Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-8tjh8 Total loading time: 0.223 Render date: 2021-10-19T03:51:52.015Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Maritime Archaeology and Underwater Cultural Heritage in the Disputed South China Sea

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 December 2018

Elena Perez-Alvaro
Affiliation:
Researcher and Managing Director, Licit Cultural Heritage, London, United Kingdom; Email: licitculturalheritage@gmail.com
Craig Forrest
Affiliation:
Professor and Director, Marine and Shipping Law Unit, TC Beirne School of Law, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia; Email: c.forrest@law.uq.edu.au

Abstract:

China’s broad geopolitical strategy and positioning for global influence includes its averred legal position in relation to its sovereignty and jurisdiction in the South China Sea. A response to this legal position was the Philippines’ initiation of arbitral proceedings constituted under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Despite the non-participation of China in these proceedings, the arbitral decision of 2016 clarified a number of legal provisions pertinent to the ongoing territorial and maritime disputes in the South China Sea. This decision impacted directly on China’s assertion of sovereign and jurisdictional historical title or rights, which, in part, relies on evidence obtained from underwater cultural heritage and the associated maritime archaeology. This article critically evaluates China’s maritime archaeology program and its policy with respect to underwater cultural heritage in light of the 2016 arbitral decision and the underlying international law of the sea. While recognizing that China’s policy is not inconsistent with its broader heritage policy, and its national approach to the protection of underwater cultural heritage, this article argues that this cannot be used to support China’s South China Sea claims and is not only misplaced, such as to pose a risk to the archaeological record, but also inconstant with international developments in the form of the 2001 United Nations Convention of the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage.

