Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-c4f8m Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-25T04:42:48.303Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Theory and experimental validation of a Class E PA above theoretical maximum frequency

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 June 2009

Elisa Cipriani*
Affiliation:
Electronic Engineering Department, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma, Italy.
Paolo Colantonio
Affiliation:
Electronic Engineering Department, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma, Italy.
Franco Giannini
Affiliation:
Electronic Engineering Department, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma, Italy.
Rocco Giofré
Affiliation:
Electronic Engineering Department, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma, Italy.
*
Corresponding author: E. Cipriani E-mail: elisa.cipriani@uniroma2.it

Abstract

This paper reports an investigation and a proposed solution to design Class E power amplifiers above the theoretical maximum frequency allowed by the adopted active device. Starting from the traditional time domain analysis, a numerical algorithm has been developed and presented in order to extend Class E feasibility through the optimization of the output voltage waveform. A hybrid Class E amplifier in laterally diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) technology has been designed and measured. The final amplifier shows an output power of more than 10 W with an associated efficiency of 49% (power added efficiency (PAE) = 45%) over a 100-MHz bandwidth around 2.14 GHz.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press and the European Microwave Association 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

[1]Sokal, N.O.; Sokal, A.D.: Class E – a new class of high efficiency tuned single ended switching power amplifiers. IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, 10 (1975), 168176.Google Scholar
[2]Ui, N.; Sano, S.: A 45% drain efficiency, −50 dBc ACLR GaN HEMT Class-E amplifier with DPD for W-CDMA base station, in 2006 IEEE International Microwave Symposium Digest, June 2006, 718721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[3]Wang, Narisi; Peng, Xinli; Yousefzadeh, V.; Maksimovic, D.; Pajic, S.; Popovic, Z.: Linearity of X-band class-E power amplifiers in EER operation. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-53, 3 (Part 2) (2005), 10961102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[4]Mader, T.B.; Bryerton, E.W.; Markovic, M.; Forman, M.; Popovic, Z.: Switched-mode high-efficiency microwave power amplifiers in a free-space power-combiner array. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-46, 10 (Part 1) (1998), 13911398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[5]Popp, J.; Lie, D.Y.C.; Wang, Feipeng; Kimball, D.; Larson, L.: Fully-integrated highly-efficient RF Class E SiGe power amplifier with an envelope-tracking technique for EDGE applications, in Proc. Radio and Wireless Symp., January 2006, 231234.Google Scholar
[6]Milosevic, D.; van der Tang, J.; van Roermund, A.: A high-efficiency HBT-based class-E power amplifier for 2 GHz, in Proc. Gallium Arsenide and Other Semiconductor Application Symp., 2005, EGAAS 2005, Paris, France, October 2005, 4548.Google Scholar
[7]Litwin, A.; Chen, Q.; Johansson, J.; Ma, G.; Olofsson, L.A.; Perugupalli, P.: High power LDMOS technology for wireless infrastructure, in Proc. Gallium Arsenide Applications Symp., GAAS 2001, London, September 2001.Google Scholar
[8]Colantonio, P.; Giannini, F.; Giofrè, R.; Yarleque Medina, M.A.; Schreurs, D.; Nauwelaers, B.: High frequency Class E design methodologies, in Proc. Gallium Arsenide Applications Symp., GAAS 2005, Paris, France, October 2005, 329331.Google Scholar
[9]Raab, F.H.: Class-E, Class-C and Class-F power amplifiers based upon a finite number of harmonics. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-49 (2001), 14621468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[10]Cipriani, E.; Colantonio, P.; Giannini, F.; Giofrè, R.: Optimization of Class E power amplifiers above theoretical maximum frequency, in Proc. European Microwave Conf., EuMC 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherland, October 2008, 15411544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar