Published online by Cambridge University Press: 09 May 2014
Several studies have demonstrated the impact of oil in Nigeria, with recent literature showing that modern Nigeria can hardly be understood without oil. There is now an abundance of literature to present an overview of the subject. In this first piece, the modest intention is to indicate the range of literature as well as identify the broad themes. An attempt is also made to locate the themes in their historical context in order to indicate some of the major changes in the literature. Subsequent essays will identify the paradigmatic shifts in the literature, as well as the major gaps that exist. In addition, we hope to argue in another essay that large bodies of work exist to sustain reliable comparative studies.
The introduction to this essay sets out the themes to be discussed, and each receives separate attention. These themes include the impact of the oil industry on Nigeria's workers, environment, and communities within the oil rich Niger Delta. They also include the impact of oil revenue on Nigeria's foreign policy, national development, and political stability. An examination of the literature from the 1950s to the present reveals several clear patterns of change. The literature begins with an optimistic view of the oil industry, shifts toward in-depth discussions during the 1970s and 1980s on the impact of the oil shock, and currently resides on issues of environmental destruction and human rights violations incurred from the oil industry. The synthesis presented here privileges research-based essays and books.
2 For an extensive list of sources on court cases, see Frynas, Jedrzej Georg, Oil in Nigeria: Conflict and Litigation between Oil Companies and Village Communities (London, 2000)Google Scholar.
4 Nwogu, E.D., “Oil in Nigeria,” Nigerian Geographical Journal 3(1960), 15–25Google Scholar; Webb, S.J., “Nigeria as an Oil Producer,” New Commonwealth 38(1960), 716–17Google Scholar; Robinson, M. S., “Nigerian Oil: Prospects and Perspectives,” Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies 6(1964), 219–29Google Scholar.
5 Aluko, Samuel A. and Ijere, M.O., “The Economics of Mineral Oil,” Nigerian Journal of Economics and Social Studies 7(1965), 209–20Google Scholar; Madujibeya, S.A., “The Nigerian Petroleum Industry: Its Development and Economic Significance” (PhD, London, 1969)Google Scholar; Igbu, J.E., “The Development of the Port of Warri” (BA, Ife, 1969)Google Scholar.
6 Falola, Toyin, Development Planning and Decolonization in Nigeria (Gainesville, 1996)Google Scholar.
10 Diallo, Mourtada, “Energy Resources and Utilization,” Conference on National Reconstruction and Development in Nigeria (Ibadan, 1969)Google Scholar.
12 Falola, Toyin and Ihonvbere, Julius, eds., Nigeria and the International Capitalist System (Boulder, 1988)Google Scholar.
17 Abiodun, Josephine Olu, “Locational Effects of the Civil War on the Petroleum Industry,” Geographical Review 64(1974), 253–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Van Dyke, Lester, “Nigeria's Civil War Hurting Oil Firms,” Oil and Gas Journal 17(1968), 58–59Google Scholar; Cronje, Suzanne, “Biafrans Hamper Nigeria's Vital Oil Output,” The Times [London] (16 August 1969)Google Scholar; Nafziger, Wayne, “The Economic Impact of the Nigerian Civil War,” JMAS 10(1972), 223–45Google Scholar; Schatz, Sayre, “The Impact of the Civil War on the Nigerian Petroleum Industry,” Journal of Business and Social Studies 2(1969), 65–74Google Scholar.
18 R.O. Ekundare, “Political Economy.”
19 Cronje, Suzanne, “Britain, Mercy and Oil Wells” in The World and Nigeria: The Diplomatic History of the Biafran War, 1967-1970, ed. Cronje, Suzanne (London, 1972), 131–63Google Scholar; Schatz, Sayre, “A Look at the Balance Sheet: Petroleum Smooths the Way for Economic Recovery from the Effects of the War, but What About the Future?” Africa Report 15(1970), 18–21Google Scholar.