Type
Article
Copyright
Copyright © International Cultural Property Society 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adams, Jeff. 2013. “The Role of Underwater Archaeology in Framing and Facilitating the Chinese National Strategic Agenda.” In Cultural Heritage Politics in China, edited by Blumenfield, T. and Silverman, H., 261–82. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amer, Ramses. 2014. “China, Vietnam, and the South China Sea: Disputes and Dispute Management.” Ocean Development and International Law 45, no. 1: 1740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, David, and Van Logchem, Youri. 2014. “Rights and Obligations in Areas of Overlapping Maritime Claims.” In The South China Sea Disputes and Law of the Sea, edited by Jayakumar, S., Koh, T., and Beckman, R., 192228. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
Beckman, Robert. 2010. “South China Sea: How China Could Clarify Its Claims.” S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies Commentary No. CO10116.Google Scholar
Beckman, Robert. 2013. “International Law, UNCLOS and the South China Sea in Considerations.” In Beyond Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea, edited by Beckman, R., Townsend-Gault, I., Schofield, C., and Davenport, T., 4791. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blum, Yehuda Z. 2012. Historic Titles in International Law. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Bonnet, François-Xavier. 2015. “Archaeology and Patriotism: Long Term Chinese Strategies in the South China Sea.” Paper presented at Southeast Asia Sea Conference, 27 March 2015, Ateneo Law Center, Makati.Google Scholar
Brownlie, Ian, and Crawford, James. 2012. Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Catley, Bob, and Keliat, Makmur. 1997. Spratlys: The Dispute in the South China Sea. Farnham, UK: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Charney, Jonathan I. 1999. “Rocks That Cannot Sustain Human Habitation.” American Journal of International Law 93, no. 4: 863–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falkenhausen, Lothar von. 1995. “The Regionalist Paradigm in Chinese Archaeology.” In Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology, edited by Kohl, P. L. and Fawcett, C., 198217. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Flecker, Michael. 2002. “The Ethics, Politics and Realities of Maritime Archaeology in Southeast Asia.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 21, no. 1: 1224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flecker, Michael, 2015, “Early Voyaging in the South Chian Sea: Implications on Territorial Claim.” Nalanda-Sriwijaya Centre Working Paper Series No. 19.Google Scholar
Fu, Kuen-chen. 2003. “Chinese Perspective on the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage.” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 18, no. 1: 109–26.Google Scholar
Fu, Kuen-chen. 2006. “China (including Taiwan).” In The Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage: National Perspectives in Light of the UNESCO Convention 2001, edited by Dromgoole, S., 1741. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gao, Zhiguo. 1994. “The South China Sea: From Conflict to Cooperation?Ocean Development and International Law 25, no. 3: 345–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gruber, Stefan. 2008. “Protecting China’s Cultural Heritage Sites in Times of Rapid Change: Current Developments, Practice and Law.” Sydney Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08/93.Google Scholar
Guan, Ang Cheng. 2000. “The South China Sea Dispute Revisited.” Australian Journal of International Affairs 54, no. 2: 201–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gungwu, Wang. 1958. “The Nanhai Trade: A Study of the Early History of Chinese Trade in the South China Sea.” Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 31, no. 2: 1135.Google Scholar
Hall, William E., and Higgins, Alexander P.. 1917. A Treatise on International Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Harrell, Stevan. 2013. “China’s Tangled Web of Heritage.” In Cultural Heritage Politics in China, edited by Blumenfield, T. and Silverman, H., 285–93. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatcher, Michael, Thorncroft, Antony, and De Rham, Max. 1987. The Nanking Cargo. London: Hamish Hamilton.Google Scholar
Hill, Norman L. 1945. Claims to Territory in International Law and Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hoagland, Porter. 1999. “China.” In Legal Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage: National and International Perspectives, edited by Dromgoole, S., 3536. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.Google Scholar
Hu, Nien-Tsu Alfred. 2010. “South China Sea: Troubled Waters or a Sea of Opportunity?Ocean Development and International Law 41, no. 3: 203–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jennings, Robert Y. 1963. The Acquisition of Territory in International Law. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Jinming, Li, and Dexia, Li. 2003. “The Dotted Line on the Chinese Map of the South China Sea: A Note.” Ocean Development and International Law 34, no. 3–4: 287–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joyner, Christopher C. 1999. “The Spratly Islands Dispute in the South China Sea: Problems, Policies, and Prospects for Diplomatic Accommodation.” Investigating Confidence-Building Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region 28: 53108.Google Scholar
Keyuan, Zou. 1999. “The Chinese Traditional Maritime Boundary Line in the South China Sea and Its Legal Consequences for the Resolution of the Dispute over the Spratly Islands.” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 14, no. 1: 2755.Google Scholar
Lin, Cheng-yi. 1997. “Taiwan’s South China Sea Policy.” Asian Survey 37, no. 4: 323–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacGibbon, Iain C. 1954. “The Scope of Acquiescence in International Law.” British Year Book of International Law 31: 143–86.Google Scholar
Miller, George L. 1992. “The Second Destruction of the Geldermalsen.” Historical Archaeology 26, no. 4: 124–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morton, Brian, and Blackmore, Graham. 2001. “South China Sea.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 42, no. 12: 1236–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Keefe, Patrick J. 2002. “Negotiating the Future of the Underwater Cultural Heritage.” In Illicit Antiquities: The Theft of Culture and the Extinction of Archaeology, edited by Brodie, Neil and Tubb, Kathryn Walker, 137–61. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Oxman, Bernard H. 2014. “Offshore Features Subject to Claims of Sovereignty.” In The South China Sea Disputes and Law of the Sea, edited by Jayakumar, S., Koh, T., and Beckman, R., 819. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
Park, Choon-ho. 1978. “The South China Sea Disputes: Who Owns the Islands and the Natural Resources?Ocean Development and International Law 5, no. 1: 2759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pitchford, Susan. 2008. Identity Tourism: Imaging and Imagining the Nation, vol. 10. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group.Google Scholar
Rothwell, Donald R., and Stephens., Tim 2016. The International Law of the Sea. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
Schofield, Clive. 2013. “What’s at Stake in the South China Sea? Geographical and Geopolitical Considerations.” In Beyond Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea edited by Beckman, R., Townsend-Gault, I., Schofield, C., and Davenport, T., 1145. Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shaw, Malcolm N. 2014. International Law, 7th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Shearer, Ivan A., ed. 1994. Starke’s International Law, 11th ed. London and Boston: Butterworths.Google Scholar
Strati, Anastasia. 1995. The Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage: An Emerging Objective of the Contemporary Law of the Sea. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
Valencia, Mark J, Van Dyke, Jon M., and Ludwig, Noel A.. 1997. Sharing the Resources of the South China Sea, vol. 31. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
Viejo-Rose, Dacia. 2011. Reconstructing Spain: Cultural Heritage and Memory after Civil War. Sussex: Sussex Academic Press.Google Scholar
Wells, Tony. 1995. Shipwrecks and Sunken Treasure in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Times Editions.Google Scholar
Zhao, Hongye. 1992. “Recent Developments in the Legal Protection of Historic Shipwrecks in China.” Ocean Development and International Law 23, no. 4: 305–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhong, Hui. 2015. “Legal Protection of Chinese Relics: A Justification for the Return.” Art Antiquity and Law 20, no. 1: 4769.Google Scholar
2
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Maritime Archaeology and Underwater Cultural Heritage in the Disputed South China Sea
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Maritime Archaeology and Underwater Cultural Heritage in the Disputed South China Sea
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Maritime Archaeology and Underwater Cultural Heritage in the Disputed South China Sea
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *