To send this article to your account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work should provide further insights to mechanisms of the negative consequences of chemotherapy drugs, specifically in the cardiovascular system. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Cardiotoxicity remains a safety concern in the development or utilization of chemotherapeutics largely due to the gap in knowledge of the mechanisms of toxicity. The pathophysiology of this cardiotoxicity has not been fully elucidated but data from our lab as well as other recent studies hint toward implications of mitochondrial (mito) biogenesis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Prophylactic use of the beta-blocker carvedilol as well as the ACE inhibitor enalapril have been shown to inhibit the development of anthracycline-induced toxicity, but the mechanism of this cardio-protection remains elusive. To explore this, human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells will be either treated with the anthracycline doxorubicin or pretreated with carvedilol or enalapril followed by doxorubicin treatment before cellular lysates are harvested. Western blotting and qPCR will be performed to determine the expression of mito biogenesis markers including Nrf1, TFAM and the master regulator of mito biogenesis, PGC-1α. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that doxorubicin treatment alone will result in decreased expression of the mito biogenesis markers Nrf1, TFAM and PGC-1α and that pretreatment with either carvedilol and/or enalapril prior to doxorubicin treatment will either prevent or reverse this. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Doxorubicin’s role in causing mitochondrial dysfunction as well as suppression of biogenesis has already been established. Ideally, generation of new mitochondria would offset the occurrence of dysfunctional mitochondria. Confirming carvedilol/enalapril’s involvement with mito biogenesis would provide a mechanism of cardio-protection.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This study provides insight into how MED2 impacts the immune cells surrounding glioblastoma that help it to grow and spread; having a more complete understanding of how MED2 works will help us better develop therapies that may one day enter the clinic to improve patient outcomes in glioblastoma. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the phosphorylation state of the MED2 peptide impacts its biological activity in GBM and macrophages. MED2 variants include the phosphorylatable wild-type (MED2), pseudo-phosphorylated (MED2-PP), non-phosphorylatable (MED2-NP) and control length (CTL2) peptides. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: MED2, MED2-NP, MED2-PP, and CTL2 were screened against a panel of molecularly characterized glioblastoma patient derived xenografts and IL4/13 stimulated M2-like THP-1 macrophages. The luminescent cell viability assay, CellTiter-Glo, was used to determine viability. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The proneural lines XD456 and X1441 were highly sensitive to 5 µM MED2 and 5 µM MED2NP compared to 5 µM MED2PP (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between untreated, 5 µM CTL2, and 5 µM MED2PP groups or between the MED2NP and MED2 treated groups. M2-like THP-1 macrophages were highly sensitive to 10 µM MED2NP compared to 10 µM CTL2 (p<0.01) and 10 µM MED2PP (p<0.01) No statistically significant difference was observed between untreated, 10 µM MED2, 10 µM MED2PP, and 10 µM CTL2 groups. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: The phosphorylation state of MED2 determines its toxicity. When MED2 is phosphorylated, it is nontoxic to GBM or M2-like macrophages. The non-phosphorylatable version is toxic to both GBM and M2-like macrophages. The wild-type peptide is toxic to GBM but not M2-like macrophages, suggesting that MED2 may be phosphorylated in M2-like macrophages.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Identifying the causative antigen in membranous glomerulopathy cohorts enables the development of serum assays to detect and monitor disease progression without the need for invasive kidney biopsies. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Primary membranous glomerulopathy is caused by the formation of autoantibody immune complexes which deposit in the glomerulus and obstruct kidney function. Causative antigens remain to be identified in roughly 20% of cases. Our goal is to identify the antigen in these cohorts, so that non-invasive assays can be developed for disease monitoring. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Renal biopsy tissue from known antigen cases (PLA2R, THSD7A), and unknown cases were included in the analysis. Renal biopsy tissue from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue was cut at a thickness of 10 µm onto Leica PET-membrane frame slides. These slides were then stained with hematoxylin. The glomeruli were microdissected into microcentrifuge tubes using a Leica DM6000B microscope. The microdissected glomeruli were lysed in 2% SDS and 0.1M DTT at 99 degrees Celsius for 1 hour and processed by filter assisted sample preparation (FASP). Digested peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using an Orbitrap Fusion Lumos using data-dependent acquisition. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Mass spectrometry data collected from the laser captured glomeruli was searched against the human proteome fasta database from Uniprot using MaxQuant. IBAQ values were used for quantitation and statistical analysis. Null hypothesis significance testing was performed for each protein by comparing each sample group to the rest of the samples in the data set. In the control groups, the causative antigens PLA2R and THSD7A were detected and quantified with the largest magnitude fold change in their respective category, validating the experimental design. Using this approach, the proteins SAP, NELL1, and NCAM1 were identified and subsequently validated as causative antigens in distinct patient cohorts. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Here, we share the results of our efforts to comprehensively identify the spectrum of causative antigens in membranous glomerulopathy. In this context, antigen discovery is an essential first step for the development of non-invasive assays to inform prognosis, monitor response to treatment, and better understand disease etiology.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: MiaA has a human homolog known as TRIT1. Mutations in TRIT1 have been associated with rare diseases such as MELAS and MERRF syndromes. These diseases are associated with mitochondrial disfunction.Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial sRNAs, and the miRNAs associated with these diseases could potentially afford the insight into effective cures. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The aim is to investigate the regulation and function of tRNA isopentyladenine transferase enzyme in Escherichia coli. We aimed to execute screens for the identification of small RNA regulators of MiaA. The study will also investigate if i6A tRNA modification is necessary for the expression of major heat shock and mitochondrial proteins. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We constructed a chromosomal miaA-lacZ translational fusion driven by the arabinose responsive PBAD promoter and used it to screen against an Escherichia coli small RNA library. Using CsrB, one of our candidate sRNA regulators from our genetic screen, we measured the steady state levels of MiaA by Northern Blot in a PBAD-miaA2(P2HS)-lacZ translational fusion strain whereby pBR-pLac-csrB, pBR-pLac-csrA and the pBR-pLac vector are over-expressed, and under the control of an IPTG inducible promoter. Additionally, and in the same PBAD-miaA2(P2HS)-lacZ translational fusion strain background, we measured the steady state levels of MiaA in the wild type, csrA:zeo mutant strain, and csrA:zeo pBR-pLac-csrA complementation strain to determine if a combination of the pair would restore the wild-type genotype. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Upon measuring the effect of small RNAs on miaA expression using quantitative b-galactosidase assays, we saw a 5-fold decrease in the expression of MiaA in the miaA-lacZ translational fusion containing sRNA CsrB, suggesting that this sRNA may play a role in the regulation of post-transcriptional expression of MiaA.From our northern blotting analysis, we observed a 6-fold decrease in MiaA expression in the absence of csrA, suggesting that csrA is essential for MiaA expression. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Identifying, mapping and characterizing how MiaA is regulated post-transcriptionally will give us an increased understanding in the maintenance and regulation of the normal function of E.coli to conserve homeostasis and translation fidelity.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: My work is on the development of a novel tumor immunotherapy to treat various types of cancer OBJECTIVES/GOALS: As iNKT cells can have direct and indirect killing effects on tumor cells, we propose a novel strategy for activating iNKT cells, via a PLGA nanoparticle delivery platform, to promote anti-tumor immune responses. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles can be reproducibly loaded with an iNKT cell glycolipid agonist, alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), and a tumor associated antigen, ovalbumin (OVA). We then test our nanoP prophylactically and therapeutically against a murine model of melanoma, B16F10-OVA. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: These dual-loaded PLGA nanoparticles rapidly activate iNKT cells in vivo to produce IFNgamma. Furthermore, in an in vivo model of melanoma, using B16F10-OVA cells, both prophylactic and therapeutic administration of nanoparticles containing αGalCer and OVA led to decreased tumor cell growth and increased survival. We also show our nanoparticle therapy has synergistic potential with clinically used immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapies, anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4, indicated by the significance increase in survival and lower tumor growth rate of ICB +nanoP treated mice compared to either ICB or nanoP alone. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: This novel delivery system provides a platform with tremendous potential to harness iNKT cells for cancer immunotherapy purposes against many cancer types.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Understanding the influence of genetic variation and smoking on alcohol consumption helps in improving the treatment strategies for alcohol addiction OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Variation in the nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA5 (rs16969968) is associated with nicotine use and dependence, however its role in alcohol consumption is unclear. This study examined the effects of rs16969968 and smoking on alcohol related phenotypes in people without alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The study included 1,037 healthy adult drinkers without AUD (201 smokers, 836 non-smokers). A subset (n=161) participated in an Intravenous Alcohol Self-Administration (IV-ASA) laboratory session. Alcohol-related measures included Timeline Followback (TLFB), which measures drinking quantity and frequency in the past 90 days, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), which measures alcohol use and consequences. IV-ASA measures included average and peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC). The effect of rs16969968 was tested using a dominant model based on the presence of the A allele, and the influence of the rs16969968 polymorphism and smoking on alcohol phenotypes was assessed using t-tests and two-way ANOVA. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There was a main effect of rs16969968 genotype with A-allele carriers (AA/AG) showing higher AUDIT-Dependence scores compared to the GG group. A main effect of smoking was observed on all the TLFB and AUDIT measures, with smokers showing greater alcohol consumption and problems compared to non-smokers. In the rs16969968 AA/AG group, smokers reported significantly more drinking days (p<0.0001), and greater number of drinks (p<0.0001), as well as higher AUDIT scores than non-smokers. IV-ASA measures did not show any difference between genotype groups or between smokers and non-smokers. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: This study identifies both independent and interactive effects of CHRNA5 gene variation and smoking on alcohol drinking measures and provides strong evidence for the effect of smoking on alcohol drinking and its consequences.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Demonstrate the role of astrocyte released MMPs in response to pathogenic HIV protein Tat. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: In the presence of the pathogenic HIV protein Tat, astrocytes have been demonstrated to adopt an inflammatory phenotype as well as release extracellular matrix degrading enzymes, MMPs. Our work aims to identify whether MMPs alter perineuronal net integrity and working memory in a mouse model of Tat-induced neuroinflammation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Stereotaxic Injection: C57BL6/J mice were injected bilaterally with HIV-1 IIIB Tat 5ug in 5uL or Vehicle (0.2M KCl, 5mM DTT, 50mM Tris, pH 8.0), into the hippocampus (CA1; -1.9mm AP, ±1.6mm ML, -1.5mm DV from pial surface). All outcome measurements were performed 14-days post injection. Behavior: T-maze was used to assess working memory following Tat exposure. qRT-PCR: TaqMan probes were used according to manufacturer on extracted whole hippocampus mRNA. IF: GFAP and CD68 immunofluorescence was used to determine inflammation post injection. Inhibitory interneurons (parvalbumin positive) and peri-neuronal nets (WFA positive) were quantified. WB: Synaptosomes from whole hippocampi (Syn-PER) were isolated and synaptic excitatory markers were quantified (PSD-95, synaptophysin, GluR2a). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Tat exposure resulted in impairments in working memory as measured by T-maze alternations and an increase in hippocampal mRNA expression of MMP-13 and IL-1β, indicative of neuroinflammation. We also noted an increase in GFAP+ injection site width 14 days post-Tat injection, suggesting robust gliosis. While there were no changes in the excitatory pre and post synaptic markers we found a significant decrease in the percent of PV+ interneurons with peri-neuronal nets (PNNs) following Tat exposure. Taken together, this preliminary data supports a role for inflammation and PNN integrity in Tat-induced alterations in working memory. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our findings suggest that Tat contributes to cognitive impairment and that astrogliosis with elevated MMP-13 facilitates the degradation of peri-neuronal nets (PNNs) within the hippocampus. Since PNN degradation can alter neuronal circuitry future studies will focus on Tat-induced changes in hippocampal signaling.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: The first-line chemotherapies used to treat leishmaniasis are highly toxic intravenous antimonials yet drug resistance has begun to develop, causing the use of oral treatment options with high price tags; there is a strong need for new, safe, and effective chemotherapeutic agents to treat leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: This study was conducted in order to identify novel chemical compounds that exhibit anti-leishmanial activity and to further characterize their efficacy and toxicity in in vitro and in vivo systems in the hopes of future chemotherapeutic developments. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A total of 28 unique 1,4-diaryl-pyrazolo-pyridinone (1,4-DAPP) compounds were synthesized and anti-leishmanial efficacy and host cell toxicity were determined using L. donovani mCherry-expressing amastigotes and THP-1 macrophages. Additional pharmacokinetic analyses of a potent 1,4-DAPP compound were conducted, revealing a potential metabolite structure. A select group of the novel compounds were screened in a cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) murine model using L. major mCherry-expressing parasites and female Balb/C mice. The treatment consisted of 10 intralesional injections of compound over a period of 4 weeks, while lesion growth was monitored via fluorescence and manual measurements. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Four experimental compounds had IC50 values less than 5 micromolar, providing similar anti-leishmanial activity to Miltefosine. Compound 9279817 had a clearance almost twice the rate of normal hepatic blood flow and had a relatively high volumes of distribution, indicating this compound is rapidly cleared and distributes into tissues. In vitro rat liver microsome assays suggest a rapid metabolism of 9279817 and MS/MS results suggest this metabolite is most likely formed via oxidation of the sulfur on the lower aryl ring. This sulfoxide metabolite has similar efficacy as the parent compound and does not exhibit toxicity in vitro. Three of the experimental compounds behaved similarly to the antimony positive control in the murine CL model. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: This study revealed a novel structural class of compounds that have anti-leishmanial activity. Experiments show compounds with similar efficacy to Miltefosine while having significantly less cytotoxicity, suggesting that the 1,4-DAPP structural class could be further developed as a potential chemotherapeutic.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Optimization of primary septal-hippocampal co-cultures facilitates studying central cholinergic synapse formation and dysfunction OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Septal cholinergic innervation to the hippocampus is critical for normal learning and memory and is severely degenerated in Alzheimer’s disease. To understand the molecular events underlying this loss, we optimized a primary septal-hippocampal co-culture system that facilitates the study of central cholinergic synapses. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We developed an optimized in vitro septal-hippocampal co-culture system modified from previously published protocols. Briefly, hippocampal and septal tissue were harvested from embryonic day 19 (E19) Sprague-Dawley rats, digested with 0.1% trypsin, and an equal number of cells from each region plated onto coverslips coated with poly-D-lysine and laminin at a final density of 300 cells/mm2. We use immunostaining with validated primary antibodies and a fluorescent binding assay, together with confocal microscopy, to determine the structure of cholinergic synapses that are 1) native, 2) mammalian, 3) CNS derived, 4) comprised of physiological synaptic partners, and 5) developmentally mature. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: After DIV21, co-cultures maintained a healthy morphology. A subpopulation of neurons strongly expressed the cholinergic markers vesicular ACh transporter (vAChT), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1), whereas most neurons lacked vAChT expression and were presumably glutamatergic or GABAergic. The percentage of cholinergic neurons attained in the co-culture is ˜5-7%. The size of these cholinergic neurons is strikingly similar to that reported for BFCNs in the intact brain (mean 30μm, range 18-43μm). All sampled cholinergic neurons (28/28 neurons) also expressed molecular machinery necessary for GABA release. Staining for a cholinergic postsynaptic marker shows that 63% of the contacts made with are synaptic. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Primary septal-hippocampal co-cultured neurons have not been exploited extensively in the field, perhaps due to the difficulty in maintaining such cultures for extended periods. Here, we optimized an in vitro septal-hippocampal co-culture system, a powerful tool to comprehensively analyze central cholinergic synapse formation and dysfunction.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Human exhaled breath is rich in metabolomic content that represents pulmonary function and gas exchange with blood, which can provide insights into an individual’s state of health. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Human exhaled breath is rich in metabolomic content that represents pulmonary function and gas exchange with blood. It contains a mixture of compounds that offer insight into an individual’s state of health. Here, we present two novel non-invasive breath sampling devices for use in basic medical practice. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The two breath samplers have a disposable mouthpiece, a set of inhale and exhale one-way flap valves to allow condensation of exhaled breath only, and a saliva filter. The housing is constructed out of Teflon®, a chemically inert material to reduce chemical absorbance. The first device condenses exhaled breath into a frozen condensate using dry ice pellets and the other is a miniaturized design that liquifies exhaled breath on a condenser surface with micropatterned features on a cooling plate. Both designs have individual strategic and analytical advantages: frozen exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has high retention of analytes and sample volume; EBC collected in liquid phase offers facilitated sample collection and device portability. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We investigated if breath aerosol size distribution affects the types or abundances of metabolites. We modified the geometry of the first device to redirect aerosol trajectories based on size. The trapping of larger aerosols increases with filter length, thus altering the aerosol size distribution although no significant changes in the metabolite profiles were found. With the miniaturized device, metabolite abundances were measured in a small cohort of healthy control and mild asthmatic subjects. Differences among subjects were found, as well as main differences between control and asthmatic groups. All analyses of EBC were performed with liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry. Inflammatory suppression found in asthmatic subjects can be explained by prescribed daily use of inhaled corticosteroids. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Breath collection devices can be used in intensive care units, outpatient clinics, workplaces, and at home. EBC analysis has been used to monitor asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It can be applied to infectious respiratory diseases (e.g. influenza, COVID-19) and for monitoring environmental and occupational chemical exposures.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Characterizing the cellular composition of human adipose tissue may contribute to the prevention and/or treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Our aims in this study were to use single-cell techniques 1. to characterize cell types within the stromavascular fraction of human adipose tissue, 2. to identify subsets of cells within each type (sub-clustering), 3. to identify gene sets and pathways that may provide information on the function and significance of each cell cluster. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue samples from n=6 healthy volunteers (1M, 5F, age 28-38 y, BMI 24.5-63.0 kg/m2) were collected by aspiration or during surgery. In 3 subjects, all females, paired femoral samples were also collected. After collagenase digestion approximately n=10,000 cells/sample were used for single-cell RNA sequencing using the 10X Genomics platform. After QC and downstream analysis, data were analyzed in Seurat v.3.1.5. We identified first different cell types and then subclusters in an unbiased fashion. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used for pathway analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Progenitor markers are related to extracellular matrix, eg DCN (logFC progenitors vs other cells types=3.17, expressed in 99.7% (pct.1) of progenitors, 26.1% (pct.2) of others). Endothelial and pericytes shared markers like RBP7 (logFC=1.67, pct.1 0.88, pct.2 0.39); pericytes also showed unique markers, eg RGS5 (logFC=2.29, pct.1 0.89, pct.2 0.17). Progenitors are further divided into 11 sub-clusters, one of which showed enrichment of CD36 (high proliferation potential), FABP4 (differentiation), and of the novel marker PALMD (logFC=7.13, pct.1 0.94, pct.2 0.48). All p<10E-5. GSEA analysis suggests that inflammatory pathways are downregulated in both adipose progenitors and endothelial/pericyte cells in the femoral compared to the abdominal depot. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Single cell RNA sequencing provides unique insights into the molecular profile of cell types and the identification of novel subsets of cells within the human adipose tissue. Such cellular heterogeneity may explain differences in adipose function between individuals and eventually in the risk of obesity-associated metabolic diseases.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our improved understanding of the changes in chromatin accessibility that occur in persistent pain states may identify regulatory genomic elements that play essential roles in modulating gene expression in the DRG. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Efforts to understand genetic variability involved in an individual’s susceptibility to persistent pain support a role for upstream regulation by epigenetic mechanisms. Our objective was to examine the transcriptomic and epigenetic basis of persistent pain following nerve injury. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used a multiomic approach to identify novel molecular pathways associated with nerve injury-induced pain hypersensitivity. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve or no treatment (naive). The ipsilateral L4-L6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG)s were removed on Day 14 and used for ChIP-seq for H3K4me1, ATAC-seq, and RNA-seq. We assessed for differential chromatin accessibility, transcription factor motifs, and enrichment for biological processes in chromatin accessible regions associated with cis-regulatory regions identified by ATAC-seq and H3K4me1 enrichment. Luciferase assays determined the functional significance of these sequences. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified 58,446 genomic regions where H3K4me1 enrichment overlapped with chromatin accessibility. Differential analysis identified 2145 of these 58,446 regions that had changes in accessibility after CCI. The majority of these regions were located in introns or intergenic regions. Functional annotation of the differentially accessible regions identified disparate molecular functions enriched following nerve injury which suggests that altered chromatin structure plays a role in the development of mechanical hypersensitivity. Motif analysis identified specific transcription factor families whose binding sequences were enriched in regions of increased or decreased accessibility. Luciferase assays showed significant enhancement or repression of gene transcription. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our data provides a comprehensive map of chromatin accessibility changes in the DRG after CCI and emphasizes the importance of chromatin structure in the development and maintenance of chronic pain.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Understanding the biology underpinning head and neck cancer invasion and metastasis could lead to novel targeted therapies that are both effective and tolerable for patients with this debilitating disease. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family of epigenetic regulators has been implicated in the tumorigenesis of various cancers. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the majority of morbidity is due to invasion and metastasis, so there is special interest in understanding the development of these phenotypes in HNSCC cells. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Stable SCC9 knockdown cell lines were generated by infecting cells with a lentivirus encoding Cas9-KRAB and a lentivirus encoding gRNA targeting each of the candidate BET proteins: BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT. Knockdown was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Next, standard assays for proliferation (CellTiter-glo), invasion (Matrigel), and migration (scratch-wound healing assay) were performed for all candidate knockdowns and compared to a non-target control. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Proliferation assay results revealed that BRD4 knockdown had a significant negative effect on the proliferative capacity of SCC9 cells in vitro. Similarly, BRD4 knockdown SCC9 cell lines were less invasive and less migratory. Interestingly, knockdown of BRD2, BRD3, and BRDT had no effect on proliferation, invasiveness, or migration. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: We have identified BRD4 as a key driver of the HNSCC tumorigenic phenotype. In the future, we plan to investigate the role of JQ1, a pan-BET inhibitor, on HNSCC cell phenotypes. Additionally, we will identify the downstream targets of BRD4, which may serve as potential therapeutic targets for both HNSCC as well as other cancers more broadly.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our study will integrate state-of-the-art methods in pathogen genomics, epidemiology, and geospatial analysis to identify both host- and pathogen-factors driving the MDR-TB transmission and the study outcome can inform the design of targeted interventions OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses serious challenges for the global eradication of tuberculosis. Recent research has shown that transmission is now the dominant driver of MDR-TB. However, our limited understanding of where and among whom MDR-TB is transmitted hampers efforts to control person-to-person spread. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used several analytic approaches to characterize the dynamics of MDR-TB transmission in Shanghai, China. We identified all culture-confirmed MDR cases between 2009-2016 in the city and 1) estimated individual-level risk factors for MDR disease; 2) mapped the TB cases by their home addresses and used a Bayesian spatial disease mapping method to identify regions with an elevated risk of MDR-TB; and 3) we sequenced all MDR isolates to understand whether transmission explained variance in risk that was not attributable to the distribution of individual or location-specific risk variates. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There were 1034 MDR-TB cases among 16,315 culture-confirmed TB cases during the study period. Bayesian disease mapping identified spatial heterogeneity of MDR-TB and determined four hotspots with an elevated risk of MDR-TB, none of which were fully explained by individual or regional-covariates (Figure 1). Sequencing revealed that more than 40% of the MDR-TB strains were in genomic clusters, indicating recent MDR-TB transmission. Most importantly, MDR-TB cases in three of the four large clades (>8 isolates) were spatially concentrated in three strain-specific hotspots (Figure 2). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: With the combination of traditional epidemiological tools, geographical, and genomic methods, this study revealed multiple loci of transmission of specific MDR-TB clades within a single city. Identification of where and among whom MDR-TB is transmitted can inform the design of targeted interventions.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: To track recovery and mitigate additional spinal cord injury (avoiding further paralysis), we are assessing the applicability of an implantable ultrasound device that can monitor the tissue health postoperatively. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To date, no method has been developed that monitors spinal cord perfusion rate (mL/min/g) or pressure (mmHg) successfully after the surgery. Our goal is to design, construct, and validate (in animal models) a novel sensor that quantifies postoperative tissue perfusion in patients with SCI at the site of and downstream from the injury. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A sample size of 10 animals will allow us to test our hypothesis to track tissue perfusion before and after the SCI using ultrasound. After prepping and scrubbing the animal, the skin will be incised with a blade, bony structures will be removed and the spinal cord will be revealed. A 25-g weight will then be dropped from a height of 15 cm, and the animal will be observed for contraction of the lower extremities, a sign that the cord was damaged. Using Doppler ultrasound settings available on commercial transducers, we will investigate the acceptable frequency, as well as proper Doppler mode with and without contrast agents, and with and without elastography (stiffness mapping of the tissue). A range of frequencies will be tested (5 -25 MHz). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: It is expected that at frequencies 12 MHz and above, our radiologist collaborators would be able to easily detect the blood flow. It is also expected that the injury will have a noticeable effect on the changes of this detected blood flow. We aim to present figures demonstrating ultrasound image qualities obtained at various frequencies. We expect three such figures: one for gray scale ultrasound imaging, one for color Doppler and finally, one for spectral Doppler, which is the one mostly used to quantify blood flow. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: To monitor recovery and mitigate secondary injury in patients with traumatic SCI, there is a need to monitor tissue perfusion intra-operatively. To address this need, we will design, construct, and validate a novel sensor that will postoperatively quantify tissue perfusion for the SCI patients at the site of the injury.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Baseline presentation in AT (higher upper trapezius PPT with no difference at calf or tendon) may suggest a mechanism for persistent symptoms: with more advantageous central pain processing and no tradeoff peripherally, they may choose to continue their usual activities without regard for further damage to the affected tendon. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Exercise-induced hypoalgesia, a reduction in pain with exercise, is often observed in healthy populations but is not well established in Achilles tendinopathy (AT). The aim was to compare pressure-pain threshold (PPT) at baseline and after fatiguing isometric exercise in AT and healthy controls. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 21 participants were recruited for the study: 7 AT (26.5 ±8.8 yrs), 14 control (22.1 ±3.2 yrs). After a familiarization session, participants completed an experimental session that involved performance of intermittent maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) (2s:2s duty cycle) in a Biodex3 dynamometer (Biodex Medical, Shirley, NY) for 4 minutes. PPT was measured at the medial gastrocnemius (calf), Achilles tendon, and upper trapezius at baseline and immediately following the fatiguing isometric task using a Somedic Algometer (Somedic AB, Sweden). Data are expressed as Mean(SD). Change in PPT is expressed as a percentage of baseline PPT. Units for PPT are kPa. A priori alpha was set to 0.05. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There was no change in tendon or calf PPT following isometric exercise in AT (tendon: p=0.78; calf: p=0.76), while both increased (i.e., exercise-induced hypoalgesia) in controls (tendon: 9.5(17.8), p=0.03; calf: 21.3(22.7), p<0.01). Neither group experienced a post-exercise change in upper trapezius PPT (AT: p=0.35; control: p=0.37). There was no between-group difference in baseline calf (p=0.14) or tendon (p=0.19) PPT. However, baseline and post-exercise upper trapezius PPT were significantly higher in AT (baseline: 335.6(194.8); post-exercise: 321.2(170.1)) than in controls (baseline: 193.7(75.1), p<0.01; post-exercise: 198.1(79.1), p<0.01). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: These findings suggest: (1) in persons with AT, central pain processing is altered at baseline, but unaffected in response to isometric fatiguing exercise; and (2) in persons with AT, peripheral pain processing is unaffected at baseline, but is altered in response to this mode and dosage of fatiguing isometric exercise.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: The Bench Tutorials Program is an independent study course in biomedical research in which high school students are paired with graduate and post-doctoral students during the academic year. The purpose is to enhance the rigor of high school science education and build the pipeline of tomorrow’s researchers. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The Bench Tutorials Program: ο Proficiency in research design, implementation, and presentation; ο Acquisition of hands-on laboratory skills; ο Increase in scientific literacy; ο Increase in analytical skills and critical thinking; ο Career in science; ο Build the pipeline of tomorrow’s biomedical researchers METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: High School seniors are paired with graduate and postdoc mentors through a matching process. Students spend approximately four hours/week in supervised instruction and research from a participating laboratory in addition to classroom experience at their High School. Mentors design research projects relating to the larger research framework of their laboratories. In light of COVID-19, approaches have been adjusted to maintain the program safely through a hybrid method of using the high school lab for hands-on learning and through the use of Go-Pros ’s to enable our mentors to video and narrate as they conduct experiments in their own labs to teach their mentees scientific methods and processes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Since inception, more than 400 students and mentors have participated in the Bench Tutorial’s program. This year we found a way to continue the program under COVID-19 restraints without putting anyone in harms way. Go-Pros have been essential for our program to maintain continuity for high school students who receive academic credit for this course. This program is also one of few in which our graduate students have the opportunity to serve as mentors in the scientific setting. Using Go-Pro’s will also enable us to provide teaching videos online for other academic institutions, so even in the absence of COVID-19 in the future, the continued use of these devices will still be of great value. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: High school students are afforded the ability to work on cutting edge research projects alongside graduate students and postdocs, who are afforded the chance to mentor and teach. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have successfully adjusted our methods for teaching through the use of Go-Pro technology.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work provides supporting evidence for the development of a novel immunosuppression therapy for transplant patients. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Our laboratory reported that inhibition of the kinase DNA-PK(cs) in mice delays allogeneic graft rejection in part by mitigating the induction of certain cytokines. We hypothesized that this was due to an inhibition of intracellular signaling programs in T cells and designed studies to identify the mechanism(s) by which this occurs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The immortalized Jurkat T cell line was used to evaluate the effect of the DNA-PK(cs) inhibitor NU7441 on T cell activation by PMA/Ionomycin or PMA/PHA. Mouse primary splenocytes also were used to demonstrate the universality and reproducibility of our observations. Initially, protein mass spectrometry of lysates from untreated and NU7441-treated Jurkat cells identified proteins of interest regulated by DNA-PK(cs) that play a role in T cell activation and cytokine production. CRISPR genome editing was used to validate a potential downstream target of DNA-PK(cs). Western blot, ELISA, and flow cytometry were used to document changes in protein levels with respect to treatments. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We observed that expression of the transcription factor Egr1 was highly induced after activation but attenuated after treatment with NU7441 in both Jurkat T cells and mouse splenocytes. Phosphorylated serine 301 of Egr1 was identified by mass spectrometry in stimulated cells and fits the kinase consensus sequence for DNA-PK(cs). Both an endogenous CRISPR-generated serine 301 to alanine mutant and expression of a plasmid-based S301A mutant resulted in an unstable form of Egr1 that was barely detectable. In contrast, expression of either a S301 to D or E phospho-mimetic mutant resulted in a stable form of the protein detectable by Western blot. Further evaluation of these mutants and Egr1 phosphorylation is underway to determine the mechanism by which DNA-PK(cs) kinase regulates protein stability. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: We previously reported a role for DNA-PK(cs) in immunomodulation. We now have evidence that this occurs in part through stabilization of Egr1. We believe this novel finding will lead to uncovering a broader role for DNA-PK(cs) as a mediator of protein stability in T cells and provide support for targeting DNA-PK(cs) in immunosuppression therapy.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Circadian disruption is known to cause significant human pathology but has not been evaluated in pancreas cancer carcinogenesis; through understanding how disruption of circadian rhythms can lead to pancreas cancer development and spread, preventive and therapeutic strategies can be devised. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal cancer due to early spread and poor response to therapy. Identifying factors driving PDAC growth could lead to new therapeutic strategies. Thus, we evaluated the extent to which circadian rhythm disruption, a factor strongly associated with cancer formation, contributes to PDAC pathogenesis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To achieve the objective, we evaluated mice with pancreas lineage Kras-mutation (KC mice), which are predisposed to develop the full spectrum of pancreas cancer precursor lesions (pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasia or PANIN-1, 2, 3) and PDAC. We subjected KC mice to a light-dark phase shift protocol known to induce circadian disruption (KCCD, n = 18), and another group to standard lighting conditions (KCNC, n = 31), with equal numbers of males and females in each group. The mice were allowed access to food and water ad libitum until sacrifice at age 9 months. Histopathologic evaluation of the pancreas was then performed to assess for pancreatic inflammation, pancreatic precursor lesions (PANIN) and PDAC. Fisher’s Exact Test was used to evaluate differences in incidence. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: As expected, both groups of mice demonstrated 100% incidence of chronic pancreatitis and PANIN-1 (low-grade precursor lesion) at age 9 months. This is consistent with the KC phenotype. However, the KCCD mice demonstrated a significant increase in acute pancreatic inflammation (61.1% vs 19.4%, p = 0.005) compared to KCNC mice. Furthermore, intermediate grade precursor lesions (PANIN-2) were also significantly increase in the KCCD mice (38.9% vs 6.5%, p = 0.006). Incidence of high-grade precursor lesions (PANIN-3, or carcinoma in situ: 22.2% vs 9.7%) and PDAC (27% vs 19%) were also increased, but these were not statistically significant. These results are notable given the established progression from higher grade premalignant PANIN lesions (PANIN-2, PANIN-3) to PDAC. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Insight into how circadian disruption leads to increased PANIN-2 formation and increase in acute inflammation may be advantageous for understanding circadian disruption in PDAC carcinogenesis. The circadian clock is present in immune cells and disruption can induce immune dysregulation. This mechanism will be evaluated in follow up studies.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Brain networks can be explored by delivering brief pulses of electrical current in one area while measuring responses in other areas, and this describes an open-source novel algorithm to carry out this exploration. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: If we focus on a single brain site and observe the average effect of stimulating each of many other brain sites, visually-apparent motifs in the temporal response shape emerge from adjacent stimulation sites. There are no existing approaches to identify and quantify the spatiotemporal structure of these motifs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Individual stimulation trials are correlated with one another, then a correlation-significance matrix quantifying similarity between stimulation sites is decomposed with non-negative matrix factorization, in which the inner dimension is iteratively reduced. The dimensionality reduction identifies stimulation sites that produce a common elicited temporal response, and linear kernel PCA is applied to obtain the robust profile of this response cluster. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We describe and illustrate a data-driven approach to determine characteristic spatiotemporal structure in these response shapes, summarized by a set of unique ‘basis profile curves’ (BPCs). Each BPC may be mapped back to underlying anatomy in a natural way, quantifying projection strength from each stimulation site using simple metrics. Our technique is demonstrated for an array of implanted brain surface electrodes in a human patient, and our code is shared at https://purl.stanford.edu/rc201dv0636. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: This framework enables straightforward interpretation of single-pulse brain stimulation data, and can be applied generically to explore the diverse milieu of interactions that comprise the connectome.