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We partially sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop region in 47 individuals from eleven Spanish and foreign goat breeds. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences allowed us to identify a particular D-loop haplotype shared by individuals from the Palmera, Majorera and Tinerfeña Canarian breeds. Genotyping of 281 goats from 17 different breeds by PCR-HpaII RFLP evidenced that the geographical distribution of this haplotype is restricted to the Canary Islands. This ancestral mitochondrial haplotype might originate in the domestic goat herds brought by the native Canarian inhabitants approximately 3000 years ago. Although we observed other miscellaneous D-loop haplotypes in the Palmera, Majorera and Tinerfeña breeds, any of them allowed us to group individuals from these three populations in a single cluster, a feature that suggests that these haplotypes might have diverse origins. The remarkable degree of phylogeographic structure of the Canary goat breeds with regard to other Spanish and foreign populations might be attributed to the isolation of these breeds in the Canary Islands for approximately 2500 years, without exposure to the migratory movements and commercial trading events that probably affected the genesis of most domestic goat breeds worldwide. The Canarian D-loop haplotype can be efficiently genotyped by using DNA isolated from milk and cheese samples, which paves the way for the future establishment of a Canary breed identity test for these dairy products.
We examined the physical and chemical changes in milk during early lactation, and how these changes were affected by leaving one quarter unmilked in either the first or second milking, with the purpose of discriminating between colostrum and normal milk. Milk samples were collected from each quarter of 17 cows during the first 5 d after calving and then after about 7 d and 14 d. Samples were analysed for somatic cell count (SCC), fat, protein, casein, lactose, IgG1, colour, plasmin, pH and coagulation properties. Large variations occurred in both chemical and physical properties throughout the study period. Within six milkings, the concentration of casein decreased by 60%, IgG1 by 94%, and lactose increased by 34%. At milking number 6, rennet coagulation time was lowest and curd firmness was highest. The pH increased from 6·4 to 6·7 over the period of the experiment, and the colour changed from yellow (reddish) to white. Coagulation properties and the pH fell within the range of normal milk after five milkings. Measurement of colour and density appeared to be a potential method for detection of milk unsuitable for the dairy factory. Effects of omitting one quarter in one milking differed between milk components, but seemed to be of little importance to the physical properties.
Fifty-six Holstein dairy cows from a commercial dairy herd in the Northern part of Greece were used to determine the effect of vitamin E supplementation on immune parameters, milk composition and milk quality. Cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups: control (no vitamin E supplementation) and vitamin E supplementation. Supplementation of vitamin E started 4 weeks prior to and continued up to 12 weeks after parturition. Supplementation included daily oral administration of vitamin E at 3000 i.u./cow prepartum and was reduced to 1000 i.u./cow post partum. Blood samples were collected weekly for 8 weeks starting 4 weeks before parturition, neutrophils were isolated and the following parameters were determined in neutrophils activated by phorbol myristate acetate: total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) activity and superoxide production. Milk samples were collected weekly and fat, protein, lactose, somatic cell count (SCC), plasmin and plasminogen-derived activity were determined. Activated neutrophils isolated from cows that received supplemental vitamin E had higher (P<0·01) total and membrane-bound u-PA activities during the first 3 weeks after parturition and higher (P<0·01) superoxide production during week 1 prepartum and week 1 post partum compared with the corresponding values of activated neutrophils isolated from control cows. Vitamin E supplementation had no effect (P=0·28) on plasminogen-derived activity in milk. Milk obtained from cows that received supplemental vitamin E had SCC lower by 25% (P<0·05) and plasmin lower by 30% (P<0·01) than corresponding values in milk obtained from control cows. The reduction in plasmin as a result of vitamin E supplementation is very beneficial to the dairy industry because plasmin reduces the cheese-yielding capacity of milk, affects the coagulating properties of milk and its overall ability to withstand processing during cheesemaking. In conclusion, vitamin E supplementation had positive effects on the function of bovine neutrophils and milk quality in a commercial dairy herd.
We determined the effects of feeding canola oil or infusing it into the abomasum on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, duodenal flows of fatty acids, and milk composition in Holstein cows. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in late lactation were used in a 3×5 incomplete Latin square design. Treatments were 1) Control: basal diet (CON), 2) Control+supplementation of canola oil at 1 kg/d in the feed (FED), and 3) Control+abomasal infusion of canola oil at 1 kg/d (INF). Compared with CON, feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, ruminal and total tract digestibilities of nutrients were not significantly affected by FED treatment but duodenal flows and milk concentrations of fatty acids (FA) such as trans-11 18[ratio ]1 and cis-9 trans-11 18[ratio ]2 (conjugated linoleic acid, CLA) were increased. In contrast to the effects of FED, INF reduced feed intake, total VFA production, intestinal flows of nutrients, FA digestibility and yields of milk and milk fat. Both FED and INF significantly reduced the proportions of saturated and medium-chain FA, and increased cis 18[ratio ]1 in milk. Concentrations of 18[ratio ]2n-6 and 18[ratio ]3n-3 in milk were increased nearly 2-fold with INF relative to CON. Dietary or postruminal supplementation of canola oil to late-lactation cows reduced saturated FA and increased unsaturated C18 in milk but nutrient digestion was adversely affected with abomasal infusion of canola oil.
We determined the relative importance of cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, and fatty acid concentrations in plasma in mediating the satiety effects of supplemental fat in lactating cows. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in late lactation were used in a 3×5 incomplete Latin square design with three treatments: 1) Control: basal diet (CON), 2) Control+supplementation of canola oil at 1 kg/d in the feed (FED) and 3) Control+abomasal infusion of canola oil at 1 kg/d (INF). Relative to CON, feed intake was reduced by INF but not by FED. We provide evidence that both FED and INF treatments stimulated CCK gene expression in the duodenum and elevated plasma CCK concentrations. However, our results did not support a role for CCK in mediating satiety through an endocrine mechanism of action. We speculate that CCK might be acting either through paracrine and/or neurocrine routes to influence feed intake in cattle. Both FED and INF had no effect on the mRNA abundance of leptin, lipoprotein lipase, or acetyl-CoA carboxylase in adipose tissue. Plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin and IGF-I were not altered by FED or INF, indicating that these signals may not be involved in mediating short-term hypophagic effects of dietary fat. Plasma concentrations of 18[ratio ]1n-9 and 18[ratio ]2n-6 were significantly greater for INF than for FED or CON. We conclude that the hypophagic effects of supplemental fat in cattle depend on the amount of unsaturated fatty acids reaching the intestine and that this satiety effect is mediated through CCK, oleic acid and (or) linoleic acid, but leptin is not involved.
Earlier studies with temporarily isolated rumen of heifers show saturation kinetics of Mg efflux across the rumen wall. Therefore, we hypothesized that high Mg intakes would not further increase the rate of Mg absorption in cows. To test our hypothesis, six ruminally fistulated non-pregnant dry cows were given diets with different Mg concentrations in a 6×6 Latin square design. Desired concentrations of Mg were attained by adding MgO to the basal diet and the Mg concentrations in the total rations were 3·8, 6·4, 9·1, 11·8, 14·1 and 17·3 g Mg/kg dry matter, which provided Mg intakes of 27·1, 44·6, 64·6, 83·5, 100·4 and 124·3 g/d, respectively. Increasing Mg intakes were associated with increased (P<0·001) faecal Mg excretion. However, apparent Mg absorption expressed as g/d was not significantly different for Mg intakes from 100·4 to 124·3 g/d while Mg absorption expressed as a proportion of intake was not significantly different for Mg intakes ranging from 64·6 to 124·3 g/d. Mg concentrations in rumen fluid after feeding increased (P<0·001) with increasing Mg intakes. Apparent absorption of Mg appeared to become saturated at a ruminal Mg concentration of 17·5 mM (Mg intake of 83·5 g/d). Group-mean post-feeding concentrations of Mg and Na in rumen fluid were significantly correlated (Pearson's r=−0·96; P=0·003, n=6). This study showed that under conditions of practical dairy cow feeding, Mg absorption was maximal at Mg intakes [ges ]84 g/d.
Effects of six different milking intervals on the distribution of milk between cistern and alveoli were studied in a randomized, incomplete Latin Square experiment with four lactating Holstein cows. Cisternal and alveolar milk was measured by udder quarter at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24-h intervals with a 3-d interperiod of regular milking. Cisternal milk was evacuated using a cannula after injection of an oxytocin-receptor blocking agent, followed by an injection of oxytocin to remove the alveolar fraction. Milk samples from each fraction and quarter were collected for analysis. Cisternal and alveolar milk increased with milking interval and represented on average 30 and 70% of the milk stored in the udder, respectively. Fat content in alveolar milk remained constant during the first 16 h, increasing rapidly thereafter, reaching its maximum at 24 h (6·95%). Fat content in cisternal milk decreased with milking interval and reached its minimum at 24 h (0·96%). Total fat yield tended to increase for cisternal milk with longer milking intervals, but it increased markedly for alveolar milk, showing that fat globules did not pass freely from alveoli to cistern between milkings. Milk protein content was greater in rear quarters than in front quarters for both milk fractions. Milk protein content increased in the cisternal milk fraction and tended to increase in the alveolar milk fraction with longer milking intervals, but values did not differ between cisternal and alveolar fractions or between front and rear quarters. Total protein yield increased with milking interval in both fractions, indicating that casein micelles passed more freely than fat globules from the alveolar to the cisternal compartment. In conclusion, the short-term effects of milking intervals in milk composition were explained by the changes observed in alveolar and cisternal milk ratio.
The study was aimed at identifying the pathogens causing subclinical udder infections in representative Israeli dairy goat herds and determining their effect on milk quality. Five hundred goats in ten flocks of various breeds and crossbreeds were surveyed. Of the 500 goats, 13·4% were in their first lactation, 36·4% were in their second lactation and 50·2% were in their third or higher lactation. Percentages of udder halves with subclinical intramammary infection in the flocks ranged from 35 to 71%. The effect of the bacteriological infection on somatic cells count (SCC) was significant (P<0·001). Various species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), mainly Staphylococcus caprae and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were the main pathogens in infected udder halves. Lactation number did not significantly influence either infection rate of udder halves or SCC, although the percentage of udder halves with no bacteriological findings was higher at the first lactation than at the third lactation. Milk composition (fat, protein and lactose) varied among flocks, with lower mean total protein in uninfected halves than in infected ones and higher lactose in uninfected than infected halves.
We examined the relationship between physicochemical indicators and somatic cells in the milk of dairy cows during experimentally induced mastitis and their significance as indicators for use in controlling udder health. We were concerned particularly with the effect of alveolar milk ejection on the sensitivity of these indicators. In Expt 1, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (Esch. coli LPS) was injected into the left rear quarter to induce an inflammatory reaction in one quarter in each of six cows. The contralateral control quarter was injected with a solution of NaCl (9 g/l). Nine milk samples were taken from both quarters until 60 h after injection. In Expt 2, repeated milk samples were taken every 20 s from one quarter during a 120-s teat stimulation in 20 cows with different somatic cell counts (SCC). Quarters were clustered for low (<5·0 log cells/ml), mid (5·0–5·7 log cells/ml) and high (>5·7 log cells/ml) SCC of the sample taken at t=0 s. Samples were analysed for SCC, electrical conductivity (EC) and Na+ and Cl− concentrations. During the experimental inflammation SCC, EC, Na+ and Cl− peaked at 12 h from LPS administration and values in treated quarters (T) at this time were elevated to 7900, 157, 501 and 169% of the values in untreated quarters, respectively. In Expt 2, SCC, EC, Na+ and Cl− in high SCC quarters were 2520, 121, 283 and 141% of low SCC quarters at the start of stimulation (t=0 s), respectively. Highly significant (P<0·001) differences in EC, Na+ and Cl− between high and low SCC quarters disappeared owing to the onset of alveolar milk ejection 100 s after the first contact with the teat. In conclusion, SCC in cows' milk provided the strongest amplitude in the case of an intramammary inflammation. EC, Na+ or Cl− were useful tools only if the measurements were performed in cisternal milk before the start of alveolar milk ejection.
Two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) raised against bovine κ-casein were developed and applied in an automated optical biosensor (Biacore 3000) to create easy and fast direct and inhibition biosensor immunoassays (BIA) for the detection of cows' milk in the milk of ewes and goats. With both assay formats, low limits of detection (<0·1%) and fast run times (around 5 min) were obtained. For sample preparation, milk was diluted in buffer (direct assay) or in an antibody-containing buffer (inhibition assay) only. For quantitative analysis, calibrants of cows' milk in ewes' or goats' milk were used. Advantages of the direct BIA are: the single reagent format (biosensor chip immobilized antibodies only); the use of small amounts of antibodies (2 μg for >350 tests); and the wide measurement range (0·1 to 10% cows' milk). Despite these advantages, the inhibition BIA (using κ-casein immobilized on the chip) was preferred because of the possible application of non-purified Mab, the higher responses, the higher sensitivity at relevant low percentages of cows' milk and its robustness (>800 cycles per chip).
Heat-induced gelation (80 °C, 30 min or 85 °C, 60 min) of whey protein concentrate (WPC) solutions was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic rheology and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The WPC solutions (150 g/kg, pH 6·9) were prepared by dispersing WPC powder in water (control), 10 g/kg sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solution or 10 mM-dithiothreitol (DTT) solution. The WPC gels containing SDS were more translucent than the control gels, which were slightly more translucent than the gels containing DTT. TEM analyses showed that the SDS-gels had finer aggregate structure (≅10 nm) than the control gels (≅100 nm), whereas the DTT-gels had a more particulate structure (≅200 to 300 nm). Dynamic rheology measurements showed that the control WPC gels had storage modulus (G′) values (≅13500 Pa) that were ≅25 times higher than those of the SDS-gels (≅550 Pa) and less than half those of the DTT-gels after cooling. Compression tests showed that the DTT-gels were more rigid and more brittle than the control gels, whereas the SDS-gels were softer and more rubbery than either the control gels or the DTT-gels. PAGE analyses of WPC gel samples revealed that the control WPC solutions heated at 85 °C for 10 min contained both disulphide bonds and non-covalent linkages. In both the SDS-solutions and the DTT-solutions, the denatured whey protein molecules were in the form of monomers or small aggregates. It is likely that, on more extended heating, more disulphide linkages were formed in the SDS-gels whereas more hydrophobic aggregates were formed in the DTT-gels. These results demonstrate that the properties of heat-induced WPC gels are strongly influenced by non-covalent bonding. Intermolecular disulphide bonds appeared to give the rubbery nature of heat-induced WPC gels whereas non-covalent bonds their rigidity and brittle texture.
Acidity is an environmental condition commonly encountered by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and fermented foods. In the present study, 22 strains of Bifidobacterium were screened for acid tolerance in artificial gastric juice (AGJ, pH 3·0) and fermented milk. AGJ tolerance was found to be strain-specific, with a pronounced variation among the strains. Several strains with a high survival rate in AGJ that belonged to Bifid. longum, Bifid. breve and Bifid. adolescentis were selected. Among them, only strain BL1 of Bifid longum was found to possess a high survival rate in fermented milk during refrigerated storage. Strain BL1 exhibited a survival rate of more than 25% in AGJ at pH 3·0 for 2 h and maintained a viable cfu level of more than 108 per gram of product in fermented milk (pH 4·6) under refrigerated conditions for 2 weeks. The acid tolerance of strain BL1 was found to depend on the final growth pH (<4·5). Rapid loss of acid tolerance was observed when the cells were shifted from acid to neutral conditions by addition of NaOH. Strain BL1 cells were able to maintain much higher intracellular pH under acid conditions, in comparison with those of AGJ sensitive mutant (BL1-S) or cells that lost acid tolerance following pH shifting from acid to neutral conditions. These results suggested that a cytoplasmic pH homeostasis system may function in the acid tolerance response in this strain.
A holistic approach of a mould cheese ripening is presented. The objective was to establish relationships between the different microbiological and biochemical changes during cheese ripening. Model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti and Brevibacterium linens under aseptic conditions. Two cheese-making trials with efficient control of environmental parameters were carried out and showed similar ripening characteristics. K. lactis grew rapidly between days 1 and 6 (generation time around 48 h). G. candidum grew exponentially between days 4 and 10 (generation time around 4·6 d). Brevi. linens also grew exponentially but after day 6 when Pen. camemberti mycelium began developing and the pH of the rind was close to 7. Its exponential growth presented 3 phases in relation to carbon and nitrogen substrate availability. Concentrations of Pen. camemberti mycelium were not followed by viable cell count but they were evaluated visually. The viable microorganism concentrations were well correlated with the carbon substrate concentrations in the core and in the rind. The lactose concentrations were negligible after 10 d ripening, and changes in lactate quantities were correlated with fungi flora. The pH of the inner part depended on NH3. Surface pH was significantly related to NH3 concentration and to fungi growth. The acid-soluble nitrogen (ASN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) indexes and NH3 concentrations of the rind were low until day 6, and then increased rapidly to follow the fungi concentrations until day 45. The ASN and NPN indexes and NH3 concentrations in the core were lower than in the rind and they showed the same evolution. G. candidum and Pen. camemberti populations have a major effect on proteolysis; nevertheless, K. lactis and Brevi. linens cell lysis also had an impact on proteolysis. Viable cell counts of K. lactis, G. candidum, Pen. camemberti and Brevi. linens were correlated with the environmental conditions, with proteolytic products and with carbon substrate assimilation. NH3 diffusion from surface to the cheese core during ripening was highly suspected. Interaction phenomena between microorganisms are discussed.