22 Ikein, Augustine A., The Impact of Oil on a Developing Country: The Case of Nigeria (New York, 1990)Google Scholar; Afolabi, J.A. and Hovell, R. Bladel, The Effect of a Fall in the Price of Oil on an Oil-Exporting Country: The Case of Nigeria (Manchester, 1988)Google Scholar; Forrest, TomPolitics and Economic Development in Nigeria (Boulder, 1995)Google Scholar.
21 See, among others, Baker, Jonathan, “Oil and African Development,” JMAS 15(1977), 175–212Google Scholar; Akinladun, Rnfus Olu, “Oil in Nigeria: A Study in Political Economy of Development” (PhD, Howard, 1976)Google Scholar; Madujibeya, S.A., “Oil and Nigeria's Economic Development,” African Affairs 75(1976), 284–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Madujibeya, S.A., “Nigerian Oil: A Review of Nigeria's Petroleum Industry,” Standard and Chartered Review (May 1975), 2–10Google Scholar; Meyer, R.K. and Pearson, S.R., “Contribution of Petroleum to Nigerian Economic Development” in Commodity Exports and African Economic Development, Pearson, S.R.et al (Lexington, 1974), 155–78Google Scholar.
26 Lazar, Von A. and Duersten, A.L., “Oil and Development Planning: Implications for Nigeria,” Energy Policy (December 1976), 330–42Google Scholar; Onoh, Nigerian Oil Economy; Turner, Terisa, “The Working of the Nigerian National Oil Corporation” in Administration for Development in Nigeria, ed. Collins, Paul (Lagos, 1980), 99–134Google Scholar. See also “Nigeria: NNPC Background and the Role in Nigerian Oil Industry,” OPEC Bulletin 16(1985), 24-35, 90Google Scholar.
27 Aluko, Olajide, “Nationalization of the Assets of British Petroleum” in Essays in Nigerian Foreign Policy, ed. Aluko, Olajide (London, 1981), 213–29Google Scholar.
28 Usman, Yusufu Bala, For the Liberation of Nigeria: Essays and Lectures 1969-1978 (London, 1979)Google Scholar.
29 Usoro, Eno J., “Foreign Oil Companies and Recent Nigerian Petroleum Policies,” Nigerian Journal of Economics and Social Studies 14(1972), 301–14Google Scholar; Atsegbua, Lawrence Asekome, “A Critical Appraisal of the Modes of Acquisition of Oil Rights in Nigeria,” (PhD, Alberta, 1992)Google Scholar. See also Igweonwu, Isaac C., “The Politics of Transformation: Nigeria, OPEC, and the Multinational Corporations” (PhD, Massachusetts, 1984)Google Scholar.
30 Turner, Terisa, “Transfer of Oil Technology and Nigerian States,” Development and Change 7(1976), 353–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar; idem., “Nigeria: Imperialism, Oil Technology and the Comprador State” in Oil and Class Struggle, ed. Peter Nore and Terisa Turner (London, 1980), 199-223; idem., “The Political Economy of Technological Transfer to the Nigerian Oil Industry,” (Lagos, 1973); Edoho, Felix M., “Technology Relocation and Structural Dependency: The Nigerian Experience with the Petroleum Industry,” (PhD, Delaware, 1991)Google Scholar.
32 Okongwu, Stephen, “Competency Requirements for Training and Development Instructors in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry for the 1990s,” (PhD, Minnesota, 1995)Google Scholar.
33 Ugochukwu, Onyeama, “Oilgate: Negotiation not Confrontation,” Africa Economic Digest (22 August 1980)Google Scholar; Iroh, Eddie, “The ‘Oilgate’ Scandal,” Africa 107(1980), 39, 41Google Scholar; “Scandal that Never Was,” West Africa (18 August 1980), 1535Google Scholar; Onoh, Nigerian Oil Economy.
34 See, for instance, Quinlan, Martin, “Oil: The Hirst 20 Years,” New African (October 1980), 98–99Google Scholar.
36 Muonekwu, Ike Jude, “Impact of the Naira Devaluation on Nigeria's Foreign Trade and Investment,” (DBA, Golden Gate, 1997)Google Scholar.
37 Watts, Michael, ed., State, Oil, and Agriculture in Nigeria (Berkeley, 1987)Google Scholar; Ihouvbere, Julius, “Oil Boom and Food Production in Nigeria,” West Africa (16 December 1982), 3145–48Google Scholar; Aham, L. Obii, “Oil Politics and Development: An Analysis of the Impact on Agriculture in One OPEC Nation-Nigeria,” (MA, Houston, 1982)Google Scholar; and Bachrach, Elena, “Oil and Development: The Case of Agriculture in Nigeria and Algeria,” (PhD, Northwestern, 1989)Google Scholar.
38 Okolie, Andrew C., “Oil Revenues, International Credits, and Food Policies in Nigeria, 1970-1992,” (PhD, Toronto, 1995)Google Scholar; Gbor, John, “The Impact of Oil Wealth on Nigerian Agricultural Production,” (PhD, Indiana, 1991)Google Scholar; Igber, Joe O., “The Impact of Oil Revenues and Government Programs on Agricultural Development in Nigeria,” (PhD, Hawaii, 1993)Google Scholar.
39 Berry, Sara, “Oil and Disappearing Peasantry: Accumulation, Differentiation, and Underdevelopment,” African Economic History 13(1984), 1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Lubeck, Paul, “Petroleum and Proletarianization: Life History of a Muslim Worker,” African Economic History 18(1989), 99–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar; idem., “Labour in Kano since the Petroleum Boom,” Review of African Political Economy 13(1979), 37-45.
40 Badiru, Pade, “Oil Revenue and the Urban-Rural Dichotomy in Nigerian Development,” African Urban Studies 17(1983/1984), 31–42Google Scholar; Ekekwe, Eme N., “Notes on Oil and Contemporary Urban Culture in Nigeria,” African Urban Studies 17(1983/1984), 19–30Google Scholar; Ekpenyong, Stephen, “Oil Boom and Urban Crisis: A Prolegomenon of Nigerian Situation,” African Urban Studies 17(1983/1984), 5–17Google Scholar; Izeogu, Chukudi, “The Ecological Effects of the Oil Industry on Urban Centers in the Rivers States, Nigeria,” African Urban Studies 17(1983/1984), 43–52Google Scholar; and Salau, A.T., “The Oil Industry and the Urban Economy: the Case of Port Harcourt Metropolis,” African Urban Studies 17(1983/1984), 75–84Google Scholar.
41 Ihonvbere, Julius, “Oil Revenues and Rural-Urban Inequity in Nigeria,” Paper presented at the 12th International Conference of the Institute Co-Operation and Development, Ottawa, 1981Google Scholar.
42 Bevan, Davidet al., Nigeria: Policy Responses to Shocks, 1970-1990 (San Francisco, 1992)Google Scholar; Gelb, Alan H., Oil Windfalls: Blessing or Curse? (Oxford, 1988)Google Scholar; Lukman, Alhaji Rilwanu, “Nigerian Oil Policy Responding to Challenge of 1990s,” OPEC Bulletin (November 1986), 5–7Google Scholar.
44 Getb, Oil Windfalls.
46 Pinto, B., “Nigeria During and After the Oil Boom: A Policy of Comparison with Indonesia,” World Bank Economic Review 1(1987), 419–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Regoli, Fancois, “Integrating Social Transformation in the World Economy: The Case of Indonesia and Nigeria,” (PhD, Ottawa, 1996)Google Scholar.
47 Bachrach, “Oil and Development.”
49 Bevan et al, Nigeria: Policy Responses; Salehi-Isfahani, Djavad, “Oil Exports, Real Exchange Rate Appreciation, and Demand for Imports in Nigeria,” Economic Development and Cultural Change 31(1989), 495–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Nyatepe-Coo, Akorlie, “Nigerian Macro Policy Responses to the Oil Price Shocks and Monetary Aspects of the ‘Dutch Disease,’” (PhD, Northern Illinois, 1989)Google Scholar; Struthers, “Nigerian Oil and Exchange Rates.”
