing Overdoses and Saving Lives,” (July 12, 2016), available at <http://www.ri.gov/press/view/28044> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Anderson, P., Pina, A., and Bogdan, J., “Raimondo’s Midterm Grades: Campaign Promises During her first 2 Years as Governor,” The Providence Journal, February 10, 2017, available at <http://www.providencejournal.com/news/20170210/raimondos-midterm-grades-campaign-promises-during-herfirst-2-years-as-governor> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Office of Governor Gina Raimondo, M., “Raimondo Moves to Tackle Opioid Crisis, Appoints Task Force,” August 4, 2015, available at <http://www.ri.gov/press/view/25501> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Governor’s Overdose Prevention and Intervention Task Force, “Rhode Island’s Strategic Plan on Addiction and Overdose: Four Strategies to Alter the Course of an Epidemic,” November 4, 2015, available at <http://www.health.ri.gov/news/temp/RhodeIslandsStrategicPlanOnAddictionAndOverdose.pdf> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2013 on CDC WONDER Online Database, released 2015, available at <http://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html> (last visited April 9, 2018); SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2012 and 2013, available at <http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUHStateEst2012-2013-p1/Tables/NSDUHsaePercents2013.pdf on Oct 14, 2017> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018);+SAMHSA,+Center+for+Behavioral+Health+Statistics+and+Quality,+National+Survey+on+Drug+Use+and+Health,+2012+and+2013,+available+at++(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Raimondo, G.M., “Governor’s Overdose Prevention and Intervention Task Force,” Executive Order 15-14 (August 4, 2015).Google Scholar
Office of Governor Raimondo, supra note 189.Google Scholar
Governor’s Overdose Prevention and Intervention Task Force, supra note 190.Google Scholar
G.M. Raimondo, supra note 192.Google Scholar
Governor’s Overdose Prevention and Intervention Task Force, supra note 190.Google Scholar
Office of Governor Raimondo, supra note 189.Google Scholar
State of Rhode Island Office of Management and Budget, FY 2017 Interactive Budget, available at <http://www.omb.ri.gov/budget/prioryear/operating/2017.php> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Joseph, supra note 186.Google Scholar
Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT), “Prison/Jail Medication Assisted Treatment Manual,” available at <http://www.rsat-tta.com/Files/RSAT_Prison_Med_Treat_FINAL.pdf> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
RSAT, “Medication-Assisted Treatment for Justice-Involved Populations: Profiles,” available at <http://www.rsat-tta.com/Files/MAT-for-Justice-Involved-Populations---just-profiles.docx> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Kaeble, D., Glaze, L., Tsoutis, A., and Minton, T., “Correctional Populations in the United States, 2014,” Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 29, 2015, available at <https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5519> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, “Buprenorphine,” available at <https://www.samhsa.gov/medication-assisted-treatment/treatment/buprenorphine> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Author conversation with Connecticut DOC.Google Scholar
, supra note 203.Google Scholar
Author conversation, supra note 210.Google Scholar
Joseph, supra note 186.Google Scholar
Rhode Island Department of Corrections, “Facilities,” available at <http://www.doc.ri.gov/institutions/facilities/index.php> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
Rhode Island Department of Corrections, “Budget Projections for MAT program,” January 2016.Google Scholar
T. Greene et al., supra note 11, at E1.Google Scholar
See e.g., Legal Action Center, “Legality of Denying Access to Medication Assisted Treatment in the Criminal Justice System,” (2011): 1-19, at 6-17, available at <https://lac.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/MAT_Report_FINAL_12-1-2011.pdf> (last visited April 9, 2018).+(last+visited+April+9,+2018).>Google Scholar
4
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Prisoners as Patients: The Opioid Epidemic, Medication-Assisted Treatment, and the Eighth Amendment
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Prisoners as Patients: The Opioid Epidemic, Medication-Assisted Treatment, and the Eighth Amendment
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Prisoners as Patients: The Opioid Epidemic, Medication-Assisted Treatment, and the Eighth Amendment
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *