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Investigating electromagnetic scattering characteristics based on a nonlinear sea surface

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 November 2023

Xunchao Liu
College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China
Hongli Miao*
College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China
Jiajie Chen
College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China
Corresponding author: Hongli Miao; Email:


Establishing a precise electromagnetic scattering model of surfaces is of great significance for comprehending the underlying mechanics of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. To describe surface electromagnetic scattering more comprehensively, this paper established a nonlinear integral equation model with the Creamer model and bispectrum (IEM-C). Based on the IEM-C model, the effect of parameters, such as radar wave incidence angle, wind speed and direction of sea surfaces, and different polarization modes on the backscattering coefficients of C-band radar waves, was systematically evaluated. The results show that the IEM-C model can characterize both the vertical nonlinear features due to wave interactions and the horizontal nonlinear features due to the wind direction. The sensitivity of the sea surface backscattering coefficient in the IEM-C model to nonlinear effects varies with different incident angles. At the incident angle of 30°, the IEM-C model exhibits the most significant nonlinear effects. The nonlinear effects of the IEM-C model vary under different wind speeds. By comparing with the measured data, it is proved that the IEM-C model is closer to the real sea surface scattering situation than the IEM model.

Research Paper
© The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press in association with the European Microwave Association.

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