50 Collins, May N., “Dutch Disease Economics, Rent-Seeking Theory and the Nigerian Food Sector,” (PhD, Southern California, 1993)Google Scholar; and Ajoku, Kingsley I., “Tradables and Nontradables, Oil Boom, and the Dutch Disease: A Comparative Study of Nigeria and Indonesia,” (PhD, Howard, 1992)Google Scholar.
52 Ikhide, Jimoh E., “Terms of Trade of Some Oil-Exporting Developing Nations: Their Economic Development Prospects (with a Focus on Nigeria),” (PhD, Fordham, 1998)Google Scholar.
55 Iyanda, Adebayo E., “Nigeria's Social and Economic Development: The Structure of Dependence on Oil,” (PhD Howling Green State, 1987)Google Scholar; Jideonwo, John A., “Optimal Utilization of Oil Revenues in Economic Development: An Application to Dynamic Multi-Sectoral Planning for Nigeria,” (PhD, McMaster, 1979)Google Scholar.
56 Usip, Ebenge Etefia Essiet, “A Macro-Econometric Model of the Nigerian Economy: A Simulated Analysis of Oil Shocks in a Development Context,” (PhD, Connecticut, 1984)Google Scholar.
57 Yeri-Obidake, Ebikake Z., “Ethnicity, Petroeconomy and National Integration in Nigeria,” (PhD, Syracuse, 1985)Google Scholar.
60 Ozo-Eson, Peter I., “Some Implications of Oil Revenues for the Domestic Economy in Oil Exporting Countries: An Application to Nigeria,” (PhD, Carleton, 1982)Google Scholar.
61 Udeke, Onwuatuegwu O., “A Comparative Analysis of Nigerian International Oil Marketing Model and the Models of Four Selected OPEC Members; and a Proposed New Model for Nigeria (Algeria, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela),” (PhD, Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities, 1986)Google Scholar.
62 Khan, Sarah A., Nigeria: Political Economy of Oil-Exporting Countries (New York, 1994)Google Scholar.
63 Turner, Terisa, “Oil Workers and the Oil Bust in Nigeria,” Africa Today 33(1986), 33–50Google Scholar.
64 Fashoyin, Tayo, “State Regulation of Trade Disputes in Essential Services in Nigeria,” Industrial Relations 36(1981), 207–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar; idem., Industrial Relations in Nigeria (Development and Practice) (London, 1980); Onimode, Bade, “Imperialism and Multinational Corporations: A Case Study of Nigeria” in Decolonization and Dependence: Problems of Development in African Societies, ed. Yansane, Aguibou, (Westport, 1980), 145–70Google Scholar.
67 Oni, Ola and Onimode, Bade, Economic Development of Nigeria: A Marxist Alternative (Ibadan, 1975)Google Scholar.
68 Turner, Terisa, “Multinational Companies and tlic Instability of the Nigerian State,” Review of African Political Economy 5 (1976), 63–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar; idem., “Nigeria: Imperialism, Oil Technology and the Comprador State” in Oil and Class Struggle, ed. Peter Nore and Terisa Turner (London, 1980), 199-223; idem., “Petroleum, Recession and the Internationalization of Class Struggle in Nigeria,” Labour, Capital and Society 18(1985), 6-42.
69 Soldiers and Oil: The Political Transformation in Nigeria, ed. Panter-Brick, Keith (Lonodon, 1978)Google Scholar; Turner, Terisa and Badru, Pade, “Oil and Instability: Class Contradictions and the 1983 Coup in Nigeria,” Journal of African Marxists (7 March 1984), 4–21Google Scholar; idem., Commcrical Capitalism and the 1975 Coup” in Soldiers and Oil, 166-200.
