Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-hb754 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-24T13:27:15.871Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 June 2021


This article compares the public perceptions of various types of migrants in Japan and examines whether Japanese view them equally. Using an original survey, which presented six types of migrants that Japanese people most commonly face in their daily lives, I show several interesting results. First, respondents express the most negative views toward labor migrants. Second, respondents who have migrant friends tend to have more positive feelings for all types of migrants. In contrast, simple coexistence with migrants fails to enhance public sentiment toward labor migrants, particularly those whose stay is temporary. Overall, my statistical results suggest that Japanese people are not pessimistic about every kind of migrant, and their openness increases as migrants acculturate into Japanese society and interact with Japanese people. These findings provide evidence to influence policy discussions on whether Japan should recruit labor migrants in its current form in order to fight its aging population.

Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the East Asia Institute

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Allport, Gordon. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
Asada, Hideko. 2003. “Nihonjin-Jūmin-no-Burajirujin-Jumin-ni-taisuru-Ishiki—Aichi-ken-Nishiō-shi-Kenei-Midorimachi-Jūtai-no-Jirei-kara.” Ibunka-Komunikēshon-Kenkyū 6: 5768.Google Scholar
Baumgartner, Hans, and Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M.. 2001. “Response Styles in Marketing Research: A Cross-National Investigation.” Journal of Marketing Research 38 (2): 143156.10.1509/jmkr. Scholar
Befu, Harumi. 2001. Hegemony and Homogeneity: An Anthropological Analysis of Nihonjinron. Melbourne: Trans Pacific Press.Google Scholar
Bitō, Masahide. 1993. Nihon-Bunkaron. Tokyo: Hosodaigaku-Kyoikushinkokai.Google Scholar
Blalock, Hubert. 1967. Toward a Theory of Minority-Group Relations. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Blumer, Herbert. 1958. “Race Prejudice as a Sense of Group Position.” The Pacific Sociological Review 1 (1): 37.10.2307/1388607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brader, Ted, Valentino, Nicholas A., and Suhay, Elizabeth. 2008. “What Triggers Public Opposition to Immigration? Anxiety, Group Cues and Immigration Threat.” American Journal of Political Science 52 (4): 959978.10.1111/j.1540-5907.2008.00353.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buckley, Roger. 1985. Japan Today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Burgoon, Brian A., and Hiscox, Michael J.. 2008. The Gender Divide over International Trade: Why Do Men and Women Have Different Views about Openness to the World Economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Burns, Peter, and Gimpel, James G.. 2000. “Economic Insecurity, Prejudicial Stereotypes, and Public Opinion on Immigration Policy.” Political Science Quarterly 115 (2): 201225.10.2307/2657900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. 2004. “Chian-ni-kansuru- yoronchōsa.” Accessed November 23, 2020. Scholar
Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. 2006. “Chian-ni-kansuru- yoronchōsa.” Accessed November 23, 2020. Scholar
Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. 2007. “Jinken-yōgo-ni-kansuru-yoronchōsa.” Accessed November 22, 2020. Scholar
Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. 2012. “Chian-ni-kansuru- yoronchōsa.” Accessed November 23, 2020. Scholar
Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. 2017. “Chian-ni-kansuru- yoronchōsa.” Accessed November 23, 2020. Scholar
Chandler, Charles R., and Tsai, Yung-mei. 2001. “Social Factors Influencing Immigration Attitudes: An Analysis of Data from the General Social Survey.” Social Science Journal 38 (2): 177188.Google Scholar
