Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-4hhp2 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-20T01:21:43.933Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Protection Through Presence: UN Peacekeeping and the Costs of Targeting Civilians

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 August 2018

Get access

Abstract

Are UN peacekeepers effective in protecting civilians from violence? Existing studies examine this issue at the country level, thereby making it difficult to isolate the effect of peacekeepers and to assess the actual mechanism at work. We provide the first comprehensive evaluation of UN peacekeeping success in protecting civilians at the subnational level. We argue that peacekeepers through their sizable local presence can increase the political and military costs for warring actors to engage in civilian targeting. Since peacekeepers’ access to civilian populations rests on government consent, peacekeepers will primarily be effective in imposing these costs on rebel groups, but less so for government actors. To test these conjectures we combine new monthly data on the location of peacekeepers with data on the location and timing of civilian killings in Africa. Our findings suggest that local peacekeeping presence enhances the effectiveness of civilian protection against rebel abuse, but that UN peacekeeping struggles to protect civilians from government forces.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The IO Foundation 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

We thank Jonas Baumann and Mihai Croicu for excellent assistance with data collection and data management. We are grateful to a number of people who have provided valuable feedback and critique at ISA, Peace Science Society, ENCoRe: Uppsala Workshop on Geography and Armed Conflict, Folke Bernadotte Academy Workshop on Peacekeeping, Columbia University, Oxford University, and University College London. Special thanks to Stefano Costalli, Han Dorussen, David Lake, Pat Regan, Andrea Ruggeri, Ralph Sundberg, Kajsa Tidblad-Lundholm, and Julian Wucherphennig. We also thank the editors of IO and two anonymous reviewers for excellent comments and suggestions. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Folke Bernadotte Academy to enable data collection on the location of peacekeepers. The research was funded by grant P12-0787:1 from Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, Sweden, European Research Council grant no. ERC ADG 694640, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities. Author names are listed alphabetically and equal authorship applies.

References

Azam, Jean-Paul. 2006. On Thugs and Heroes: Why Warlords Victimize Their Own Civilians. Economics of Governance 7 (1):5373.Google Scholar
Balcells, Laia. 2010. Rivalry and Revenge: Violence Against Civilians in Conventional Civil Wars. International Studies Quarterly 54 (2):291313.Google Scholar
Beardsley, Kyle. 2011. Peacekeeping and the Contagion of Armed Conflict. Journal of Politics 73 (4):1051–64.Google Scholar
Beardsley, Kyle, and Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede. 2015. Peacekeeping as Conflict Containment. International Studies Review 17 (1):6789.Google Scholar
Bellamy, Alex J. 2009. Realizing the Responsibility to Protect. International Studies Perspective 10 (2):111–28.Google Scholar
Bischof, Daniel. 2017. New Graphic Schemes for Stata: Plotplain and Plottig. Stata Journal 17 (3):748–59.Google Scholar
Blyth, Simon, Groombridge, Brian, Lysenko, Igor, Miles, Lera, and Newton, Adrian 2002. Mountain Watch: Environmental Change and Sustainable Development in Mountains. Cambridge, UK: UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Center.Google Scholar
Bove, Vincenzo, and Ruggeri, Andrea. 2016. Kinds of Blue: Diversity in UN Peacekeeping Missions and Civilian Protection. British Journal of Political Science 46 (3):681700.Google Scholar
Burgoon, Brian, Ruggeri, Andrea, Schudel, Willem, and Manikkalingam, Ram. 2015. From Media Attention to Negotiated Peace: Human Rights Reporting and Civil War Duration. International Interactions 41 (2):226–55.Google Scholar
Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). 2005. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3): Population Count Grid. Palisades, NY. doi:10.7927/H4639MPP. Accessed 3 June 2013.Google Scholar
Costalli, Stefano. 2014. Does Peacekeeping Work? A Disaggregated Analysis of Deployment and Violence Reduction in the Bosnian War. British Journal of Political Science 44 (2):357–80.Google Scholar
Croicu, Mihai, and Sundberg, Ralph, 2015, UCDP GED Codebook version 4.0. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
DeMeritt, Jacqueline H.R. 2012. International Organizations and Government Killing: Does Naming and Shaming Save Lives? International Interactions 38 (5):597621.Google Scholar
Doyle, Michael W., and Sambanis, Nicholas. 2006. Making War and Building Peace: United Nations Peace Operations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Eck, Kristine, and Hultman, Lisa. 2007. One-Sided Violence Against Civilians in War: Insights from New Fatality Data. Journal of Peace Research 44 (2):233–46.Google Scholar
Fjelde, Hanne, and Hultman, Lisa. 2014. Weakening the Enemy: A Disaggregated Study of Violence Against Civilians in Africa. Journal of Conflict Resolution 58 (7):1230–57.Google Scholar
Fortna, Virgina Page. 2008. Does Peacekeeping Work? Shaping Belligerent's Choices after Civil War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Gilligan, Michael J., and Sergenti, Ernest J.. 2008. Do UN Interventions Cause Peace? Using Matching to Improve Causal Inference. Quarterly Journal of Political Science 3 (2):89122.Google Scholar
Gilligan, Michael, and Stedman, Stephen John. 2003. Where Do the Peacekeepers Go? International Studies Review 5 (4):3754.Google Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M. 2008. Sticks and Stones: Naming and Shaming the Human Rights Enforcement Problem. International Organization 62 (4):689716.Google Scholar
Holt, Victoria K., and Taylor, Glyn. 2009. Protecting Civilians in the Context of UN Peacekeeping Operations: Successes, Setbacks and Remaining Challenges. United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Available at <http://www.unocha.org/sites/dms/Documents/Protecting%20Civilians%20in%20the%20Context%20of%20UN%20Peacekeeping%20Operations.pdf>. Accessed 28 February 2018..+Accessed+28+February+2018.>Google Scholar
Howard, Lise Morjé. 2008. UN Peacekeeping in Civil Wars. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hultman, Lisa. 2013. UN Peace Operations and Protection of Civilians: Cheap Talk or Norm Implementation? Journal of Peace Research 50 (1):5973.Google Scholar
Hultman, Lisa, Kathman, Jacob, and Shannon, Megan. 2013. United Nations Peacekeeping and Civilian Protection in Civil War. American Journal of Political Science 57 (4):875–91.Google Scholar
Hultman, Lisa, Kathman, Jacob, and Shannon, Megan. 2014. Beyond Keeping Peace: United Nations Effectiveness in the Midst of Fighting. American Political Science Review 108 (4):737–53.Google Scholar
Human Rights Watch. 2014. UN: Investigate Alleged Darfur Cover-Ups. Strengthen Peacekeeping Mission's Rights Reporting, Civilian Protection. 25 June. Available at <http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/06/25/un-investigate-alleged-darfur-cover-ups>. Accessed 4 May 2016..+Accessed+4+May+2016.>Google Scholar
Humphreys, Macartan, and Weinstein, Jeremy M.. 2006. Handling and Manhandling Civilians in Civil War: Determinants of the Strategies of Warring Factions. American Political Science Review 100 (3):429–47.Google Scholar
Jo, Hyeran. 2015. Compliant Rebels: Rebel Groups and International Law in World Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Jo, Hyeran, and Simmons, Beth A.. 2016. Can the International Criminal Court Deter Atrocity? International Organization 70 (3):443–75.Google Scholar
Johnstone, Ian. 2011. Managing Consent in Contemporary Peacekeeping Operations. International Peacekeeping 18 (2):168–82.Google Scholar
Kathman, Jacob D. 2013. United Nations Peacekeeping Personnel Commitments, 1990–2011. Conflict Management and Peace Science 30 (5):532–49.Google Scholar
Kathman, Jacob D., and Wood, Reed M.. 2016. Stopping the Killing During the “Peace”: Peacekeeping and the Severity of Postconflict Civilian Victimization. Foreign Policy Analysis 12 (2):149–69.Google Scholar
Kalyvas, Stathis N. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Krain, Matthew. 2012. J'accuse! Does Naming and Shaming Perpetrators Reduce the Severity of Genocides or Politicides? International Studies Quarterly 56 (3):574–89.Google Scholar
Leuven, Edwin, and Sianesi, Barbara. 2003. PSMATCH2: Stata Module to Perform Full Mahalanobis and Propensity Score Matching, Common Support Graphing, and Covariate Imbalance Testing. Statistical Software Components S432001, Boston College Department of Economics.Google Scholar
Long, J. Scott, and Freese, Jeremy. 2014. Regression Models for Categorical Dependent Variables Using Stata. 3rd ed. College Station, TX: Stata Press.Google Scholar
Maddala, Gangadharrao S. 1983. Limited-Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Melander, Erik. 2009. Selected to Go Where Murderers Lurk? The Preventive Effect of Peacekeeping on Mass Killings of Civilians. Conflict Management and Peace Science 26 (4):389406.Google Scholar
Piccolino, Giulia, and Karlsrud, John. 2011. Withering Consent, but Mutual Dependency: UN Peace Operations and African Assertiveness. Conflict, Security and Development 11 (4):447–71.Google Scholar
Powers, Matthew, Reeder, Bryce W., and Townsen, Ashly Adam. 2015. Hot Spot Peacekeeping. International Studies Review 17 (1):4666.Google Scholar
Ruggeri, Andrea, Dorussen, Han, and Gizelis, Theodora-Ismene. 2016. On the Frontline Every Day? Subnational Deployment of United Nations Peacekeepers. British Journal of Political Science. Online first June 2016. <https://doi.org/10.1017/S000712341600017X>..>Google Scholar
Ruggeri, Andrea, Dorussen, Han, and Gizelis, Theodora-Ismene. 2017. Winning the Peace Locally: UN Peacekeeping and Local Conflict. International Organization 71 (1):163–85.Google Scholar
Ruggeri, Andrea, Gizelis, Theodora-Ismene, and Dorussen, Han. 2013. Managing Mistrust: An Analysis of Cooperation with UN Peacekeeping in Africa. Journal of Conflict Resolution 57 (3):387409.Google Scholar
Stanton, Jessica. 2016. Violence and Restraint in Civil War: Civilian Targeting in the Shadow of International Law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Sundberg, Ralph, and Melander, Erik. 2013. Introducing the UCDP Georeferenced Event Dataset (UCDP GED). Journal of Peace Research 50 (4):523–32.Google Scholar
Tollefsen, Andreas Forø, Bahgat, Karim, Nordkvelle, Jonas and Buhaug, Halvard. 2015. PRIO-GRID v.2.0 Codebook. Peace Research Institute, Oslo.Google Scholar
Tollefsen, Andreas Forø, Strand, Håvard, and Buhaug, Halvard. 2012. PRIO-GRID: A Unified Spatial Data Structure. Journal of Peace Research 49 (2):363–74.Google Scholar
Tull, Denis M. 2013. When They Overstay Their Welcome: UN Peacekeepers in Africa. Journal of International Peacekeeping 17 (3–4):179200.Google Scholar
United Nations. 2000. UN General Assembly and Security Council. Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (The Brahimi Report). A/55/305-S2000/809.Google Scholar
United Nations. 2004a. Third Progress Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission in Liberia. S/2004/430.Google Scholar
United Nations. 2004b. Third Special Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. S/2004/650.Google Scholar
United Nations. 2005. Seventeenth Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. S/2005/167.Google Scholar
United Nations. 2008. Report of the Secretary-General on the Deployment of the African Union–United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur. S/2008/304.Google Scholar
United Nations. 2014. National Accounts Main Aggregates Database. Available at <https://unstats.un.org/unsd/snaama/Introduction.asp>. Accessed 16 December 2016..+Accessed+16+December+2016.>Google Scholar
Valentino, Benjamin, Huth, Paul, and Balch-Lindsay, Dylan. 2004. Draining the Sea: Mass Killing and Guerrilla Warfare. International Organization 58 (2):375407.Google Scholar
Ward, Michael D., and Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede. 2008. Spatial Regression Models. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Weidman, Nils B. 2016. A Closer Look at Reporting Bias in Conflict Event Data. American Journal of Political Science 60 (1):206–18Google Scholar
Weinstein, Jeremy M. 2007. Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Wood, Reed M. 2010. Rebel Capability and Strategic Violence Against Civilians. Journal of Peace Research 47 (5):601–14.Google Scholar
Wucherpfennig, Julian, Phillip, Hunziker, and Lars-Erik, Cederman. 2016. Who Inherits the State? Colonial Rule and Postcolonial Rule. American Journal of Political Science 60 (4):882–98.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Fjelde et al. supplementary material

Fjelde et al. supplementary material 1

Download Fjelde et al. supplementary material(File)
File 5.5 MB