Flavour generation in cheese is a major aspect of ripening. In order to enhance aromatic qualities it is necessary to better understand the chemical and microbiological changes. Experimental Camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurized milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti and Brevibacterium linens under aseptic conditions. Two replicates performed under controlled conditions of temperature (12 °C), relative humidity (95±2%), and atmosphere showed similar ripening characteristics. The evolutions of metabolite concentrations were studied during ripening. The volatile components were extracted by dynamic headspace extraction, separated and quantified by gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. For each cheese the volatile concentrations varied with the part considered (rind or core). Except for ethyl acetate and 2-pentanone, the volatile quantities observed were higher than their perception thresholds. The flavour component production was best correlated with the starter strains. During the first 10 days the ester formations (ethyl, butyl and isoamyl acetates) were associated with the concentrations of K. lactis and G. candidum. The rind quantity of esters was lower than that observed in core probably due to (1) a diffusion from the core to the surface and (2) evaporation from the surface to the chamber atmosphere. G. candidum and Brev. linens association produced 3 methyl butanol and methyl 3-butanal from leucine, respectively. DMDS came from the methionine catabolism due to Brev. linens. Styrene production was attributed to Pen. camemberti. 2-Pentanone evolution was associated with Pen. camemberti spores and G. candidum. 2-Heptanone changes were not directly related to flora activities while 2-octanone production was essentially due to G. candidum. This study also demonstrates the determining role of volatile component diffusion.
In a study of the evolution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) during cheese production, the influence of Emmental cheese processing on the CLA content and the CLA isomer composition was evaluated. The use of raw and thermised milk, changes of processing temperature and the effect of propionic acid bacteria (PAB) were investigated. The content of CLA in raw milk was 8·6±1·9 mg/g fat and in the ripened cheese at 70 d was 8·6±1·6 mg/g fat, under normal processing conditions. No changes in the CLA content and CLA isomer composition were observed during Emmental cheese manufacturing process. Changes in cooking and moulding temperatures did not influence the CLA content. CLA content of cheese made from microfiltered milk with two different Propionibacterium freudenreichii strains was very close to cheeses made without PAB. CLA levels seem to be stable in this type of dairy product under the conditions examined.
This work studied the addition of an adequate lipase to enhance lipolysis reactions and the development of piquant flavour and sharp odour in Idiazabal cheese, as an alternative to the use of lamb rennet paste. Cheeses were manufactured from bulk raw ewes' milk in 50 l vats with commercial bovine rennet and 80 lipase units of pregastric or 180 lipase units of fungal lipase and ripened for 180 days. A higher lipolytic activity was induced by lipase addition promoting strong changes in odour and flavour attributes. Both fungal and pregastric lipases increased the content of total free fatty acids (FFA), but the fungal lipase released mainly medium- and long-chain FFA. In contrast, the pregastric lipase preferably released short-chain FFA. Diglyceride (DG) content was considerably higher in cheeses made with added pregastric lipase compared with those made with fungal lipase or with no lipase. Monoglycerides (MG) were detected only in cheeses made with either lipase added, reaching comparable concentrations after ripening for 180 days. The cheeses made with pregastric lipase had the highest scores for odour and flavour intensity, and sharp and rennet odours, desirable attributes for the Idiazabal cheese made with lamb rennet paste. None of the texture attributes were significantly influenced by the concentrations of MG and DG in the cheeses made with either lipase. Thus, the pregastric lipase was more appropriate than the fungal lipase to develop a more traditionally-flavoured Idiazabal cheese.
In some European regions ewes' milk is transformed into cheese without a previous heat treatment. The microbiota and the native enzymes present in raw milk are considered to be responsible for the characteristic strong flavour of raw ewes' milk cheeses (Nuñez et al. 1989). Although pasteurization ensures a higher uniformity of the product, heat treatment of ewes' milk may impair the sensory characteristics of cheeses (Gaya et al. 1990).