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Understanding the Nature and Context of Domestic Homicide Committed by Female Victims of Domestic Violence in Iran: Examining Current and Alternative Criminal Justice Responses

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 November 2020

Mahbube Amini*
Affiliation:
Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
*
*Corresponding Author: Mahbube Amini, Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. E-mail: mamini@yazd.ac.ir
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Abstract

Domestic homicide is the most serious type of violence in a marital relationship, which is punishable by the death penalty as retaliation (Qisas) according to the Penal Code of Iran. The present paper analyzes why a woman commits this crime (the killing of her husband), examining the killer’s status in a marital relationship. Data show that the killers had been victims of domestic violence for 10–25 years. In other words, domestic homicide has a direct relationship with the killer being victimized by domestic violence, including physical (assault and battery), mental (insult and obscenity), sexual and sometimes financial violence that may result from addiction. The most important reason for domestic homicide is the failure to provide legal and social protection for women. This incites hatred for the husband, which arises from repeated victimization in a coercive relationship with the husband. These women cannot end this coercive relationship because of insufficient or unavailable legal, social or family protection. Moreover, the process of divorce for a woman in Iran is quite complex. This article also examines the potential defense of mental capacity and self-defense and its place in the Iranian penal code. Based on this research, this article argues for the need for the legislature to review the death penalty for this kind of crime and to consider other possible responses to such murders.

Abstracto

Abstracto

El homicidio doméstico es el tipo de violencia más grave en una relación marital, que se castiga con la pena de muerte como represalia (Qisas) según el código penal de Irán. Este artículo analiza por qué una mujer comete este crimen: el asesinato de su marido, examinando el estado del asesino en una relación marital. Los datos muestran que los asesinos han sido víctimas de violencia doméstica durante 10 a 25 años. En otras palabras, el homicidio doméstico tiene una relación directa con el asesino que es víctima de violencia doméstica, que incluye violencia física -agresión; mental -insulto y obscenidad; violencia sexual y, a veces, financiera que puede resultar de la adicción. La razón más importante del homicidio doméstico es la falta de protección legal y social para las mujeres. Esto incita al odio hacia el marido, que surge de la victimización repetida en una relación coercitiva con el marido. Estas mujeres no pueden poner fin a esta relación coactiva debido a una protección legal, social o familiar insuficiente o no disponible. Además, el proceso de divorcio de una mujer en Irán es bastante complejo. Este artículo también examina la posible defensa de la capacidad mental y la autodefensa y su lugar en el código penal iraní. Con base en esta investigación, este artículo defiende la necesidad de que la legislatura revise la pena de muerte para este tipo de delitos y considere otras posibles respuestas a tales asesinatos.

Abstrait

Abstrait

L’homicide domestique est le type de violence le plus grave dans une relation conjugale, qui est passible de la peine de mort en représailles (Qisas) selon le code pénal iranien. Cet article analyse pourquoi une femme commet ce crime (le meurtre de son mari), examinant le statut du tueur dans une relation conjugale. Les données montrent que les tueurs sont victimes de violence domestique depuis 10 à 25 ans. En d’autres termes, l’homicide familial a une relation directe avec le meurtrier victime de violence domestique, y compris les agressions physiques et les voies de fait, les violences mentales et obscénités, les violences sexuelles et parfois financières qui peuvent résulter de la dépendance. La raison la plus importante de l’homicide domestique est l’incapacité de fournir une protection juridique et sociale aux femmes. Cela incite à la haine pour le mari, qui découle d’une victimisation répétée dans une relation coercitive avec le mari. Ces femmes ne peuvent pas mettre fin à cette relation coercitive en raison d’une protection juridique, sociale ou familiale insuffisante ou indisponible. De plus, le processus de divorce pour une femme en Iran est assez complexe. Cet article examine également la défense potentielle de la capacité mentale et de la légitime défense et sa place dans le code pénal iranien. Sur la base de cette recherche, cet article fait valoir la nécessité pour le législateur de revoir la peine de mort pour ce type de crime et d’envisager d’autres réponses possibles à ces meurtres.

抽象

抽象

家庭杀人是婚姻关系中最严重的暴力类型,根据伊朗刑法,应处以死刑作为报复(Qisas)。这篇论文分析了一个女人为什么要犯下这种罪行-杀死丈夫,研究了婚姻关系中凶手的身份。数据显示,杀手已成为家庭暴力的受害者10-25年。换句话说,家庭凶杀与杀人犯受家庭暴力有直接关系,家庭暴力包括成瘾可能导致的身体暴力和殴打,精神侮辱和淫秽,性暴力,有时甚至是经济暴力。家庭凶杀的最重要原因是未能为妇女提供法律和社会保护。这激起了对丈夫的仇恨,这种仇恨是由于与丈夫的强制性关系中屡屡受害而引起的。这些妇女由于法律,社会或家庭保护的不足或缺乏而无法结束这种胁迫性关系。此外,伊朗一名妇女离婚的过程十分复杂。本文还研究了智力能力和自卫的潜在辩护及其在伊朗刑法中的地位。基于这项研究,本文认为立法机关有必要审查此类犯罪的死刑,并考虑对此类谋杀案采取其他可能的对策。

نبذة مختصرة

نبذة مختصرة

القتل المنزلي هو أخطر أنواع العنف في العلاقة الزوجية ، ويعاقب عليه بالإعدام باعتباره انتقامًا (Qisas) وفقًا لقانون العقوبات الإيراني. تحلل هذه الورقة سبب ارتكاب المرأة لهذه الجريمة - قتل زوجها وفحص حالة القاتل في علاقة زوجية. تشير البيانات إلى أن القتلة كانوا ضحايا للعنف المنزلي لمدة 10-25 عامًا. بعبارة أخرى ، للقتل المنزلي علاقة مباشرة بالقاتل الذي يقع ضحية للعنف المنزلي ، بما في ذلك الاعتداء الجسدي والضرب ، والإهانة العقلية والفحش ، والعنف الجنسي والمالي أحيانًا الذي قد ينجم عن الإدمان. أهم سبب للقتل المنزلي هو عدم توفير الحماية القانونية والاجتماعية للمرأة. وهذا يحرض على كراهية الزوج ، والتي تنشأ من تكرار الإيذاء في علاقة قسرية مع الزوج. لا يمكن لهؤلاء النساء إنهاء هذه العلاقة القسرية بسبب عدم كفاية أو عدم توفر الحماية القانونية أو الاجتماعية أو الأسرية. علاوة على ذلك ، فإن عملية طلاق المرأة في إيران معقدة للغاية. تبحث هذه المقالة أيضًا في إمكانية الدفاع عن القدرات العقلية والدفاع عن النفس ومكانها في قانون العقوبات الإيراني. بناءً على هذا البحث ، يناقش هذا المقال ضرورة قيام الهيئة التشريعية بمراجعة عقوبة الإعدام بالنسبة لهذا النوع من الجرائم والنظر في الردود المحتملة الأخرى على جرائم القتل هذه.

Type
Article
Copyright
© 2020 International Society of Criminology

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