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Milk and dairy products have great importance in human nutrition related to the presence of different nutrients, including protein, fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds. Dietary supplementation with foods containing these types of compounds may influence the chemical composition of milk and dairy products and hence, potentially, the consumer. Our objective was to summarize the evidence of the effect of supplementation with antioxidants and phenolic compounds in the diets of dairy animals and their effects on milk and dairy products. We conducted a systematic search in the MEDLINE/PubMed database for studies published up until July 2022 that reported on supplementation with antioxidants and phenolic compounds in diets that included plants, herbs, seeds, grains and isolated bioactive compounds of dairy animals such as cows, sheep and goats and their effects on milk and dairy products. Of the 94 studies identified in the search, only 15 met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. The review revealed that supplementation with false flax cake, sweet grass, Acacia farnesiana, mushroom myceliated grains and sweet grass promoted an effect on the milk lipid profile, whereas supplementation with dried grape pomace and tannin extract promoted an effect on the milk and cheese lipid profiles. In six studies, the addition of Acacia farnesiana, hesperidin or naringin, durum wheat bran, mushroom myceliated grains, dried grape pomace and olive leaves increased the antioxidant activity of milk. In conclusion, supplementation with bioactive compounds had a positive impact which ranged from an increase in antioxidant capacity to a decrease in oxidative biomarkers such as malondialdehyde.
Organic farming is believed by many to be an environmentally friendly production system that promotes the use of local forage while strongly limiting the input of chemicals, including allopathic treatments. As organic dairy farming has grown, farmers have realised that many available conventional breeds of cow are not well adapted to the new situations and that more ‘robust’ cows, able to function well in the constraining organic environment, are needed to yield acceptable longevity and productivity. In this review paper, the current breed diversity in organic dairy farming is analysed with the aim of identifying the types of cow that would best fulfil organic breeding goals. Unlike the conventional sector, organic dairy farming is very heterogeneous and no single type of cow can adapt well to all scenarios. There are advantages and disadvantages to the use of existing breeds (rustic Holstein-Friesian, other rustic breeds and crosses), and strong genotype × environment interactions demand different strategies for very diverse situations. Organic dairy farms producing milk for systems that recompense milk volume would benefit from using higher milk yielding cows, and rustic Holstein-Friesian cows may be the best option in such cases. Although most Holstein-Friesian cows are currently selected for use in conventional systems, this situation could be reversed by the implementation of an organic merit index that includes organic breeding goals. Farms producing milk either for systems that recompense milk solids or for transformation into dairy products would benefit from using breeds other than Holstein-Friesian or their crosses. Organic farmers who focus on rural tourism, farm schools or other businesses in which marketing strategies must be taken into account could benefit from using local breeds (when possible) or other rustic breeds that are highly valued by consumers.
Dairy cattle breeding has historically focused on relatively small numbers of elite bulls as sires of sons. In recent years, even if generation intervals were reduced and more diverse sires of sons could have been selected, genomic selection has not fundamentally changed the fact that a large number of individuals are being analyzed. However, a relatively small number of elite bulls are still siring those animals. Therefore inbreeding-derived negative consequences in the gene pool have brought concern. The detrimental effects of non-additive genetic changes such as inbreeding depression and dominance have been widely disseminated while seriously affecting bioeconomically important parameters because of an antagonistic relationship between dairy production and reproductive traits. Therefore, the estimation of benefits and limitations of inbreeding and variance of the selection response deserves to be evaluated and discussed to preserve genetic variability, a significant concern in the selection of individuals for reproduction and production. Short-term strategies for genetic merit improvement through modern breeding programs have severely lowered high-producing dairy cattle fertility potential. Since the current selection programs potentially increase long-term costs, genetic diversity has decreased globally as a consequence. Therefore, a greater understanding of the potential that selection programs have for supporting long-term genetic sustainability and genetic diversity among dairy cattle populations should be prioritized in managing farm profitability. The present review provides a broad approach to current inbreeding-derived problems, identifying critical points to be solved and possible alternative strategies to control selection against homozygous haplotypes while maintaining sustained selection pressure. Moreover, this manuscript explores future perspectives, emphasizing theoretical applications and critical points, and strategies to avoid the adverse effects of inbreeding in dairy cattle. Finally, this review provides an overview of challenges that will soon require multidisciplinary approaches to managing dairy cattle populations, intending to combine increases in productive trait phenotypes with improvements in reproductive, health, welfare, linear conformation, and adaptability traits into the foreseeable future.