Chen, Chuansheng, Lee, Shin-ying, and Stevenson, Harold W.. 1995. “Response Style and Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Rating Scale among East Asian and North American Students.” Psychological Science 6 (3): 170175.10.1111/j.1467-9280.1995.tb00327.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chung, Erin Aeran. 2010. Immigration and Citizenship in Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511711855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Citrin, Jack, Green, Donald P., Muste, Christopher, and Wong, Cara. 1997. “Public Opinion towards Immigration Reform: The Role of Economic Motivations.” Journal of Politics 59 (3): 858881.10.2307/2998640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daibō, Ikuo, and Okuda, Hidetaka. 1996. Shinmitsu-na-Taijin-Kankei-no-Kagaku. Tokyo: Seishin-Shōbō.Google Scholar
De Vaus, David. 2002. Surveys in Social Research, 5th edn. London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
Dixon, Jeffrey. 2006. “The Ties that Bind and those that Don't: Toward Reconciling Group Threat and Contact Theories of Prejudice.” Social Forces 84 (4): 21792204.10.1353/sof.2006.0085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duanway, Johanna, Branton, Regina, and Abrajano, Marisa. 2010. “Agenda Setting, Public Opinion, and the Issue of Immigration Reform.” Social Science Quarterly 91 (2): 359378.10.1111/j.1540-6237.2010.00697.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dustmann, Christian, and Preston, Ian. 2007. “Racial and Economic Factors in Attitudes to Immigration.” BE Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 7 (1): 139.Google Scholar
Endoh, Toake. 2009. Exporting Japan: Politics of Emigration to Latin America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.10.5406/j.ctt1xcfn2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fischhoff, Baruch, and de Bruin, Wändi Bruine. 1999. “Fifty-fifty=50?Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 12 (2): 149163.10.1002/(SICI)1099-0771(199906)12:2<149::AID-BDM314>3.0.CO;2-J3.0.CO;2-J>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garland, Ron. 1991. “The Mid-Point on a Rating Scale: Is It Desirable?Marketing Bulletin 2: 6670.Google Scholar
Green, David and Kadoya, Yoshihiko. 2015. “Contact and Threat: Factors Affecting Views on Increasing Immigration in Japan.” Politics and Policy 43(1): 5993.10.1111/polp.12109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ha, Shang. 2010. “The Consequences of Multiracial Contexts on Public Attitudes toward Immigration.” Political Research Quarterly 63 (1): 2942.10.1177/1065912908325255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hainmueller, Jens, and Hangartner, Dominik. 2013. “Who Gets a Swiss Passport? A Natural Experiment in Immigrant Discrimination.” American Political Science Review 107 (1): 159187.10.1017/S0003055412000494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hainmueller, Jens, Hangartner, Dominik, and Hiscox, Michael J.. 2010. “Attitudes toward Highly Skilled and Low-Skilled Immigration: Evidence from a Survey Experiment.” American Political Science Review 104 (1): 6184.10.1017/S0003055409990372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hainmueller, Jens, Hangartner, Dominik, and Hopkins, Daniel J.. 2015. “The Hidden American Immigration Consensus: A Conjoint Analysis of Attitudes toward Immigrants.” American Journal of Political Science 59 (3): 529548.10.1111/ajps.12138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, Thomas D. 1998. “The Effects of Incorporation into World-Systems on Ethnic Processes: Lessons from the Ancient World for the Contemporary World.” International Political Science Review 19 (3): 251267.10.1177/019251298019003004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamada, Kunihiro. 2008. “Gaikokujin-Jūmin-ni-taisuru-Nihonjin-Jūmin-Ishiki-no-Hensen-to-sono-Kitei-Yōin.” Shakaigaku-Hyōron 59 (1): 216231.10.4057/jsr.59.216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatton, Timothy J. 2016. “Immigration, Public Opinion and the Recession in Europe.” Economic Policy 31 (86): 205246.10.1093/epolic/eiw004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hays, Jude C. 2009. Globalization and the New Politics of Embedded Liberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195369335.001.0001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Higuchi, Naoto. 2006. “Brazilian Migration to Japan: Trends, Modalities, and Impact.” Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico City, November 30 to December 2, 2005. Accessed 14 November 2020. Scholar