70 Osoba, Segun, “The Deepening Crisis of the Nigerian National Bourgeoisie,” Review of African Political Economy 13(1979), 63–77Google Scholar.
71 Scott, Catherine, “International Capital and the Oil-Producing States in Africa: An Analysis of Angola, Nigeria, and Algeria,” Journal of Developing Societies 8(1992), 179–93Google Scholar.
72 Freund, Bill, “Oil Boom and Crisis in Contemporary Nigeria,” Review of African Political Economy 13(1979), 91–100Google Scholar.
71 Ihonvbere, Julius, “Resistance and Hidden Forms of Protest Amongst the Petroleum Proletariat in Nigeria,” (Port Harcoutt, 1985)Google Scholar; Turner, Terisa and Oshare, M.O., “Women's Uprising Against the Nigerian Oil Industry in the 1980s,” Canadian Journal of Development Studies 14(1993), 329–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Otobo, Dafe, “The Nigerian General Strike of 1981,” Review of African Political Economy 22(1981), 65–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
74 Ihonvbere, Julius, “Foreign Policy of Dependent States: The Impact of Oil on Nigerian Foreign Policy, 1960-1982,” Indian Political Science Review 18(1984), 81–106Google Scholar; Abubakar, Dauda, “Oil, the State and Power Politics: The Political Economy of Nigeria's Foreign Policy, 1960-1980,” (PhD, Wisconsin, 1980)Google Scholar; Adebayo, A.G., “Oil and Nigeria's Foreign Policy, 1970-1980,” (MA, Ife, 1980)Google Scholar.
76 See, for instance, “Nigeria and OPEC: Both Ends of the Oil Barrel,” West Africa (13 September 1982), 2328Google Scholar; “OPEC's Restraint Stems the Oil Glut,” West Africa (31 May 1982), 1437Google Scholar; Adogamhe, Paul G., “Nigeria-OPEC Relations Analysis of the Change in Nigeria's Foreign Policy Behavior Toward OPEC: 1983-1985,” (PhD, CUNY, 1990)Google Scholar.
77 Cochrane, Stuart and Struthers, Stuart, “Nigerian Oil Policies: Internal Constraints,” Journal of Energy and Development 18(1983), 305–17Google Scholar.
78 Fubara, Bedford, “The Ethics of Nigeria's Proposed Withdrawal from OPEC,” Journal of Business Ethics 5(1986), 327–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Soremekun, Kayode, “Petroleum and Nigeria's Foreign Policy, 1979-1983,” Odù 23(1983), 57–70Google Scholar; Akinbobola, Ayo, Should Nigeria Be in OPEC? (Lagos, 1979)Google Scholar.
80 Dimah, Agber, “The Triumph of Pragmatism: Nigeria's Role in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC),” (PhD, Washington State, 1988)Google Scholar; and Mogbana, Anthony, “The Nigerian Petroleum Industry: Its Structure and Policy, Benefits and Prospects in the OPEC,” (PhD, Virginia, 1974)Google Scholar.
81 Soremekun, Kayode, “The Nigerian Dimension of OPEC's Aid Programme,” OPEC Bulletin (March 1987), 3–8Google Scholar.
83 Gambari, Ibrahim, “Domestic Political Constraints on Progressive Foreign Policy for Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal of Political Science 2(1980), 24–35Google Scholar.
85 Udogwu, Prosper, “The Impact of Resource Power and Societal Factors on Nigerian Foreign Policy between 1973 and 1985: The Case of ECOWAS,” (PhD, CUNY, 1999)Google Scholar.
86 Olabode, Olusola O., “The Feasibility of Petroleum as a Weapon,” (PhD, Claremont, 1981)Google Scholar.
87 See Sotunmbi, Abiodun O., “Nigeria's Policy Towards Southern Africa, 1966-1979,” (PhD, Keele, 1989)Google Scholar.
88 Aluko, “Nationalization of Assets.”
90 Fayemi, Kayode, The Oil Weapon: Sanctions and the Nigerian Military Regime. A Report on the Need for Full and Comprehensive Sanctions (London, 1995)Google Scholar.
91 Nsirimovu, Anyakwee, The Massacre of an Oil Producing Community: The Umuechem Tragedy Revisited (Port Harcourt, 1994)Google Scholar; Odogwn, E.C., “The Environment and Community Relations: The Shell Petroleum Development Co. of Nigeria Experienced,” paper presented at the First International Conference on Health, Safely and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 2, Hague, 1991Google Scholar; Rowell, Andrew, Shell-Shocked. The Environmental and Social Costs of Living with Shell in Nigeria (Amsterdam, 1994)Google Scholar.
93 See, for instance, Danler, Doris and Brunner, Markus, Shell in Nigeria (Lagos, 1996)Google Scholar; Kretzmann, Stephen and Wright, Shannon, Human Rights and Environmental Information on the Royal Dutch-Shell Group Companies, 1996-1996: An Independent Annual Report (San Francisco, 1997)Google Scholar; Okonta, Ike and Douglas, Oronto, Where Vultures Feast: Shell, Human Rights, and Oil in the Niger Delta (San Francisco, 2001)Google Scholar; Ogoni Agonies: Ken Saro-Wiwa and the Crisis in Nigeria, ed. Na'Allah, Abdul Rasheed, (Trenton, 1998)Google Scholar.
94 Ocheje, Paul, “Legalizing Displacement: The Legal Order in the Political Economy of Nigeria,” Journal of Asian and African Studies 32(1997), 120–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Manby, Bronwen, The Price of Oil: Corporate Responsibility and Human Rights Violations in Nigeria's Oil Producing Communities (New York, 1999)Google Scholar; idem., Shell in Nigeria: Corporate Responsibility and the Ogoni Crisis (Washington, 2000).
95 Frynas, Jedrzej G., Oil in Nigeria: Conflict and Litigation between Oil Companies and Village Communities (London, 2000)Google Scholar; idem., “Corporate and State Responses to Anti-Oil Protests in Niger Delta,” African Affairs 100(2001), 27-54.
96 Human Rights Watch/Africa, “The Ogoni Crisis: A Casc-Study of Military Repression in Southeastern Nigeria,” (New York, 1995)Google Scholar; Human Rights Watch/Africa, “Nigeria: Crackdown in the Niger Delta,” (New York, 1999)Google Scholar; Project Underground, Human Rights and Environmental Operations Information on the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies, 1996-1997 (Berkeley, 1997)Google Scholar.
97 Ken Saro-Wiwa, “My Story,” Text statement to the Civil Disturbance Tribunal. Reprinted in Ogoni: Trials and Travails (Lagos, 1996)Google Scholar; idem., The Ogoni Nation Today and Tomorrow (Port Harcourt, 1968); idem., Shell in Ogoni and the Niger Delta (Port Harconrt, 1992).
98 Lock, Charles, “Ken Saro-Wiwa or ‘The Pacification of the Primitive Tribes of the Lower Nigeria’” in Ken Saro-Wiwa: Writer and Political Activist, ed. McLuckie, Craig W. and McPhail, Aubrey (Boulder, 2000), 3–16Google Scholar; Joseph McLaren, “Genocide in Nigeria: The Ogoni Tragedy” in ibid., 17-25; Birnbaum, Michael Q.C., A Travesty of Law and Justice: An Analysis of the Judgement in the Case of Ken Saro-Wiwa and Others (London, 1995)Google Scholar.
100 See Nwogugu, E.I., “Law and Environment in the Nigerian Oil Industry,” Earth Law Journal 1(1975), 91–105Google Scholar; Ogbonna, Okoro D., “The Geographic Consequences of Petroleum, in Nigeria with Special Reference to Rivers State,” (PhD, Berkeley, 1979)Google Scholar; Onyige, Peter U., “The Impact of Mineral Oil Exploration on Rural Communities in Nigeria: The Case of Ogba/Egbema District,” (PhD, Birmingham, 1979)Google Scholar.