Milk production intensification has led to several unwanted aspects, such as sustainability issues and environmental pollution. Among these, increased milk outputs that have been achieved over the last 70 years have led to several health and pathophysiological conditions in high yielding dairy animals, including metabolic diseases that were uncommon in the past. Increased occurrence of diverse metabolic diseases in cattle and other domestic animals is a key feature of domestication that not only affects the animals' health and productivity, but also may have important and adverse health impacts on human consumers through the elevated use of drugs and antibiotics. These aspects will influence economical and ethical aspects in the near future. Therefore, finding and establishing proper biomarkers for early detection of metabolic diseases is of great interest. In the present review, recent work on the discovery of fitness, stress and welfare biomarkers in dairy cows is presented, focusing in particular on possible biomarkers of energy balance and oxidative stress in plasma and milk, and biomarkers of production-related diseases and decreased fertility.
This review provides an overview of the composition, structure, and biological activities of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) compounds with focus on the future application of this compound as a food ingredient. MFGM is a particular component of mammalian milks and is comprised of a tri-layer of polar lipids, glycolipids and proteins. In recent years, MFGM has been extensively studied for the purpose of enhancing the efficacy of infant nutrition formula. For example, infant formulas supplemented with bovine MFGM have shown promising results with regard to neurodevelopment and defense against infections. Components of MFGM have been shown to present several health benefits as the proteins of the membrane have shown antiviral activity and a reduction in the incidence of diarrhea. Moreover, the presence of sphingomyelin, a phospholipid, implies beneficial effects on human health such as enhanced neuronal development in infants and the protection of neonates from bacterial infections. The development of a lipid that is similar to human milk fat would represent a significant advance for the infant formula industry and would offer high technology formulas for those infants that depend on infant formula. The complexity of the structure of MFGM and its nutritional and technological properties is critically examined in this review with a focus on issues relevant to the dairy industry.
Milk is an important protein source in human diets, providing around 32 g protein/l (for bovine milk, which constitutes some 85% of global consumption). The most abundant milk proteins are α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, αs-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein. Besides their nutritional value, milk proteins play a crucial role in the processing properties of milk, such as solubility, water bonding, heat stability, renneting and foaming, among others. In addition, and most importantly for this review, these proteins are the main source of bioactive components in milk. Due to the wide range of proposed beneficial effects on human health, milk proteins are considered as potential ingredients for the production of health-promoting functional foods. However, most of the evidence for bioactive effects comes from in vitro studies, and there is a need for further research to fully evaluate the true potential of milk-derived bioactive factors. Animal genetics and animal nutrition play an important role in the relative proportions of milk proteins and could be used to manipulate the concentration of specific bioactive peptides in milk from ruminants. Unfortunately, only a few studies in the literature have focused on changes in milk bioactive peptides associated to animal genetics and animal nutrition. The knowledge described in the present review may set the basis for further research and for the development of new dairy products with healthy and beneficial properties for humans.
This review deals with the prospects and achievements of individual dairy cow management (IDCM) and the obstacles and difficulties encountered in attempts to successfully apply IDCM into routine dairy management. All aspects of dairy farm management, health, reproduction, nutrition and welfare are discussed in relation to IDCM. In addition, new IDCM R&D goals in these management fields are suggested, with practical steps to achieve them. The development of management technologies is spurred by the availability of off-the-shelf sensors and expanded recording capacity, data storage, and computing capabilities, as well as by demands for sustainable dairy production and improved animal wellbeing at a time of increasing herd size and milk production per cow. Management technologies are sought that would enable the full expression of genetic and physiological potential of each cow in the herd, to achieve the dairy operation's economic goals whilst optimizing the animal's wellbeing. Results and conclusions from the literature, as well as practical experience supported by published and unpublished data are analyzed and discussed. The object of these efforts is to identify knowledge and management routine gaps in the practical dairy operation, in order to point out directions and improvements for successful implementation of IDCM in the dairy cows' health, reproduction, nutrition and wellbeing.
Greek yogurt is one of the fastest growing products in the dairy industry. It is also known as strained yogurt, which is obtained after draining the whey. As a result of the draining process, Greek yogurt has higher total solids and lower lactose than regular yogurt. Since it is a concentrated yogurt, its sensory characteristics are different from regular yogurt. However, there is little information about factors influencing the quality of Greek yogurt and sensory evaluation techniques applied to Greek yogurt. This review aims to describe the effects of ingredients, starter cultures, processing techniques and other parameters on quality characteristics and sensory properties of Greek yogurt. In addition, advantages and limitations of novel sensory evaluation techniques applied to Greek yogurt products are discussed. In particular, we take a look at advanced techniques such as the electronic nose and electronic tongue and the benefits of these techniques with regard to Greek yogurt. This review should help the Greek yogurt industry to improve its current products and develop innovative products based on appropriate food evaluation techniques.
Alpha-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) are contained in bovine milk whey. Chemical and physical treatments are known to alter the conformation of these proteins and we have previously reported that α-LA denatured with trifluoroethanol (TFE) and isolated from sterilized market milk inhibited the growth of rat crypt IEC-6 cells. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of TFE-treated α-LA and β-LG on cell growth using cultured intestinal cells and on their safety using a suckling mouse model. First, we investigated the effect of the TFE-treated whey proteins on human colonic Caco-2 cells at various differentiation stages. In the undifferentiated stage, we assessed cell growth by a water-soluble tetrazolium-1 method. The native whey proteins enhanced cell proliferation, whereas the TFE-treated whey proteins strongly inhibited cell growth. We investigated cell barrier function in the post-differentiated stage by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Not only native but also the TFE-treated whey proteins increased TER. Next, we evaluated whether the TFE-treated α-LA and β-LG have adverse effects on healthy suckling mice. No mice given by the TFE-treated samples showed any adverse symptoms. We also performed a safety test using a human rotavirus infected gastrointestinal disease suckling mice model. Even the TFE-treated whey proteins appeared to prevent the development of diarrheal symptoms without any adverse effects. Although we cannot know the effect of long-term ingestion of denatured whey proteins, these results suggest that they have no adverse effects on differentiated intestinal cells and digestive tract, at least in short-term ingestion.
Staphylococci have been isolated from various sites of the body of healthy sheep, as well as from many infections of those animals, the main one being mastitis. The objective of this review is to appraise the importance and significance of staphylococci in causing mastitis in ewes. The review includes a brief classification and taxonomy of staphylococci and describes the procedures for their isolation and identification, as well as their virulence determinants and the mechanisms of resistance to antibacterial agents. Various staphylococcal species have been implicated in staphylococcal mastitis and the characteristics of isolates are discussed with regards to potential virulence factors. Staphylococcal mastitis is explicitly described, with reference to sources of infection, the course of the disease and the relevant control measures. Finally, the potential significance of staphylococci present in ewes’ milk for public health is discussed briefly.
The reticulorumen, as the main fermentation site of ruminants, delivers energy in the form of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) for both the animal as well as the ruminal wall. By absorbing these SCFA, the ruminal epithelium plays a major role in the maintenance of intraruminal and intraepithelial acid–base homoeostasis as well as the balance of osmolarity. It takes up SCFA via several pathways which additionally lead to either a reduction of protons in the ruminal lumen or the secretion of bicarbonate, ultimately buffering the ruminal content effectively. Nutrition of the epithelium itself is achieved by catabolism of the SCFA, especially butyrate. Catabolism of SCFA also helps to maintain a concentration gradient across the epithelium to ensure efficient SCFA uptake and stability of the epithelial osmolarity. Furthermore, the ruminal epithelium forms a tight barrier against pathogens, endotoxins or biogenic amines, which may emerge from ruminal microorganisms and feed. Under physiological conditions, it reduces toxin uptake to a minimum. Moreover, the epithelium seems to have the ability to degrade biogenic amines like histamine. Nonetheless, in high performance production animals like dairy cattle, the reticulorumen is confronted with large amounts of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates. This may push the epithelium to its limits, even though it possesses a great capacity to adapt to varying feeding conditions. If the epithelial limit is exceeded, increasing amounts of SCFA lead to an acidotic imbalance that provokes epithelial damage and thereby elevates the entrance of pathogens and other potentially harmful substances into the animal's body. Hence, the ruminal epithelium lays the foundation for the animal's health, and in order to ensure longevity and high performance of ruminant farm animals, it should never be overburdened.
Preservation of colostrum for neonatal dairy calves has seldom been seldom in recent years, much of the peer reviewed literature having been published in the 1970s and 1980s. First milking colostrum is high in bioactive immune enhancers such as immunoglobulins, lactoferrins, lysozymes and cytokines and is vital to confer passive immunity to newborn dairy calves to promote their health, welfare and future productivity. Bovine colostrum is advisedly restricted from the bulk milk supply for the first 8 milkings post calving due to high somatic cell counts and the risk of antimicrobial residues. As such, many producers refer to ‘colostrum’ as not only the first milking post calving, but also the aformentioned ‘transition’ milk. Colostrum is preserved in order to protect supply for feeding when production may be poor or where there is a glut of colostrum such as in seasonal calving systems. There are multiple reasons for newborn calves not to have access to their dam's colostrum, including multiple births, acute mastitis or maladapted maternal behaviour, especially in first lactation heifers. Shortages in colostrum may also be precipitated by purposeful discarding of colostrum from cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and Mycoplasma bovis. Broadly, colostrum may be preserved using low temperature (refrigeration or freezing) or chemical preservatives. The aim of this scoping review article was to identify options for preservation and gaps in research and to propose best practice for colostrum preservation.
The aim of this review was to present various topics related to lactose intolerance with special attention given to the role of fermented foods and probiotics in alleviating gastrointestinal symptoms. Lactose intolerance is a common digestive problem in which the human body is unable to digest lactose, known as milk sugar. Lactose intolerance can either be hereditary or a consequence of intestinal diseases. Recent work has demonstrated that fermented dairy products and probiotics can modify the metabolic activities of colonic microbiota and may alleviate the symptoms of lactose intolerance. We suggest that, lactose free dairy products could be recommended as alternatives for the alleviation of lactose intolerance and for the promotion of human health and wellness.
This Review describes the objectives and methodology of the DairyWater project as it aims to aid the Irish dairy processing industry in achieving sustainability as it expands. With the abolition of European milk quotas in March 2015, the Republic of Ireland saw a surge in milk production. The DairyWater project was established in anticipation of this expansion of the Irish dairy sector in order to develop innovative solutions for the efficient management of water consumption, wastewater treatment and the resulting energy use within the country's dairy processing industry. Therefore, the project can be divided into three main thematic areas: dairy wastewater treatment technologies and microbial analysis, water re-use and rainwater harvesting and environmental assessment. In order to ensure the project remains as relevant as possible to the industry, a project advisory board containing key industry stakeholders has been established. To date, a number of large scale studies, using data obtained directly from the Irish dairy industry, have been performed. Additionally, pilot-scale wastewater treatment (intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor) and tertiary treatment (flow-through pulsed ultraviolet system) technologies have been demonstrated within the project. Further details on selected aspects of the project are discussed in greater detail in the subsequent cluster of research communications.
