Articles submitted to the Journal should be original contributions. They should not be under consideration by another journal, nor have been published or be awaiting publication elsewhere. Translations of articles that have already been published will not be accepted. If an author is publishing a closely related article elsewhere, this fact should be stated in a cover note to the editors.
Articles must be at least 10,000 words in length and no longer than 12,000 words, including footnotes, tables etc. The Journal accepts and publishes manuscripts in English, Spanish and Portuguese. The Journal's preference is that manuscripts should be submitted electronically via the online submission system as a Word document, with double spacing throughout and margins of at least one inch all round. All pages must be numbered consecutively. In order to ensure the anonymity of the reviewing process, care should be taken to ensure that any references which might identify the author are removed from the text. The title page should be separate from the main body of the text and include the author's name, e-mail address, academic post and institutional affiliation, the title of the article, and brief acknowledgements. An abstract of no more than 100 words, together with a list of key words, should appear at the beginning of the article.
Contributors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce any material in which they do not own copyright, to be used in both print and electronic media, and for ensuring that the appropriate acknowledgements are included in their manuscript. You can find guidance from Cambridge University Press here.
Author style sheet
This document provides guidelines on how to make your article conform to our in-house style. It might also be useful to look at a recent edition of the journal (from February 2011 onwards). Please note that authors need only conform to the following style sheet following acceptance of their article. Article submissions are welcome in any format.
If accepted for publication, your article will be professionally copy-edited and you may be contacted to resolve major queries.
Spelling and punctuation. British conventions are used throughout (except in direct quotation); i.e. programme, not program (except for computer programs); labour, not labor; travelled, not traveled, etc.; also use -ise, not -ize; -isation, not -ization. As a guide, check the word on https://languages.oup.com/ (but note that we use -ise instead of their -ize).
Punctuation follows the British system. Punctuation at the end of a quotation follows the quotation marks unless the quoted matter is a grammatically complete sentence beginning with a capital letter.
Use single quotation marks, with double quotes inside single if necessary.
Hyphens are not used for cooperation, neoliberal, bilateral, biotechnology, although they are used for socio-economic, policy-making and policy-makers, Italian-born, non-resident, vice-president, mid-nineteenth, Euro-Brazilian, nation-state, as well as long-term (when used as an adjective) and fractions, e.g. one-fifth.
Use initial capital letters for the Cuban Revolution, the Mexican Revolution, the Church, the Catholic Church, the Constitution, the Revolution, Cold War, as well as for political parties or organisations, hence the Partido Justicialista or the Confederación de Trabajadores Mexicanos, and also for the Right and the Left in politics. But please note that right-wing and left-wing, rightist and leftist, centre-left and centre-right are lower case.
Compass points: north-east, south-west. South-East Asia, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, the [global socio-economic] East, West, North and South; western hemisphere and eastern hemisphere are lower case.
Do not use a capital letter when referring to 'the state' or 'the government', or when referring, for examle, to a particular presidential administration, e.g., the García administration. Use upper case for titles such as 'president' or 'king' only when attched directly to the individual's name – 'it was a difficult period for President Obama' but 'it was a difficult period for the US president'.
Use per cent and not percent (we retain % if used in a quotation or in a table), and always precede it with the Arabic form of the number, never a word, e.g. 10 per cent, not ten per cent.
Currency. Use the symbol before the amount in Arabic numbers and avoid longhand. So, US$2 billion and avoid two billion US dollars. Be clear in using the symbol $ whether it refers to US dollars or to other currencies, so use Reais$ on first use and R$ thereafter, and Mex$ and MX$ thereafter for Mexican pesos.
If convention implies a different notation, for example the use of m$n for Argentina in the nineteenth century, then please indicate.
If helpful to the reader, then provide a conversion to US$ noting the date of conversion.
Non-English words should be italicised only if they are not in common use in English. Examples include inquilinos and machetazo. Words that have common usage in English can remain in roman (non italics), such as machismo, hacienda, pseo, and favela.
Names of organisations, government departments, companies, banks, etc. whether written in English, Spanish or Portuguese should not be italicised. Names of journals and newspapers should always be italicised (see below, References).
Accents must be given, including on captial letters, with particular attention to the correct spelling and accenting of proper names and place names.