Hollifield, James F. 1992. Immigrants, Markets, and States: The Political Economy of Postwar Europe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Hood, M. V., and Morris, Irwin. 1997. “Amigo o Enemigo? Context, Attitudes, and Anglo Public Opinion toward Immigration.” Social Science Quarterly 78 (2): 309323.Google Scholar
Horiuchi, Yasushi. 2006. “Gaikokujin-Kyojūsha-Hiritsu-to-Gaikokujin-heno-Kanyōsei—Saizu-no-Purasu-Kōka-no-Kenshō.” Jōchi-Daigaku-Shakaigaku-Ronshū 30: 4360.Google Scholar
Howell, David L. 2004. “Ethnicity and Culture in Contemporary Japan.” In Race, Ethnicity and Migration in Modern Japan, edited by Weiner, Michael, vol. 1: 103118. New York: RoutledgeCurzon.Google Scholar
ISSP Research Group. 2012. International Social Survey Program: National Identity II-ISSP 2003. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA2910 Data file Version 2.1.0.Google Scholar
ISSP Research Group. 2015. International Social Survey Program: National Identity III-ISSP 2013. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA5950 Data file Version 2.0.0.Google Scholar
Itō, Yasuhiro. 2000. “Shakai-Ishiki-to-Pāsonaru-Nettowāku.” In Toshi Shakai no Pāsunaru Nettowāku, edited by Morioka, Kiyoshi. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
Itō, Yasuhiro. 2005. “Gaikokujin-ni-taisuru-Kanyōdo-no-Chiiki-Hikaku: Pāsonaru-Nettowāku-no-Chiikikan-Toshikan-Hikaku-ni-kansuru-Jisshōteki-Kenkyū.” Kenkyū-Seika-Hōkokusho.Google Scholar
Kalton, G., Roberts, Julie, and Holt, D.. 1980. “The Effects of Offering a Middle Response Option with Opinion Questions.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 29 (1): 6578.Google Scholar
Kibe, Takashi. 2014. “Can Tabunkakyosei Be a Public Philosophy of Integration? Immigration, Citizenship and Multiculturalism in Japan.” In Governing Insecurity in Japan: The Domestic Discourse and Policy Response, edited by Vosse, Wilhelm, Drifte, Reinhard, and Blechinger-Talcott, Verena, 7191. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Kodama, Takashi. 2015. “Japan's Immigration Problem: Looking at Immigration through the Experiences of Other Countries.” Daiwa Institute of Research, Report. Accessed November 14, 2020. Scholar
Kondoh, Kenji. 2017. The Economics of International Immigration: Environment, Unemployment, the Wage Gap, and Economic Welfare. New Frontiers in Regional Science: Asian Perspectives 27. Singapore: Springer.10.1007/978-981-10-0092-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krosnick, Jon A. 1991. “Response Strategies for Coping with the Cognitive Demands of Attitude Measures in Surveys.” Applied Cognitive Psychology 5 (3): 213236.10.1002/acp.2350050305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krosnick, Jon A., and Presser, Stanley. 2010. “Question and Questionnaire Design.” In Handbook of Survey Research, edited by Marsden, P. and Wright, J., 2nd edn, 263313. Bingley: Emerald Publishing Group.Google Scholar
Krosnick, Jon A., Presser, Stanley, and Schuman, Howard. 1988. “Attitude Intensity, Importance, and Certainty and Susceptibility to Response Effects.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54 (6): 940952.10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumagai, Fumie. 1996. Unmasking Japan Today: The Impact of Traditional Values on Modern Japanese Society. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