Increased animal productivity has reduced animal fitness, resulting in increased susceptibility to infectious and metabolic diseases, locomotion problems and subfertility. Future animal breeding strategies should focus on balancing high production levels with health status monitoring and improved welfare. Additionally, understanding how animals interact with their internal and external environment is essential for improving health, fitness, and welfare. In this context, the continuous validation of existing biomarkers and the discovery and field implementation of new biomarkers will enable us to understand the specific physiological process and regulatory mechanisms used by the organism to adapt to different environmental conditions. Thus, biomarkers may be used to monitor welfare and improve management and breeding strategies. In this article, we describe major achievements in the establishment of biomarkers in dairy cows and small ruminants. This review mainly focuses on the physiological biomarkers used to monitor animal responses to, and recovery from, environmental perturbations. We highlight future avenues for research in this field and present a timely positioning document to the scientific community.
Scientific studies demonstrate the importance of intestinal microbiota to human health and how probiotic microorganisms can positively affect health when administered regularly and in adequate amounts. Probiotic bacteria can be part of fermented products and their functional importance is associated mainly with their metabolism. They are thought to benefit individuals to maintain their health and also to strengthen resistance against various types of diseases. The acceptance of probiotic cultures and products by consumers increased when these bacteria were marketed as natural cultures that help in digestion and health. Considering this, the food industry has an increasing demand for new candidates as probiotic cultures, and the dairy industry has a particular interest for fermented milks and other dairy products, since these are the most common food vehicles for probiotic cultures. Therefore, the dairy industries are increasingly seeking to improve their products with these beneficial bacteria. However, the legal peculiarities and excess of control agencies in Brazil makes the registration of these products and the collection of data very complex. Prospective analysis suggests that probiotic foods have the potential to effect a considerable expansion of the dairy industry, allowing the dairy sector to grow and for these products to be increasingly sought by consumers globally. For this, not only actions on research and innovation are necessary, but also official clarifications on the claims for considerations of microbiological security and functionality of these products. This review aims to elucidate important probiotic research regarding the isolation and characterization of beneficial cultures in Brazil, and to demonstrate the relevance of the dairy chain as a potential source of novel cultures for the development of new probiotic products to expand the Brazilian dairy industry.
This review aims to familiarize the reader with research efforts on the cultivation media of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). We have also included a brief discussion on standard ingredients used in LAB media and chemically defined media as related to bacterial growth requirements. Recent research has focused on modifying standard media for the enumeration, differentiation, isolation, and identification of starter cultures and probiotics. Even though large numbers of these media have been developed to serve dairy microbial control, they have failed to provide consistent results. The research consequently points to the need to develop a reliable lactobacilli growth medium for the dairy industry.
The effects of low and high frequency ultrasound on the production of volatile compounds along with their derivation and corresponding off-flavours in milk and milk products are discussed in this review. The review will simultaneously discuss possible mechanisms of applied ultrasound and their respective chemical and physical effects on milk components in relation to the production of volatile compounds. Ultrasound offers potential benefits in dairy applications over conventional heat treatment processes. Physical effects enhance the positive alteration of the physicochemical properties of milk proteins and fat. However, chemical effects propagated by free radical generation cause redox oxidations which in turn produce undesirable volatile compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters, alcohols and sulphur, producing off-flavours. The extent of volatile compounds produced depends on ultrasonic processing conditions such as sonication time, temperature and frequency. Low frequency ultrasound limits free radical formation and results in few volatile compounds, while high ultrasonic frequency induces greater level of free radical formation. Furthermore, the compositional variations in terms of milk proteins and fat within the milk systems influence the production of volatile compounds. These factors could be controlled and optimized to reduce the production of undesirable volatiles, eliminate off-flavours, and promote the application of ultrasound technology in the dairy field.