Initials and acronyms should be preceded by the full form at first mention, e.g. 'the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)'. Acronym initials such as UNRISD, ILO, FAO etc. do not use stops. (Note that the digraph 'US' – without stops – is used adjectivally, as in 'US policy'; as a noun the name is spelled out, as in 'X travelled to the United States').
When the organisation name is written in anything other than English, cite in full original language followed by the English translation in parenthesis, followed by the conventional acronym. Thus, Unión Civica Radical (Radical Civic Union, UCR).
Note, the Journal does not use 'America' or 'American' as shorthand to refer to 'the United States of America', its citizens, its policy or its institutions; use 'the United States' as the noun, and US as the adjective. We also use Argentine not Argentinean, Salvadorean not Salvadoran or Salvadorian, and Ecuadorean rather than Ecuadorian.
Numbers up to and including ten should always be spelled out. Never begin a sentence with a numeral – always spell it out (e.g. 'Forty-seven days later, the government fell.'). Commas should be used in numbers with four or more figures, so 1,000 and 29,000, but use 1.5 million rather than 1,500,000. Latin American and European authors should note that in English usage the decimal point is full stop, not a comma, e.g. 47.5, not 47,5.
Dates should be: 25 November 1981 (without punctuation). Centuries should be spelled out in full, e.g. nineteenth century not 19th century. Hyphenate as an adjective, e.g. 'a nineteenth-century journal' and 'twenty-first century crisis'.
Months should be spelled out in the text, but in footnotes March to July should be in full, and Aug. to Feb. should be abbreviated.
Quotations of fewer than 60 words should be in single quotation marks. Longer quotations should be set off from the text with a line space above and below and inset without quotation marks.
Quotations in Spanish or Portuguese should normally be translated.
Subheadings should be used to sectionalise the paper in order to make it easier for the reader to follow. The top level of subheadings is placed in italics in the centre of the page, the second level is in italics with left-hand justification. Do not use more than two levels of headings, and do not number or letter them. Headings should be in maximum capitalisation (all significant words capitalised).
Tables, maps, diagrams, and illustrations should be kept to a minimum, and must always be referred to in the text. If the article is accepted for publication the author will be asked to provide source files of the tables and graphs.
For illustrations, including plates and maps, please provide high quality monochrome images as tif files. For further details of file formats please see Cambridge Journals Artwork Guide.
If you request colour figures in the printed version, there may be a need to pay a fee to Cambridge University Press. You will be contacted by CCC-Rightslink who are acting on our behalf to collect Author Charges. Please follow their instructions in order to avoid any delay in the publication of your article.
Please indicate in the text the approximate position of tables and figures.
Table and Figure headings: Headings appear in italic above the table with caps on all significant words. Source appears below table/figure. For example
Table 1. Women's Workforce participation (% of Total Population Aged 15 and Over)
Source: ECLAC, 'Statistical Yearbook for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2009', p. 30.
Figure 1. China and Hong Kong's Trade with Latin America, 1990–2008 (US$ million)
Source: Author's elaboration from International Monetary Fund, Direction of Trade Statistics.
Table and Figure titles should not be underlined. Headings within the body of the table should not be underlined. No rules (lines) should be used and columns should be clearly distinguished by spacing. Sources should be given in full.
Footnotes should be numbered consecutively. All references should be included in footnotes, not in the text (see below, References). Footnote reference numbers in the text should appear as superscript Arabic numbers. Wherever possible, a footnote indicator / note reference number should be placed at the end of a sentence. Where it is not possible, the footnote indicator / note reference number should follow any punctuation except a dash, which it should precede. It should appear at the end of a quotation, not following the author's name if that precedes the quotation.
Please refer to a recent edition of the Journal for examples.
References: Authors should pay particular attention to the form of references used in the Journal. All references should be included in footnotes and not in a separate bibliography. The Journal does not use the author–date (Harvard) system of referencing. The following pattern must be observed:
William I. Robinson, Latin America and Global Capitalism: A Critical Globalization Perspective (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008).
Note that state initials should be provided for all US cities, with the exception of New York ('New York, NY' is not necessary).
Where citation is to a particular page or pages, then:
Victor Bulmer-Thomas, The Economic History of Latin America since Independence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 34–9.