Kunovich, Robert M. 2004. “Social Structural Position and Prejudice: An Exploration of Cross-National Differences in Regression Slopes.” Social Science Research 33: 2044.10.1016/S0049-089X(03)00037-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, Jerry W., Jones, Patricia S., Mineyama, Yoshimitsu, Zhang, Xinwei Esther. 2002. “Cultural Differences in Responses to a Likert Scale.” Research in Nursing & Health 25: 295306.10.1002/nur.10041CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lie, John. 2001. Multiethnic Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.10.4159/9780674040175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsumoto, Yasushi. 2004. “Gaikokujin-to-kurasu—Gaikokujin-ni-taisuru-Chiiki-Shakai-no-Kanyōdo.” In Tokyō-de-kurasu—Toshi-Shakai-Kōzō-to-Shakai-no-Ishiki, edited by Matsumoto, Yasushi, 197219. Tokyo: Tokyo Metropolitan University Press.Google Scholar
Matsumoto, Yasushi. 2006. “Chiiki-Shakai-ni-okeru-Gaikokujin-heno-Kanyōdo.” In Sentan-Toshi-Shakai-no-Chihei, edited by Hirota, Yasuo, Machimura, Takashi, Tajima, Junko, Watado, Ichirō. Tokyo: Hābesuto-Sha.Google Scholar
Mayda, Anna Maria. 2006. “Who is Against Immigration? A Cross-Country Investigation of Individual Attitudes Toward Immigrants.” Review of Economics and Statistics 88 (3): 510530.10.1162/rest.88.3.510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazumi, Yusuke. 2015. “What Shapes Public Opinion toward Foreign Workers in the Era of the Aging of Population in Japan? An Analysis Using JGSS 2008.” JGSS Research Series 12: 5161.Google Scholar
Mazumi, Yusuke. 2016. “How Does the Presence of Migrants at Worksites Shape Japanese Attitudes toward Migration?: An Analysis Using JGSS 2015.” JGSS Research Series 13: 1728.Google Scholar
McCarty, John A., and Shrum, L. J.. 2000. “The Measurement of Personal Values in Survey Research: A Test of Alternative Rating Procedures.” Public Opinion Quarterly 64 (3): 271298.10.1086/317989CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaren, Lauren. 2003. “Anti-Immigration Prejudice in Europe: Contact, Threat Perception, and Preferences for the Exclusion of Migrants.” Social Forces 81 (3): 909936.10.1353/sof.2003.0038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. 2016. “Uchi-naru Kokusaika” wo Susumeru-tameno Chōsa-Kenkyū.” Accessed May 10, 2020.–3.pdf.Google Scholar
Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Japan. Gaikokujin-Koyō-Jyōtai-no-Todokede-Jyōtai-ni-tsuite. Accessed April 1, 2019. Scholar
Mulder, Marlene, and Krahn, Harvey. 2005. “Individual and Community-Level Determinants of Support for Immigration and Cultural Diversity in Canada.” Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 42 (4): 421444.10.1111/j.1755-618X.2005.tb00848.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagayoshi, Kikuko. 2008. “The Influence of Perceived Threat and Contact in Japanese Anti-Immigrant Attitudes: Analysis of JGSS-2003.” JGSS Research Series 7, 259270.Google Scholar
Nagayoshi, Kikuko. 2009. “Whose Size Counts? Multilevel Analysis of Japanese Anti-Immigrant Attitudes.” JGSS Research Series 9: 157174.Google Scholar
Nagayoshi, Kikuko. 2012. “Nihonjin-no-Haigai-Ishiki-ni-taisuru-Bundan-Rōdō-Shijō-no-Eikyō: JGSS2006-no-Bunseki-kara.” Shakaigaku-Hyoron 63 (1): 1935.10.4057/jsr.63.19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakata, Hiroyuki. 2017. “Attitudes towards Immigration in an Ageing Society: Evidence from Japan.” RIETI Discussion Paper Series 17-E-095. Scholar
Nakazawa, Wataru. 2007. “Zainichi-Gaikokujin-no-Taka-to-Gaikokujin-ni-taisuru-Henken-no-Kankei: GJSS-o Mochiita-Maruchireberu-Bunseki.Soshioroji 52 (2): 7591.Google Scholar
National Tax Agency Japan. 2015. Heisei 26 Nenbun-Minkan-Kyūsha-Jittai-Tōkei-Chōsa-Kekka. Accessed March 5, 2019. Scholar
NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute. 2020. Gaikokujin-tono Kyōsei-Seikatsuni Kansuru Yoronchōsa. Accessed May 10, 2020. Scholar
Nikkei Newspaper. 2020. “Sūji-de Miru Riaru Yoron: Yūsō Chōsa.” Accessed May 10, 2020. Scholar
Noro, Natsuo. 2002. “Gaikokujin-Rōdōsha-to-Iminno-Ukeire.” LDI Report 135 (2): 425.Google Scholar
Nukaga, Misako. 2006. “Xenophobia and the Effects of Education: Determinants of Japanese Attitudes toward Acceptance of Foreigners.” JGSS Research Series 5: 191202.Google Scholar
O'Neil, Kevin, and Tienda, Marta. 2010. “A Tale of Two Countries: Natives’ Opinions toward Immigration in North Carolina.” International Migration Review 44 (3): 728761.10.1111/j.1747-7379.2010.00823.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohtsuki, Shigemi. 2006. “Contact with Foreigners and Attitudes Toward Them: Rethinking of Contact Theory from JGSS-2003 Data.” JGSS Research Series 5: 149158.Google Scholar
Okada, Akinori. 2011. “Analyzing Social Affinity for Foreigners by Spectral Decomposition: Asymmetric Multidimensional Scaling of EASS 2008 Data.” JGSS Research Series 11: 119128.Google Scholar
Oliver, Eric, and Wong, Janelle. 2003. “Intergroup Prejudice in Multiethnic Settings.” American Journal of Political Science 47 (4): 567582.10.2307/3186119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oswald, Frederick L., Mitchell, Gregory, Blanton, Hart, Jaccard, James, and Tetlock, Philip E.. 2013. “Predicting Ethnic and Racial Discrimination: A Meta-Analysis of IAT Criterion Studies.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 105 (2): 171192.10.1037/a0032734CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ōtsuka, Meiko, Akiyama, Mieko, Mori, Kyōko, and Hoshino, Haruhiko. 2006. “Kachikan-Rōdōkan-Raifu-Stairu-Nadoni-Kansuru-Nihonto-Hokuōno-Kikakuchōsakenkyū-Dai-1ji-Hōkoku.” Ningen-Kagaku-Kenkyū Rikkyō-Daigaku-Ningen-Kagaku-bu 33: 105–19.Google Scholar
Pettigrew, Thomas F. 1998. “Inter-Group Contact Theory.” Annual Review of Psychology 49: 6585.10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pettigrew, Thomas F. 2009. “Secondary Transfer Effect of Contact: Do Intergroup Contact Effects Spread to Noncontacted Outgroups?Social Psychology 40 (2): 5565.10.1027/1864-9335.40.2.55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pettigrew, Thomas F, and Tropp, Linda R.. 2006. “A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90 (5): 751783.10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.751CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Quillian, Lincoln. 1995. “Prejudice as a Response to Perceived Group Threat: Population Composition and Anti-Immigrant and Racial Prejudice in Europe.” American Sociological Review 60 (4): 586611.10.2307/2096296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raijman, Rebecca, and Semyonov, Moshe. 2004. “Perceived Threat and Exclusionary Attitudes towards Foreign Workers in Israel.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 27 (5): 780799.10.1080/0141987042000246345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reischauer, Edwin O. 1988. The Japanese Today: Change and Continuity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Scheepers, Peer, Gijsberts, Merove, and Coenders, Marcel. 2002. “Ethnic Exclusionism in European Countries: Public Opposition to Civil Rights for Legal Migrants as a Response to Perceived Ethnic Threat.” European Sociological Review 18 (1): 1734.10.1093/esr/18.1.17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scheve, Kenneth, and Slaughter, Matthew. 2001. “Labor Market Competition and Individual Preferences over Immigration Policy.” Review of Economics and Statistics 83 (1): 133145.10.1162/003465301750160108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schuman, Howard, and Presser, Stanley. 1981. Questions and Answers in Attitude Surveys. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Semyonov, Moshe, Raijman, Rebeca, Tov, Anat Yom, and Schmit, Peter. 2004. “Population Size, Perceived Threat, and Exclusion: A Multiple-Indicators Analysis of Attitudes toward Foreigners in Germany.” Social Science Research 33: 681701.10.1016/j.ssresearch.2003.11.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Anthony D. 1991. National Identity: Ethnonationalism in Comparative Perspective. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Statistics Bureau Japan (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications). 2015. Heisei-27-nen-Kokusei-Chōsa. Accessed March 17, 2019. Scholar
Stein, Robert, Post, Stephanie, and Rinden, Allison. 2000. “Reconciling Context and Contact Effects on Racial Attitudes.” Political Research Quarterly 53 (2): 285303.10.1177/106591290005300204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stock, James H., and Watson, Mark M.. 2012. Introduction to Econometrics, 3rd edn (International Edition). Essex: Pearson.Google Scholar