101 Ikein, Augustine A., “The Impact of Oil Industry on the Indigenous Population in the Oil Producing Areas of Nigeria as Measured by Ecological Factors” (PhD, Atlanta University, 1988)Google Scholar; and Ikpah, Azhinoto O., “Oil and Gns Industry and Environmental Pollution: Applications of Systems Reliability Analysis for the Evaluation of the Status of Environmental Pollution Control in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry,” (PhD, Texas—Dallas, 1981)Google Scholar.
102 Isibor, Andrew, “Petroleum Products—6 Tons Pollute Our Ocean Yearly,” New Nigerian (12 November 1981), 16Google Scholar; Ibanga, Augustin, “The Ecotoxicology of Waste Oils in Some Nigerian Rivers” (PhD, Salford, 1987)Google Scholar; Izeogu, Chukudi, “The Ecological Effects of the Oil Industry on Urban Centers in Rivers States, Nigeria,” African Urban Studies 17(1983/1984), 43–52Google Scholar.
103 Sule, Olu R.A., “The Environmental Pollution Consequences of the Nigerian Oil Boom: The Socio-Economic Calamity of Oil Spillage in the Delta Region,” (PhD, Toronto, 1987)Google Scholar; Adewale, Omobolaji, “Oil Spill Compensation Claims in Nigeria: Principles, Guidelines, and Criteria,” Journal of African Law 33(1989), 91–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
104 Amajor, I.C., “The Ejamah-Ebubu's Oil Spillage of 1970: A Case Study of a 14 Year Old Spill” in Petroleum Industry and the Nigerian Environment, NNPC/Federal Ministry of Works and Housing (Lagos, 1985)Google Scholar; Obinawam, Chris, “50 Oil Blow-Ups Recorded in Rivers in 25 Years,” Daily Times [Lagos] (14 July 1981), 3Google Scholar; Awobajo, S.A., “Oil Spillage in Nigeria: 1976-1980,” Proceedings of the 1981 International Seminar (Lagos, 1981)Google Scholar.
105 Okoosi, Antonia T. and Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Bzanji, “Conflict and Environmental Change: Responses of Indigenous People to Oil Exploration in Nigeria's Delta Basin,” (PhD, Leeds, 1995)Google Scholar; Obi, Cyril, Changing Forms of Identity Politics in Nigeria under Economic Adjustment: The Case of the Oil Minorities in the Niger Delta (Uppsala, 2001)Google Scholar; Omoweh, Daniel, Shell Petroleum Development Company, the State, and Underdevelopment of Nigeria's Niger Delta (Trenton, 2001)Google Scholar.
106 Wigwe, Joyce Chileobim Shyngle, “Environmental pollution in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: A Case for Direct Equity Participation,” (JSD, Stanford, 2000)Google Scholar; and Aginam, Vitalis O., “Exploring the Multiple Dimensions of Compensation for Oil Pollution Nigeria: The Uncertain Promise of the Law,” (LLM, Queen's University—Kingston, 1998)Google Scholar.
107 Environmental Rights Action, Shell in Iko: The Story of Double Standards (Benin City, 1995)Google Scholar; Environmental Rights Action, Shell and the Niger Delta: Between Rhetoric and Practice (Benin City, 1997)Google Scholar; Environmental Rights Action, Shell in Nigeria: Public Relations and Broken Promises (St. Andrews, 1997)Google Scholar.
110 Howarth, Stephen, A Century of Oil: The “Shell” Transport and Trading Company, 1897-1997 (London, 1997)Google Scholar.
111 See, for instance, Ihonvbere, Julius nnd Falola, Toyin, “The Recycling of Oil Rents and Nigeria's Peripheral Role in the World Capitalist System,” Ife Social Sciences Review 5(1982), 24–45Google Scholar