Spans of numberals except those between ten and 19 should be elided: 126–8, 117–18. Note that spans of numbers are joined by en-rules, not hyphens (1890–97; 126–8).
Multiple authors should be spelled out in full at first use, and 'et al.' used for subsequent reference. This applies to authorship of books and articles, as well as editors of books comprising separate papers.
Books with volumes:
Colin A. Palmer (ed.), The Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, vol. 5 (Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference, 2006).
Books with named volumes:
Victor Bulmer-Thomas, John H. Coatsworth and Roberto Cortés Conde (eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of Latin America, vol. 1: The Colonial Era and the Short Nineteenth Century (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
Do not use roman numerals for volume numbers.
Chapters, etc. in books:
Jon Wolseth, 'Good Times and Bad Blood: Violence, Solidarity, and Social Organization on Dominican Streets', in Gareth A. Jones and Dennis Rodgers (eds.), Youth Violence in Latin America: Gangs and Juvenile Justice in Perspective (New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2009), pp. 63–82.
The shortened form of the edited title may be used in subsequent references to different essays within the same edited volume:
José Luis Rocha Gómez, 'Understanding the Logic of Nicaraguan Juvenile Justice', in Jones and Rodgers (eds.), Youth Violence in Latin America, pp. 574–89.
Peter Wade, 'Afro-Latin Studies: Reflections on the Field', Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies, 1: 1 (2006), pp. 105–24.
Page numbers must always be included for chapters in edited books and journal articles. BUT, if the reference refers to a specific page or pages, for example when used with a quote, it is only necessary to indicate these pages rather than full page numbers.
Use 'chap.' to refer to chapters in cited texts within notes, but 'chapter' in running text (e.g. '…as he states in chapter 2 …').
Unpublished theses, etc.
Esther Sánchez Botero, 'Entre el Juez Salomón y el Díos Sira: decisiones interculturales e interés superior del niño', unpubl. PhD diss., University of Amsterdam, 2006.
When referring to published documents produced by commercial organisations, government departments, and non-government organisations, the former may be regarded as the author. In this case, the publisher may be the same as the author. When international organisations such as the EU, United Nations, and NGOs such as Amnesty International give unique identifying numbers to their publications these should be included. For example:
United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Report of the Special Rapporteur, Sir Nigel Rodley, submitted pursuant to Commission on Human Rights Resolution 2000/43: Addendum: Visit to Brazil, UN Doc. E/CN.4/2001/66/Add.2, 30 March 2001.
References to books, journal and newspaper articles in Spanish and Portuguese
Use Latin American practice and do not capitalise initial letters except for the first word of the title and proper names, e.g.:
María Inés Barbero and Raúl Jacob (eds.), La nueva historia de empresas en América Latina y España (Buenos Aires, Temas, 2008).
List of works by same author
The Journal does not use idem/eadem. When providing a list of works by one author in a note, the author's name need only be provided once at the start of the list. Subsequent works should be separated by semi-colon.
Francesca Miller, 'Latin American Feminism and the Transnational Arena', in Women, Culture, and Politics in Latin America: Seminar on Feminism and Culture in Latin America (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1990), pp. 10–26; Latin American Women and the Search for Social Justice (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1991); and 'Feminisms and Transnationalisms', Gender and History, 10: 3 (1998), pp. 569–80.
These follow a similar style to English references, but only proper nouns and the first word of the title are capitalised. An exception to this is foreign journal titles, which have upper case on all significant words.
Jennifer A. Cooper, 'Feminismo y sindicalismo en México: do visiones compatibles?', in Griselda Gutiérrez Castañeda (ed.), Feminismo en México: revisión histórico-critica del siglo que termina (México DF: PUEG, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2002), pp. 103–4.
Gabriel Correra López and Juan González García, 'La inversión extranjera directa: China como competidor y socio estratégico', Nueva Sociedad, 203 (2006), pp. 115–27.
Second and subsequent references should be in a suitable short form, as:
Bulmer-Thomas, Economic History of Latin America, p. 92.
Wade, 'Afro-Latin Studies', p. 108.
(ed.) or (eds.) should be included in shortened forms of edited titles:
Jones and Rodgers (eds.), Youth Violence in Latin America.
N.B. The form ibid. is only used immediately following a note referring to the same single source. The form op. cit. is not used.
If sources have been consulted on-line, insert the URL that will lead the reader most directly to the document or web page, e.g.
…available at www.bwpi.manchester.ac.uk/reso...
It is not necessary to insert a URL for a source which has been consulted online but which is also available in print, e.g. a World Bank publication or a newspaper such as La Jornada.
It is not necessary to include http:// if the URL begins with www.
Reference to archival sources
Archival sources should be referred to in the following form: author (if available), title of document (or sender and recipient of correspondence), date, name of archive and location (name and location can be abbreviated after the first citation, and location omitted if there is unlikely to be confusion), record group (if appropriate), file number. For example:
Antero Aspíllaga to Ramón Aspíllaga, 31 Jan. 1914, Archivo del Fuero Agrario, Lima (hereafter AFA), Cayaltí archive, file 205.
G. J. MacGillivray, 'British Status in South America', 8 May 1956, Bank of England archives, file OV188/8/16.
Reference to interviews
Where possible, interviewees should be identified with details of their role int eh first time they are cited, together with the date of the interview, e.g.
Interview with David Parsons, former chief economist, Massalín Particulares, 13 Aug. 2005.
If it is necessary to anonymise interviewees for ethical reasons, authors should consult the editors before submitting the final version of the manuscript.
In case of any doubt about JLAS style practice, please contact the editors via the Journal Office at JLAS@ucl.ac.uk.
Please be sure to review the journal's ethical requirements here.
Use of artificial intelligence (AI) tools
We acknowledge the increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) tools in the research and writing processes. To ensure transparency, we expect any such use to be declared and described fully to readers, and to comply with our plagiarism policy and best practices regarding citation and acknowledgements. We do not consider artificial intelligence (AI) tools to meet the accountability requirements of authorship, and therefore generative AI tools such as ChatGPT and similar should not be listed as an author on any submitted content.
In particular, any use of an AI tool:
- to generate images within the manuscript should be accompanied by a full description of the process used, and declared clearly in the image caption(s).
- to generate text within the manuscript should be accompanied by a full description of the process used, include appropriate and valid references and citations, and be declared in the manuscript’s Acknowledgements.
- to analyse or extract insights from data or other materials, for example through the use of text and data mining, should be accompanied by a full description of the process used, including details and appropriate citation of any dataset(s) or other material analysed in all relevant and appropriate areas of the manuscript.
- must not present ideas, words, data, or other material produced by third parties without appropriate acknowledgement or permission.
Descriptions of AI processes used should include at minimum the version of the tool/algorithm used, where it can be accessed, any proprietary information relevant to the use of the tool/algorithm, any modifications of the tool made by the researchers (such as the addition of data to a tool’s public corpus), and the date(s) it was used for the purpose(s) described. Any relevant competing interests or potential bias arising as a consequence of the tool/algorithm’s use should be transparently declared and may be discussed in the article.
Authors can use this section to acknowledge and thank colleagues, institutions, workshop organisers, family members, etc. that have helped with the research and/or writing process. It is important that that any type of funding information or financial support is listed under ‘Financial Support’ rather than Acknowledgements so that it can be recorded separately (see here).
We are aware that authors sometimes receive assistance from technical writers, language editors, artificial intelligence (AI) tools, and/or writing agencies in drafting manuscripts for publication. Such assistance must be noted in the cover letter and in the Acknowledgements section, along with a declaration that the author(s) are entirely responsible for the scientific content of the paper and that the paper adheres to the journal’s authorship policy. Failure to acknowledge assistance from technical writers, language editors, AI tools and/or writing agencies in drafting manuscripts for publication in the cover letter and in the Acknowledgements section may lead to disqualification of the paper. Examples of how to acknowledge assistance in drafting manuscripts:
- “The author(s) thank [name and qualifications] of [company, city, country] for providing [medical/technical/language] writing support/editorial support [specify and/or expand as appropriate], which was funded by [sponsor, city, country]."
- “The author(s) made use of [AI system/tool] to assist with the drafting of this article. [AI version details] was accessed/obtained from [source details] and used with/without modification [specify and/or expand as appropriate] on [date(s)].