Tanabe, Shunsuke. 2001. “Gaikokujin-heno-Haitasei-to-Sesshoku-Keiken.” Shakaigaku-Ronkon 22: 114.Google Scholar
Tanabe, Shunsuke. 2002. “Gaikokujin-heno-Haitasei-to-Pāsunaru-Nettowāku.” In Pāsunaru-Nettowāku-no-Kōzō-to-Henyō, edited by Morioka, Kiyoshi, 101120. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
Tanabe, Shunsuke. 2009. “Japanese Perspectives on ‘Asia’: Analysis of JGSS-2006.” JGSS Research Series 8: 1325.Google Scholar
Tausch, Nicole, Hewstone, Miles, Kenworthy, Jared B., Psaltis, Charis, Schmid, Katharina, Popan, Jason R., Cairns, Ed, and Hughes, Joanne. 2010. “Secondary Transfer Effects of Intergroup Contact: Alternative Accounts and Underlying Processes.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 99 (2): 282302.10.1037/a0018553CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tourangeau, Roger, Couper, Mick P., and Conrad, Fred. 2004. “Spacing, Position, and Order: Interpretive Heuristics for Visual Features of Survey Questions.” Public Opinion Quarterly 68 (3): 368393.10.1093/poq/nfh035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsuda, Takeyuki. 2003. “Domesticating the Immigrant Order: Japanese Media Images of Nikkeijin Return Migrants.” Ethnology 42 (4): 289305.Google Scholar
Tsuda, Takeyuki. 2006. “Localities and the Struggle for Immigrant Rights: The Significance of Local Citizenship in Recent Countries of Immigration.” In Local Citizenship in Recent Countries of Immigration: Japan in Comparative Perspective, edited by Tsuda, Takeyuki, 336. Oxford: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Vink, Maarten Peter, and Bauböck, Rainer. 2013. “Citizenship Configurations: Analyzing the Multiple Purposes of Citizenship Regimes in Europe.” Comparative European Politics 11 (5): 621648.10.1057/cep.2013.14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vogt, Gabriele. 2014. “Friend and Foe: Juxtaposing Japan's Migration Discourse.” In Governing Insecurity in Japan: The Domestic Discourse and Policy Response, edited by Vosse, Wilhelm, Drifte, Reinhard, and Blechinger-Talcott, Verena, 5070. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Vogt, Gabriele. 2017. Population Aging and International Health-Caregiver Migration to Japan. Cham: Springer International.Google Scholar
Wagner, Ulrich, Christ, Oliver, Pettigrew, Thomas, Stellmacher, Jost, and Wolf, Carina. 2006. “Prejudice and Minority Proportion: Contact Instead of Threat Effects.” Social Psychology Quarterly 69 (4): 380390.10.1177/019027250606900406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wagner, Ulrich, Christ, Oliver, Pettigrew, Thomas, Stellmacher, Jost, and Christ, Oliver. 2003. “Ethnic Prejudice in East and West Germany: The Explanatory Power of Intergroup Contact.” Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 6: 2337.10.1177/1368430203006001010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weems, Gail H., and Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.. 2001. “The Impact of Midpoint Responses and Reverse Coding on Survey Data.” Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 34 (3): 166176.10.1080/07481756.2002.12069033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilcox, Clyde, Sigelman, Lee, and Cook, Elizabeth. 1989. “Some Like It Hot: Individual Differences in Responses to Group Feeling Thermometers.” Public Opinion Quarterly 53 (2): 246257.10.1086/269505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, Matthew, Levy, Morris, and Citrin, Jack. 2016. “Public Attitudes toward Immigration Policy across the Legal/Illegal Divide: The Role of Categorical and Attribute-Based Decision-Making.” Political Behavior 38 (1): 229253.10.1007/s11109-015-9311-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamagishi, Toshio. 2001. Shakai-Shinrigaku-Kiwado. Tokyo: Yūhikaku.Google Scholar
Yomiuri Newspaper. 2019. “Gaikokujinzai Kakudai Sansei 57% … Honsha-Yoronchōsa Kaigo ‘Teikōkan’ 59%.” May 5, 2019. Accessed May 10, 2020. Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Woo supplementary material

Woo supplementary material

Download Woo supplementary material(File)
File 92 KB